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g2- for mondaycl -30 tir
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please remember that some questions about money may be considered too personal to ask anyone who is not a very close friend or a family member.

  • about how much did you spend on presents last year?
  • about how much do you usually spend each day?
  • are you a price conscious shopper?
  • are you good at saving money?
  • are you saving money to buy something?
    • if so, what are you planning to buy?
    • how much will it cost?
    • how much longer will you need to save before you can buy it?
  • do banks pay a higher percent of interest here or in your country?
  • do you compare prices at different stores when you shop?
  • do you enjoy shopping?
  • do you ever buy second-hand things? ("used things")
  • do you ever give money to charity?
    • how often do you give to charity?
    • how much do you give?
  • do you gamble?
  • do you give tips at a restaurant in your country? how about to taxi drivers?
  • do you haggle when you shop ?
  • do you have a credit card?
  • do you have a credit card? if so, do you have more than one?
  • do you have more than one bank account?
  • do you have to pay a sales tax in your country?
  • do you invest in the stock market?
  • do you often put money in the bank?
  • do you sometimes buy things that you don't need?
    • if so, give some examples.
  • do you sometimes give money to charities?
  • do you think that money can buy love?
  • do your parents give you an allowance? (did your parents give...?)
    • how much? (maybe not a good question to ask.)
    • what do you use it for?
    • how often do they give it to you?
  • have you ever been in debt?
  • have you ever owed money to people?
  • have you ever bought a lottery ticket?
  • have you ever found any money? if so, what did you do with it?
  • have you ever given money to a beggar?
  • have you ever given money to a homeless person?
  • have you ever had any money stolen from you?
  • how important is money to you?
    • if you had no money, do you think you could be happy?
  • how many different kinds of coins are there in your country? what are they?
  • how much did you spend last week?
  • how much did you spend yesterday?
  • how much do you have to spend to eat a good meal at a restaurant in your country?
  • how much do you spend on food each week?
  • how much do you think it costs to fly to guam?
  • how much do you think it costs to stay at a el in london?
  • how much do you usually spend each month on entertainment?
  • how much do you usually spend each month on food?
  • how much do you usually spend each month on transportation?
  • how much does it cost to get a haircut in your country?
  • how much does it cost to ride a bus in your country?
  • how much is a liter of gasoline in your country?
  • how much money did you make on your first job?
    • (how much money do you think you will make on your first job?)
  • how much money did you spend yesterday?
    • where did you spend it?
    • what did you spend it on?
    • do you often spend that amount in one day?
  • how much money did your parents give you for an allowance when you were ten years old?
  • how much money do you have on you now? (maybe not a polite question to ask.)
  • how much money do you have with you now? (maybe not a good question to ask.)
  • how much time did you spend the last time you went shopping?
  • how often do you go shopping?
  • if someone gave you a lot of money, what would you do with it?
    • if someone gave you a million dollars, what would you do with it?
  • some people say that "money makes the world go around." do you agree? why or why not?
  • what bank do you use?
  • what do you need to buy next?
  • what do you spend most of your money on?
  • what do you spend the most money on each month?
  • what do you want to buy next?
  • what is something that you have bought recently that cost a lot of money?
  • what is something that you have bought recently that was a good bargain?
  • what is something that you have bought recently?
  • what is something that you want to buy, but don't have enough money to buy.
  • what is something that you want to buy, but think you never will.
  • what is the average salary in your country?
  • what is the most expensive thing you've ever bought?
    • how much did it cost?
  • what is your opinion of discount stores?
  • what kind of things do you often shop for?
  • what kinds of things are you saving your money for?
  • what store did you like best and what store did you like least?
  • what was the last thing you bought for someone else?
  • what was the last thing you bought for yourself?
    • where did you buy it?
    • why did you buy it?
  • what was the last thing you spent money on?
  • what's the most expensive thing you have ever bought?
  • what's the most expensive thing you've ever bought?
  • what's the most money you have spend on one thing?
  • what's the most money you have spent on something to eat?
  • what's the most money you have spent on something to wear?
    • what did you buy?
  • what's your favorite place to shop?
  • what's your favorite shopping area or store?
  • where did you buy ___? (your shoes / your watch / etc.)
    • how much did you pay?
    • when did you buy it/them?
  • where do you keep your money?
  • where do you usually buy food?
  • where is your favorite shopping area?
  • which costs more, a hamburger in america or a hamburger in your country?
  • which costs more, your telephone bill or your electric bill?
  • which do you prefer, large stores or small stores?
  • which do you think is more important, love or money?
  • which store do you go to the most often?
    • where is it?
    • why do you like to go there?
  • who do you often go shopping with?
  • who do you spend money on?
  • in a marriage, do you think one person should handle the finances, or both?
  • how do you think money helps make us happy?
  • do you think money is more important than love?
  • how much money do you want to earn each month?
  • what qualities must a person have to make big money?
  • should children get an allowance (pocket money) from their parents?
  • when do you get your allowance?
    • how long does it last?
    • is it enough money?
  • how do you usually spend your money? what do you usually buy?
  • how much should you give to your children?
  • how much do you give to your children?
  • do you ever give money to beggars on the street? why or why not?
  • do you ever give money to charity? why or why not?
  • if you found 100,000 won (or local currency) in a bag on the street, what would you do? keep it?
  • what are you saving your money for?
    • do you want to buy something special?
  • who takes care of the money in your house?
  • when you buy something, do you "shop around" and go to many stores to compare prices?
  • when you buy something, what is most important to you: price, quality, fashion trend, status/image?
  • explain these proverbs: what do they mean? say them in other english words.
    • the best things in life are free.
    • time is money.
    • save your pennies for a rainy day.
    • money talks.
    • you can't take it with you when you go.
    • money doesn't grow on trees
  • your rich uncle just died and gave you 50,000,000 won. (or local currency)
    • how would you spend it?
    • what would you buy?
    • would you spend it on yourself, put it in the bank or buy something for your family?
    • would you spend it all?
  • what is the most you have ever spent on a gift?
    • what was it?
    • who did you give it to?
    • what was the occasion?
  • if you had to save money, what can you do without?
    • i would stop spending money on ___.
  • if you needed to earn some extra money, how would you do that?
  • if you had a large amount of money, what would you do with it?
  • have you or your family ever won any money in a lottery?
  • how much money would you have to win to be happy?
  • why do people often want more money, no matter how much they have got?
  • why are poor people in many cases more generous than rich people?
  • what are some reasons for people being poor? can poverty be avoided?
  • how do people become rich?
  • do you think that riches can have a bad effect on a person? how?
  • what do you do if you can't get the clerk's attention at the store?
  • is it easier to return items in the u.s. or in your country?
  • if you can't find an item at the store, do you find a clerk and ask for help, or do you leave and go somewhere else?
  • if you don't want help when the clerk asks if you need help, what do you say?
  • is it ok to bring children to the market or the department store?
  • is it bad if one person or company controls the market that it specializes in?
    • for example, is it wrong for microsoft to control most of the operating system software in the world?
    • do you consider companies like microsoft and people like bill gates smart and shrewd?
  • some questions about taxation.
    in new zealand at the moment the government is thinking of imposing a "flatulence tax" on farmers for the livestock they own, as the flatulence contributes to ozone depletion (supposedly).
  • what is the most ridiculous tax in your country, past, or present?
  • do you think taxes in your country are too high/low?
    • what about new zealand taxes? / what about taxes here?
  • what is the effect on the economy of high taxation?
  • what is the effect on the economy of low taxation?
  • what are some of the different kinds of taxes your country has?
  • if you were the ruler of your country, what would you do to change the taxation system?
    • what is the funniest tax you can think of to introduce?
  • what do you like spending money on? what don't you like spending on?
  • what would you love to buy but you can't afford?
  • what is the next "big" thing you are going to buy?
  • have you ever given money to people who beg in the streets?
  • do you have a credit card? how many?
  • is it better to pay cash or by credit card?
  • what things do you pay cash for?
  • what things do you pay by credit card?
  • do you pay your credit card on time?
  • have you ever paid late your credit card? what happened?
  • are credits cards a good thing?
  • do/did your parents give you an allowance? how much?
  • have your parents ever given you a credit card to pay for something? what did you buy?
  • should parents give a credit card to teenagers?
  • have you ever lent money to someone? who? what did he/she need the money for?
  • have you ever borrowed money from someone? who? what did you need the money for?
  • who wouldn't you lend money to?
  • do you play the lottery?
  • what kind of lottery do you play?
  • do you play football pools?
  • do you play slot machines?
  • how much money do you spend for your son to go to the college?
  • can i put my money in a swiss bank?
  • why do i always spend too much money?
  • how much money do you need for happiness?
  • how often do you go shopping? are you a price-conscious shopper? do you "shop around" and go to many stores to compare prices?
  • do you ever buy second-hand things ("used things")?
  • when you buy something, what things are most important to you? price? quality? fashion trends? status? or image?
  • do you haggle (bargain with the seller) when you shop?
  • do you give tips at a restaurant in your country? at a bar? how about to taxi drivers? to hairdressers? at els? at airports to people who carry your bags?
  • do you feel comfortable tipping?
  • do you have more than one credit card?
  • what bank do you use? do you like the service you receive?
  • do you think that taxes are too high?
  • how do you think the government uses all the taxes they collect?
  • do you sometimes buy things that you don't need?
  • are you saving money to buy something? if so, what are you planning to buy? how much will it cost? how much longer will you need to save before buying it?
  • do you agree with the beatles that "money can't buy you love"?
  • did your parents give you an allowance (pocket money) when you were a child? what did you use it for?
  • should children get an allowance from their parents?
  • do you ever gamble? did you win anything?
  • have you ever found any money on the street? if so, what did you do with it?
  • do you ever give money to charity? how much do you give?
  • have you ever given money to a beggar or homeless person?
  • have you ever had any money stolen from you? what happened?
  • what would you love to buy but that you can't afford?
  • what would you do if you won a large sum of money? what is the first thing you would buy with it? would you invest it?
  • would you give some money to charity?
  • would you help your family/friends?
  • how long would it take you to spend 1 million dollars?
  • can a person be rich without having a lot of money or possessions? how?
  • how important is money to you? if you had little money, could you be happy?
  • how much do you spend each month on food? where do you usually buy food?
  • what do you spend most of your money on each month?
  • how much did it cost you to fly here from your home country?
  • how much does it cost to get a haircut in your country? here?
  • how much does it cost to ride a bus in your country? here?
  • how much is a liter of gasoline in your country? here?
  • which costs more, a hamburger here or a hamburger in your country?
  • if someone gave you a million dollars, what would you do with it?
  • some people say that "money makes the world go round." do you agree?
  • what is something that you bought recently?
  • what is something that you want to buy, but think you never will?
  • when did you open your first bank account?
  • how old were you when you earned your first salary? what did you spend it on?
  • do you think that it is right for someone to beg for money?
  • would you give money to a beggar? why?
  • when you buy something, what things are most important to you: price, quality, fashion trends, status, or image?
  • do you have more than one bank account? are you good at saving money?
  • have you ever bought a lottery ticket? did you ever gamble?
  • how much did it cost you to fly to here from your home country?
  • if you had to save money, what could you do without? "i would stop spending money on ___".
  • why are poorer people in many cases more generous than rich people?
  • if you don't want help when the store clerk asks if you need help, what should you say to them? (hint: you can say, "thanks, i'm just looking.")
  • do you think taxes in your country are too high/low? what are some of the different kinds of taxes your country has?
  • if you were the leader of your country, what would you do to change the taxation system? what would you do to help your country's economy?
  • which shopping centers and stores do you like best and which do you like least?
  • what was the last thing you bought for someone else? why did you buy it?
  • what's the most money you have spent on something to wear?
  • who takes care of the money in your family's home?
  • what qualities must a person have to make "big money"?
  • do you often buy products that advertised on tv, newspapers or magazines? if so, what was the last item that you bought?
  • do you consider consumerism good or bad?
  • what differences can you notice between commercials from 10 or 15 years ago and commercials today?
  • can you explain these proverbs in other words?
    • the best things in life are free.
    • time is money.
    • save your pennies for a rainy day.
    • money talks.
    • you can't take it with you when you go.
    • money doesn't grow on trees.
    • ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    • --------------------------------------------------------------------------
    • homework
    • http://www.englishforeveryone.org/pdfs/level_5_p age_1.pdf

مشاهده متن کامل ...
free discussion topic for monday mordad 27
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100 positive-thinking exercises that will make any patient healthier & happier published on tuesday august 19th , 2008 sometimes even the best medicine and healthcare is not enough for a full recovery. for patients struggling with illness or dealing with a major life change, these positive thinking exercises can mean all the difference. here are 100 that we've compiled to help you channel your negative or angry thoughts into a happier and more productive positive outlook. general practice these simple exercises and suggestions to keep your thoughts on the positive side. only use positive words when talking. if you're constantly telling yourself "i can't" you may convince yourself that's the truth. replace these negative words with positive ones instead. tell yourself you will do your best or that you will try your hardest instead. push out all feelings that aren't positive. don't let negative thoughts and feelings overwhelm you when you're feeling down. even if it's only for a few hours a day, push your negativity aside and only focus on the good things in your life. use words that evoke strength and success. try filling your thoughts with words that make you feel strong, happy and in control of your life. make a concentrated effort to focus on these words rather than those that make you feel like you are failing or incompetent. practice positive affirmation. one of the most popular positive thinking exercises is positive affirmation. this means you repeat a positive phrase to yourself on a regular basis like "i deserve to be happy" or "i am worthy of love". believing that these things are true, and reminding yourself of it can help give you a more positive outlook on life. direct your thoughts. this technique, used by psyc he ists, can help you to control your thoughts when you start to feel down or anxious. create a happy thought, a positive image, or give yourself positive feedback to keep bad feelings in check. believe you will succeed. there is nothing like believing in yourself to create a successful reality. give yourself the benefit of the doubt and believe that you will succeed at fulfilling your goals. analyze what went wrong. thinking positively doesn't mean denying that there is anything wrong. instead, give yourself some time to think about the things that led up to your current situation so you can avoid future mistakes and look toward a more positive tomorrow. give yourself credit. often when we feel frustrated or upset we only concentrate on the bad things or the mistakes we've made instead of giving ourselves credit for what we do right. allow yourself to feel confident about the things you have accomplished, even if you've messed up in other areas. forgive yourself. constantly beating yourself up about things that have gone wrong won't change them. tell yourself that you're forgiven for your mistakes and allow yourself to move on. learn from the past. the past is behind you and no matter how badly things went there is nothing you can do to change them. whenever you feel negative thoughts about the past come up, replace them with positive thoughts about the future. remember things could be worse. no matter how bad things get remember that they could be worse and be grateful for all the good things that are in your life, even when it seems there's more bad than good. think of it as an opportunity. sometimes even the seemingly negative things in our lives present us with opportunities we wouldn't have been strong enough to pursue otherwise. maybe losing your job is just the chance you need to start your own business or go back to school. come up with ideas of how to turn negative thoughts into positive ones. if you find yourself thinking you should have done this or that differently, try changing your thoughts around. instead give yourself credit for what you did do, remember that you are not perfect or that you can do better next time. work on visualization. picturing what you want to accomplish or the person you'd like to be can be a great motivator to getting you there and helping you feel more positive about the distance you have to go yet. think of ways to turn visualization into action. the next natural step of this is to think of just how you're going to get to where you see yourself. just picturing it isn't going to make it happen, so create a plan to take it one step at a time until you've made it. practice self-hypnosis. self-hypnosis brings about a highly conscious state of mind that is willing to follow instructions. this means you'll be more open to positive suggestions that will allow you to be happier and hopefully healthier in your life. list the reasons you will get what you want. if you are having trouble believing that you'll get that big promotion or that your book will get published try sitting down and coming up with a list of reasons that you will get what you want rather than focusing on the reasons you might not. at work work can be a stressful place but use these techniques and ideas to keep yourself looking on the bright side. be constructive. giving yourself cruel and unwarranted criticisms will not only put you in a bad mood it surely won't help you improve either. be constructive in your criticisms of yourself so you can grow and learn. visualize a successful outcome. sometimes it can be helpful to picture yourself completing a project successfully or getting the promotion you desire. this can encourage you and make you feel better about the situation. sit up straight. slouching down in your chair isn't going to make you feel any better about anything that's bothering you. sit up straight in your chair and see if it improves your thinking. surround yourself with positive images. make your desk your own private happy getaway. put up pictures of things that make you happy or that remind you of your goals to create a calming and positive environment. relax and let things happen. sometimes the best way to deal with problems is to relax and let them take their course. things can often appear to be a bigger deal than they really are and reminding yourself of this can help you to relax and not feel so stressed. see it from another point of view. change your pattern of thought by trying to see things from another point of view, whether it's your coworkers, your bosses or just someone impartial. it can help you see where you went wrong and understand why others might be upset. keep track of your thoughts.when you catch yourself thinking negative thoughts, try jotting them down. you may find a pattern and figure out some ways to reverse how you're seeing yourself or negative situations. don't dwell. so you made a mistake. it happens to everyone. don't dwell on your mistakes. make peace with yourself and move on to other projects. stop being your own worst critic. there's no one else who knows just how to make you feel terrible like you can. lay off on the harsh criticism and think good things about yourself when you feel you're at your worst. look at yourself rationally. it's easy to get down on yourself for messing up at work, even on the little things. but try taking a step back and looking at the situation. you may find that what you thought was a big deal really doesn't matter that much. believe in yourself. want that promotion? hoping to get that huge account? believe that you can do it and it just might come true. avoid negative coworkers. nothing can ruin a positive attitude like coworkers who bring out the negatives in everything. avoid talking to those you know will only make you feel worse. truly believe you are the best at your job. if you're constantly looking for failures in your work and put on a sour attitude you're much more likely to actually be putting in a poor performance. if you think that you're good at your job you're much more likely to put in the effort and performance that will make you good. look for opportunity. in every failure there's an opportunity to improve. spend time thinking of ways you can turn your setbacks at work into ways you can get ahead in the future. family and personal life whether you're struggling with keeping a positive attitude about yourself or about issues within your family, try these positive thinking techniques. ociate yourself with those who think positively. positivity is contagious, so find friends and family members who look on the bright side to surround yourself with. be glad your life isn't boring. if nothing good or bad ever happened to you, likely you'd start to get pretty bored with your life. take everything that is coming to you as a challenge and a way to keep yourself busy and interested in your life. look at the big picture. is that parking ticket you got a bummer? of course. will you still feel bad about it later this week? this month? learn to let go of the things that don't really matter. let go of the past. it does not determine your future so why focus on it? if you feel yourself ruminating on the past make a conscious effort to take your thoughts in another direction. benefit from the attitudes of others. have a friend that always knows just what to say to make you feel like things will be alright? take comfort in those around you that have positive attitudes and can make you feel better about anything going on in your life. develop a personal mantra. no matter what you choose to repeat to yourself, make your mantra words you want to live by each and every day that can remind you to be positive and take whatever life has to offer. find someone to share with. knowing you are not alone can be a healing experience. share your negative feelings with a friend, a family member or a even a mental health professional. you'll likely feel better after you've gotten things off your chest and had someone to sound off with. do something nice. want to feel better? try doing something nice for someone you care about. you'll get to feel good for being nice and you just might make someone else's day. indulge yourself. one way to remind yourself of the positive things that life has to offer is to indulge yourself in whatever it is you love. whether it's a box of chocolates, a m age or a new video game, give yourself a break to relax. remind yourself of your blessings. whether you feel blessed by your family, your friends or even that you just have food to eat each day remind yourself of these things, however small you may feel they may be. say thank you. most of us have a lot to feel grateful for that we simply take for granted. thank those in your life that make it better and happier to get a positivity boost for yourself as well. come up with positive things about those you love. making someone else feel good about themselves can strengthen relationships and give you a positive thought to concentrate on, instead of the negative. avoid laying blame. so the water bill didn't get paid. you could get mad and start a fight with your spouse or roommate. or, you could let it go, take it in stride and work together to remedy the situation. be playful. there's nothing to lift your mood and change your thinking like taking some time to embrace playfulness and your inner child. fun and relaxation don't spend your free time feeling bad about things that have happened. change your thoughts from the bad to the good with these helpful tips. read an inspiring book. if you're having trouble finding something inspiring about your life right now try getting inspired by the life of someone else by reading a book meant to inspire and uplift. watch your favorite sappy movie. get a quick pick me up by watching your favorite movie or just your favorite scenes. you'll get a smile or a laugh and forget whatever was getting you down. take a break from the news. the news is often filled with all kinds of depressing information. if you're already in a bad mood take a night off from the news and do something that you find enjoyable instead. engage in physical activity. working out releases chemicals that give you a mood lift. take a jog, play a sport or just walk around the block to improve your outlook. listen to something upbeat. can be a great mood enhancer. whether you're driving in your car or hanging out at home, crank up the tunes with something that makes you feel happy. monitor your stream of consciousness.when you're just sitting and thinking do negative thoughts overtake everything else? monitor where your mind goes when it's at rest and learn to redirect your thoughts towards happier memories. engage in activities that work towards your goals. if you're trying to lose weight don't spend the weekend baking cookies that will only tempt you towards falling off the low-cal wagon. instead, pump yourself up by going on a hike, playing tennis with a friend or just getting active. concentrate on breathing. when things just seem to be too much to deal with, try concentrating on simply breathing. it will relax you, eliminate some of your anxiety and allow you to focus on more positive elements in your life. focus on all the fun in your life. while you might spend 40 hours a week slaving away behind a desk you likely have some things in your life that are fun and enjoyable as well. focus on these things and spend time thinking of new and exciting ways to have fun when you're feeling down. explore the world around you. distract yourself from your negative feelings by embracing your sense of adventure. check out a part of town you have never been to, take a day trip to a local winery, or just spend time reliving the happy memories from things around your house. get excited. even if there are a million things you're dreading doing come monday try to find one thing that you're excited about. even that one thing can have a big impact on how you feel and how you approach your day. find something to laugh about. if you don't have anything in your day that's been particularly funny, think about a memory that never fails to make you laugh. it's hard to be negative when you're laughing and smiling. count down to total relaxation. all of us have been so upset or frustrated at some point that we just feel like we want to explode. if you feel yourself reaching this point, stop, and start counting. for an additional bonus, try relaxing each body part in turn as you count so you end up completely relaxed and ready to think logically. meditate. the benefits of meditation are many, and one of them can be encouraging positive thinking. by clearing your mind and relaxing you can push out a large amount of negativity that may be troubling you. think of 100 things you enjoy doing. feeling like your life is one big, horrible sinkhole at the moment? sit yourself down and try to come up with a list of things that you enjoy doing. even small things like taking a shower or enjoying a walk in the snow can make you realize that your life isn't so bad after all. create something. negativity inspires a lot of destructive feelings and one way to counter that is by working to create something instead. paint or draw, sew some new curtains, build a model or even put together a puzzle. imagine yourself in a happy place. visualization can be a powerful tool and you can use it to remove yourself from whatever situation you feel unhappy in to one that makes you smile. just close your eyes and imagine whatever makes you feel best. facing challenges everyone has to face challenges in their lives from time to time. whether they're difficult personal goals to meet or unexpected problems these tips can help you make it through with a smile on your face. fake it till you make it. one way to deal with a challenge is to create a feeling of confidence and happiness in yourself. at first this feeling might not be real, but over time you'll start to actually feel happier and maybe even closer to your goal. believe you will get well. those facing illnesses can feel a sense of hopelessness and fear. these feelings aren't going to help anything. concentrate on getting better and living each moment as if you will soon be well. understand the obstacles are there to challenge you. along your path to success you're going to encounter some roadblocks. understand that these aren't necessarily there to stop you from doing what you want, just to ensure that you truly want it. picture yourself at the weight you want to be. losing weight can be a huge challenge, even for the most determined. picturing yourself at the weight you want to be can be a great motivator to getting you on the track to success. start small. working at a huge goal all at once can be overwhelming and sometimes discouraging. take things one step at a time and chip away at your ultimate goal until you get there. don't let yourself quit. giving up is usually taking the easy way out of a situation. no matter how negative you're feeling, never let yourself quit pursuing something you truly want. you'll thank yourself in the long run if you don't give up. don't expect change to be easy. no one ever promised that making a big change in your life would be easy or that overcoming obstacles would be a walk in the park. it's not supposed to be. don't let opposition let you lose your confidence and adapt a negative attitude. find the bright side. every cloud has a silver lining and you just need to find yours. try finding the bright spot amidst all the turmoil surrounding a situation and focus on that to get you through. understand that the situation is not forever. even if you're dealing with the grief of a lost loved one, remember that in time you will feel better. you may always feel sad about a loss, but it will only get easier as time goes on. take it day by day and keep in mind the transience of any bad situation. truly believe you will succeed. if you want an extra edge on success, believe that you will be successful. this may give you the confidence and urance you need to make the difference. face up to change. the world is constantly changing and you and those around you are changing as well. make peace with these changes and understand they don't always mean the end of happiness just because they're something different. make a conscious decision to be resilient.in life you can either let a challenge break you down and make you see the world in a negative light or you can draw on strength you didn't even known you had and rise above it. choose the latter-- it's never too late. take it head on. sometimes the best way to deal with negative things in your life is to take them head on. reaching a resolution or at least working towards one will likely make you feel better about just about any situation. focus on finding a solution. don't wallow in your problems. instead, work towards finding a solution and getting them resolved. you'll be able to feel proactive and feel in control of your life. don't let loss stop you. when pursuing any goal there are bound to be setbacks along the way. don't let these stop you from heading towards your ultimate goal. keep yourself on track. it's easy to be weak and get off track to whatever goal you're pursuing because it's easier right now. don't let weakness get the best of you-- you'll only feel worse later. provide yourself with reminders to stay in a positive mind set and stay with the program. daily attitude if you really want to change your outlook on life, try using these techniques to change how you deal with problems and see the world. see the beauty in everything. even if you're in the worst mood, taking the time to look at all the beautiful things that surround you in the world can provide an instant and insightful way to lift your spirits. realize that your thoughts do not own you. stop your negative thoughts in their tracks by realizing that you're in charge of what you think, not the other way around. take time to figure out what you really want. when you feel yourself feeling negative about things that you haven't accomplished, take time to think if you really want those things. finding out what is really important to you can help eliminate bad feelings over things that you don't truly want. accept the good things. sometimes we get so caught up in the bad stuff coming our way that we forget to appreciate the good things. take a minute to sit down and think of all the positive things that happened in your day, no matter how small. get excited about all the possibilities that lay ahead. even in the midst of the biggest disasters there are a multitude of possibilities that await you to make changes or take on the world tomorrow. believe the world is a good place. if you look at the world and only seem doom and gloom laid out in front of you you're not doing yourself any favors. believe the world is a good place and you're likely to find many more ways good things can come your way. stop making excuses. there are always a million excuses for any person not to do something even if that something can make them feel happier. stop putting up obstacles to your happiness and ditch those lame excuses when you hear yourself making them. don't play the victim. bad things happen to everyone from time to time. pitying yourself and wanting others to feel sorry for you isn't going to make things better. pick yourself up and start working towards a happier future. don't place your future in someone else's hands. your future is yours alone to shape. remember this and take control of where you're going in life. create realistic goals. of course you're going to feel frustrated if you make your goals so unattainable that you can't reach them no matter how hard you work. create smaller or more realistic goals so you can feel accomplished instead of defeated each day. choose joy. every day when you wake up you make the choice whether to be happy or miserable. make the choice to be happy and you'll live a much more joyful life. believe you can change. everyone has qualities they don't like about themselves and that sometimes make them feel bad about themselves. believe you can change these things and you'll start to see little ways that you can. start immediately. want to make a positive change in your life? do it now. putting it off just gives you time to make excuses so get started as soon as possible. believe you deserve good things. if you don't truly believe that you deserve good things in your life you likely aren't going to encounter many. believe that you are worthy for good fortune to come your way and it just might. stop letting negative thoughts control you. negativity can be an overwhelming emotion, one that can make you feel out of control and unhappy in every aspect of your life. put a stopper on these negative thoughts and take control of how you're feeling. smile. sometimes all it takes to feel good is to put a smile on your face. practice putting on a happy face even when you just feel so-so. take control of your decisions. you're the boss of what is going on in your life, even when you feel like you don't have a choice. take back control of your decisions and make the choice to be happier and more positive. change your vibe. some people think that you get back what you put out, so stop putting out bad energy and change to a more positive outlook. whether it truly works or not doesn't matter, you'll feel better either way. keep the bad out. you're in control of the good and bad you choose to let into your life. when you can, limit the amount of negative things you let into your life, including your thoughts. make positive thinking a habit. don't just practice thinking positively when you're feeling down. make it an everyday occurrence whether you're in a good mood or bad. decide why you want what you want. if you're feeling upset because you feel like you aren't achieving the things you want in life, take a moment to sit back and figure out the reasons you actually want those things. you may find you're not as attached to them as you think. look at things with fresh eyes. sometimes the best thing you can do is to sleep on a problem so you can look at it the next day when you're not feeling so emotional.

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♥♥ i love you ♥♥
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i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you

i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you

i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you

i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you

i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you

i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you

i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you

i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you

i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you

i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you

i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you

i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you

i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you

i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you

i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you

i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you

i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you

i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you

i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you

i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you

i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you

i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you i love you

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oral interview techniques
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interviewing techniques and tips putting your best self forward and getting the job interviewing techniques and tips interviewing for a job can be nerve-wracking. you may feel uncomfortable “selling” yourself or fielding unexpected questions. or the prospect of having to meet and impress new people may be enough to trigger anxiety. however, interviewing is a skill you can learn. with the right tips and techniques, you can become a master at sharing your value with potential employers, presenting yourself effectively at interviews, and getting the job you want. in this article: interview as much as you can develop a compelling story tailor your story to the job manage stress be prepared anticipate likely questions ask questions yourself boost your eq print this! normal text sizelarger text sizelargest text size interviewing techniques tip 1: interview for as many jobs as you can let’s ume you have focused your search on certain types of jobs and types of employers. you have developed a preferred list of both. you have scanned the horizon, conducted research, compiled your questions, and engaged your network for istance. your resume is in order. then job openings start to pop up through your web searches and referrals from your network. some seem close but others don’t quite fit. you quickly skip over those jobs that are "beneath" you, have titles that appear to be foreign, or are in fields or industries you’re unfamiliar with. you have decided to be focused and only apply for positions that exactly match your search criteria. but limiting your job search limits the possibilities. once you create too many filters and requirements, you can easily overlook opportunities. in this type of market you have to get out there and actively uncover opportunities. don't dismiss opportunities to interview based upon superficial and narrow criteria. you never know when an interview for a “not-quite-right” job will result in a surprising match, a referral to another opening, or an entirely new position tailored to fit your unique experience and abilities. why you should interview as much as possible: you need the practice. some of you have not interviewed for a while. you need to refine your story and improve your communication skills, which require practice. that means interviewing as much as you can. interviewing will refine your job search. by getting out there and interviewing, you’ll learn about new trends, positions, and opportunities, your perspective will shift, and you’ll see new paths that you were previously unaware of. interviewing will make your network stronger. as you engage your network for interview referrals and recommendations, you will not only strengthen existing connections, but you’ll meet new people who are connected to your network. interviewing may lead to unexpected opportunities. if you have the skills and impress in the interview, that carries weight in the organization. employers want to place good people and may even refer you to opportunities outside of the firm. interviewing techniques tip 2: develop a compelling story we tend to conclude that our lives are pretty much the same as other people's, that they’re average and boring. as a result, many people don’t tell their own story well. but your story is so much better than you think. the way your life has evolved; the things you’ve learned; your achievements, failings, and dreams—these things are unique to you and much more interesting than you realize. sharing your well thought-out story is a powerful interviewing technique. your story is what helps people understand who you are and where you are going. so learn to tell your story and tell it well, especially for interviewing and networking purposes. putting together your story takes a lot of work and practice. however, the benefits to you and to your career are enormous. your stories: give you confidence increase your self-awareness bring humanity to your resume make you memorable and set you apart developing your story for job interviews take a comprehensive inventory of the chapters of your life. think about major events, memories, and turning points that shaped who you are. make notes about your feelings, expectations, and frustrations, or what you learned, accomplished, and experienced. organize your chapters by time periods or jobs. focus on memorable “aha” moments. these stories need to have vivid dimensions so people will experience that moment with you. it may have been a moment with your mom on the porch, or a trip you took to a faraway place, or what a boss or mentor told you. the stories don’t have to be dramatic, just meaningful to you. uncover the themes in your story. what emerges as your p ion? mentoring others, doing research, helping a specific type of client, a ncing knowledge in your field? what gives you joy? are you a teacher, a leader, an entrepreneur, a risk taker? reflect on your career path. how have you arrived where you are today? why did you make certain choices? who helped you along the way? what motivated you then and now? have your career goals remained the same or have they changed? are you someone who likes new projects? or executes the details of someone else's vision? practice makes perfect once you’ve developed your story, the next step is to practice telling it—saying it out loud, ideally to others. don’t wait until the interview to tell it for the first time. try reciting it into a tape recorder or sharing it with a confidante for feedback. get over your feelings of story inadequacy or thinking that a job well done speaks for itself. as you become more comfortable in how to tell your story, you will see that your life has not just been a string of random events. your story has a past and it has a future and the road ahead becomes clearer when you understand where you have been. the ultimate test will be the next time someone says, "tell me about yourself." interviewing techniques tip 3: tailor your story to the job tailor your story to the jobapplying your story to a specific employer or job is the next step. lining up the stories that apply to the opportunity at hand is critical. put yourself in the interviewer’s shoes and pose the questions you would ask. which stories are relevant to this job interview? think about personal stories that show how you handled change, made choices under pressure, or learned lessons from mistakes and failures. you should also think about stories you can tell in the interview that reveal your skill set. learning and appreciating your story is a prerequisite to any interview process. don’t rely on your ability to think on your feet. anticipate the questions and have answers at the ready. in the end, this is about making a great and memorable impression that demonstrates competency and ability. you may want to start by developing your stories around these areas: state times where you either made money or saved money for your current or previous company. focus on a crisis or two in your life or job and how you responded or recovered from it. a time where you functioned as a part of a team and what that contribution was. a time in your career or job where you had to deal with stress. a time in your job where you provided successful leadership or a sense of direction. the failures you faced in your job and how you over e them. the seminal events that happened during your career that caused you to change direction and how that worked out for you. if you’re having trouble developing a good interviewing story, ask your friends or family members for their own success stories. notice the elements that make them work, such as specific details and a smooth flow. notice elements that don’t work, such as vagueness or rambling. then think about your own experience and try to uncover the moments when you really excelled or when you rose to meet a challenge. after you identify several, practice them until they flow easy and work on adapting them to different types of questions. interviewing techniques tip 4: manage stress interviewing for a job can make anyone stressed. in small doses, that stress can actually be beneficial, helping you perform under pressure. however, if stress becomes constant and overwhelming, it can impair the way you communicate during an interview by disrupting your capacity to think clearly and creatively. when you’re stressed, you’re more likely to misread an interviewer or send confusing or off-putting nonverbal signals. if you can’t quickly relieve stress in the moment and return to a calm state, you’ll almost certainly be unable to take a ntage of the other interviewing techniques and tips. all our best intentions go out of the window when we’re overwhelmed by stress. it’s only when you’re in a calm, relaxed state that you can think on your feet, recall the stories you’ve practiced, and provide clear answers to an interviewer’s questions. therefore, it’s vital that you learn quick stress relief techniques ahead of time. quick stress relief in an interview when stress strikes before or during an interview, you obviously can't diffuse it by taking time out to meditate or go for a run. by learning to quickly reduce stress in the moment, though, you can maintain a relaxed, energized state of awareness—even when faced with challenging questions—and remain focused and engaged. interviewing techniques tip 5: be prepared interviews range from conver ions lasting a few minutes to several formal meetings, sometimes with more than one interviewer. interviews allow you to demonstrate that you are the right candidate for the job, but you are not alone if interviews make you nervous. the better prepared you are, the more relaxed and comfortable you will be when the questions start coming your way. job interview preparation tips: do your research. gather information about the company and the position available. try to specifically relate your experience to the duties the job opportunity entails. practice interviewing. enlist a friend (better yet, a group of friends and colleagues) to ask you sample questions. practice making eye contact. record your practice sessions. record your practice sessions. pay attention to body language and verbal presentation. eliminate verbal fillers, like “uh,” and “um.” practice using positive body language to signal confidence, even when you’re not feeling it. instead of tentatively entering an interview with your head down and eyes averted, for example, try standing tall with your shoulders back, smiling and maintaining eye contact, and delivering a firm handshake. it will make you feel more self-confident and help to put the other person at ease. handle logistics early. have your clothes, resume, and directions to the interview site ready ahead of time, to avoid any extra stress. don’t forget about your references don’t let your references be the last to know about your job search, or even worse, get an unexpected call from a potential employer. many offers are withdrawn over bad references. why take that chance? get in touch with your references right away to seek help and to avoid surprises on either side. are your references relevant to your current job search? who should you add or subtract? are there any reference gaps? gaps that an employer will question? what is your story about those gaps? can a colleague, vendor, customer, or board member be added to replace or enhance the list? what is the current status of your relationship with your references? interviewing techniques tip 6: anticipate likely questions to get to the motivations and working style of a potential employee, employers often turn to behavioral interviewing, an interviewing style which consists of a series of probing, incisive questions. sample behavioral interview questions include: describe a situation in which you didn’t meet your stated goal, how did you handle it? tell us about a situation in which you encountered resistance from key people, how did you convince the person or people to do what you wanted? describe a situation in which you took the initiative to change a process or system and make it better, how did you identify the problem? how did you go about instituting change? preparing good interview answers interviewers will follow up your preliminary answers with further questions about your actions. to prepare for these types of interview questions, the following tips might help: review your research about the company and the position. make a list of key attributes for your desired job. write sample interview questions that are likely to uncover the attributes you identified as important. create answers to the sample interview questions based on a template such as “situation – action – result” with specific details from your work experience. practice answering the interview questions and follow-up questions so that you are very familiar with several detailed examples/stories. rehearse key points. interviewing techniques tip 7: ask questions during the interview being prepared and asking great questions about the position and the employer shows your interest during the interview. you can't just be an effective responder. you need to ert yourself, too. by the time you reach the interviewing stage, you should be clear about what you want and what you offer to the company. try to be thoughtful and self-reflective in both your interview questions and your answers. show the interviewee you know yourself—your strengths and your weaknesses. be prepared to talk about which areas would present challenges and how you would address them. admitting true areas of weakness is much more convincing than claiming: "i have what you need and i can do anything i put my mind to." questions to ask potential employers in job interviews the people who do well at your company: what skills and attributes do they usually have? what do you like best about working at _____? what results are expected? what specific problems are you hoping to solve during the first six months? who are the key internal customers? any special issues with them? what happened to the person who had this job before? what communication style do you prefer? what is your philosophy regarding on-the-job growth and development? what are your goals for the department? source: circle of experts interviewing techniques tip 8: boost your eq as we know, it’s not always the smartest person or the one with the most relevant skills that gets the job. rather, the successful candidate is often the one who has the best “people skills”, who can relate easily to others. in other words, it’s the person with a high emotional intelligence (eq). emotional intelligence is the ability to identify, use, understand, and manage emotions in positive ways to communicate effectively and empathize with others. if you have a high emotional intelligence you are able to: recognize your own emotional state and the emotional states of others. engage with people in a way that draws them to you. pick up on emotional cues, communicate effectively, and develop strong relationships. along with the ability to quickly manage stress, emotional awareness is a primary skill of emotional intelligence that can be learned. being able to connect to your emotions—having a moment-to-moment awareness of your emotions and how they influence your thoughts and actions—is the key to understanding yourself and others. find commonalities one way to apply emotional awareness in an interview situation is to find common human connections with the interviewer. if you set out with the intention to discover how you and the person interviewing you are connected and what you share, you will discover commonalities much faster. and the interviewing process will be much less intimidating because of it. tips for discovering commonalities with your interviewer: do your research. google every person you know you are going to meet or think you might meet in the interview, especially senior executives. learn what might be common areas of interest in a nce. listen and pay attention. if you listen during the interview and look for commonalities, they will seem omnipresent. when your interviewer mentions his or her alma mater, weekend plans, kids, or favorite restaurant, you have the chance to ask questions and find common ground. you can also take a look around the office. do you see a book you’ve read, a product you want or just bought, or a p o you like? if so, you have a means to discuss commonalities. lead with your interests and p ions. how you introduce yourself and talk about yourself in the interview matters. if you integrate facts and interests into your spiel about yourself, then you create opportunities to connect. after the "what do you do?" or "tell me about yourself" query, tell your story. find common ground in the context. where you are meeting, your surroundings, and the purpose of your connection are all reference points. there is a reason why both of you find yourself at this unique place and time. why are you both in this business? do you know the any of the same people? while searching for commonalities, avoid pummeling your interviewer with a series of set questions. let the interview happen naturally, but keep an eye out for hints of commonalities. once you do, the world will feel like a smaller, friendlier place and your anxiety over interviewing will shrink.

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20 toefl tips
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  1. familiarize yourself with the toefl format

    most countries now offer the internet based toefl (ibt). a few offer only the paper-based test (pbt). make sure you find out which test you will be taking before you start studying for the toefl. you cannot choose to take the paper based test if your country offers the ibt. one reason people experience exam stress is because they don't know what to expect before a test. prevent stress on exam day by studying the format of the test in detail. ets has very clear standards about the format of their test. this is why it is called a "standardized" test.

  2. research toefl score requirements

    the toefl is required for any non-native english student who wants to go to a post-secondary school in the united states. most people take the toefl in order to apply to a specific school or program. before you begin studying, find out what the requirements are for the schools you are interested in going to. remember that the scores for the paper based test are different than the scores for the ibt. some schools will look at your scores from different sections. each ibt section is scored out of 30. many universities expect you to achieve higher writing skills than speaking skills. toefl scores are only valid for two years.

  3. learn academic english

    toefl is used for a different purpose than other esl tests. the toefl measures your ability to succeed in an american university or college. other english-speaking countries also require toefl scores as a prerequisite for admission. you don't have to know about the business world as you do in the toeic test. instead, you should concentrate on studying language that you would hear and see on pus and in the cl room. in other words, you should read textbooks, encyclopaedias, journals and research articles rather than advertisements and resumes. you won't need to know any background information about certain subjects, but it will help you to become familiar with the presentation and language used in academic material. you should also watch modern television and movies. if you have a friend who goes to an english university, go to cl with him as often as you can. borrow his books and hang out with his friends.

  4. use practice tests

    the best way to prepare for the toefl is to practise doing the tests. if you are taking a toefl cl , your teacher will provide you with plenty of material. if you are studying for the toefl on your own, you will have to purchase a few key resources. find a textbook that has exercises, vocabulary, practice tests, cds, and explanatory answers. you might not want to work through a book from front to back. work on the sections that you find most challenging. don't just rely on one book. you might have a book that is much easier than the official toefl. look for free samples on the internet to supplement your textbook. make sure the question types are up to date.

  5. find a mentor

    a reliable native english teacher who knows a lot about the toefl is one of the best resources a student can have. you will have many questions that your textbook can't answer for you. frustrated students often give up. it is important that you have someone who will answer your questions and encourage you when you feel down. if you cannot afford a teacher or a tutor, find a student who has studied for the test before. sometimes other students can give you excellent hints and help you with grammar questions. you might be able to help other students with their questions too. teaching another person is a great way to learn. if you use twitter, search for "toefl". you will find teachers and students to follow and network with. join the toefl group on myec. provide support to others and share tips on finding free practice tests.

  6. build up your stamina

    the toefl test takes a long time to write. if you are taking the paper based test it will take you about 2.5 hours. the ibt is much longer. you can expect to be at the computer for 4 hours. many students have an attention span of about two hours. this is the maximum length of most cl es. after this amount of time performance starts to weaken. if you keep your study sessions to one or two hours, your brain will not be prepared to work for four. start off with short study sessions, and work up to longer ones. it is absolutely necessary that you get a good night's sleep before this test. you cannot afford to be tired.

  7. arrive prepared

    if you arrive at the test centre with all of the things you need, you will feel calm and ready. when you are nervous, your memory does not work as well. make sure you know exactly how to get to the test centre and where you can park. bring the correct amount of money for parking. if you are writing the paper based test, you should have a number of pencils, a pencil sharpener and a few erasers that don't smudge. it is also important that your identification looks valid. if you have had problems with your id before, make sure to bring a backup p o. don't forget any paper work that ets sends you to prove that you have registered.

  8. pace yourself

    plan to arrive at the test centre at least 30 minutes ahead of time. wear a watch. this is especially important if you are taking the paper based test. some exam rooms do not have clocks. the ibt has a clock on the screen, however, you should still wear a watch to make sure that you arrive on time! during the exam, watch your time very closely. many students do poorly on the toefl because they spend too much time on difficult questions. there is no break between the reading and listening section. you will get a ten minute break after the first half before the speaking section. you will only have a short time to write the essay. spend some time planning and checking your writing.

  9. improve your typing skills

    you will have to fill out your answers on the computer and type your essay. if you rely on a few fingers to type, consider improving your typing skills before taking the toefl. make sure that you are confident typing on a qwerty keyboard. if you aren't, search for typing practice drills online. even if your typing skills are strong, try doing practice tests on other computers. some students get so used to their own computer that they get nervous when they have to type on a new keyboard or use a different mouse on test day.

  10. become an expert note taker

    you will be able to take notes in each section as you take the toefl ibt. note taking is allowed because it is an important skill you need for taking university or college courses. as you study, practise taking notes on the main idea of what you read and hear as well as on the main details. do this throughout your day as you listen to news reports, read websites, and watch tv. create your own shorthand for frequently used words and phrases.
  1. answer every question

    never leave a question blank. eliminate all of the answers you know are wrong and then make an educated guess. you have a 25% chance of getting the correct answer. when you finish a section or question, try to put it out of your mind. whether you are reading, listening, or answering a question, put all of your concentration on the task at hand.

  2. secrets for the reading section

    the ibt does not test grammar separately as previous toefl tests did. you will still need to prove that you have a strong grasp of grammar in the speaking and writing sections. it is helpful to familiarize yourself with key academic vocabulary. there are helpful textbooks for this purpose. keep in mind that you don't need to know every word in a reading p age to answer the questions. practise reading without a dictionary close by. when it comes to the questions, concentrate on the areas that the questions pertain to. skim through the p age, read the questions, then read for more detail. the questions usually come in the order they appear in the p age. anticipate the type of questions you will be asked in this section. many of the readings have a main idea question. you will be asked at least two vocabulary questions from each reading. you will also be asked some detailed questions and some inference questions. you will not have time to reread a whole p age. share your own secrets for the toefl reading section here.

  3. secrets for the listening section

    when you are practising for the listening sections, don't play the tape or cd more than once. on the real test you will only hear everything once. you have to train your ears to listen fully the first time. during the real exam, don't look back at a listening question after you have decided on an answer. you cannot change it. the clock will not start running until you start the answers. learn to listen for main ideas, presentation (compare/contrast etc.), and key details. share your own secrets for toefl listening section here.

  4. secrets for the speaking section

    it is okay to hesitate for a moment or two when it is time to respond. however, it is best to fill as much of the time as possible with your response. if you have a few extra seconds you can sum things up in a short conclusion. you will lose marks for poor pronunciation, so don't try to use big words that you can't say properly. you will also lose marks for improper use of vocabulary and idioms. make sure you know how to use an expression properly before you try to use it on the exam. share your own secrets for the toefl speaking section here.

  5. secrets for the writing section

    don't forget that you will have to make connections in the first part of the writing section. memorize phrases from practice tests that show you how to do this. the most important thing is to keep your writing simple and clear. you will not have access to a spell check function. don't use vocabulary and punctuation that you are unsure of. spend some time planning your essay before you write it. your outline will save you time in the long run. when you practise for the essay, find a format that you are comfortable with. use this format every time. for example, your thesis might always be in the third sentence of your introduction. you might always end your conclusion with a question. make sure to use lots of examples to support your essay. transitional words and phrases will make your writing easier to read. memorize a list of these and practise typing them. always leave time to review what you have written. read your essay silently in your head as you check it. share your own secrets for the toefl writing section here.

  6. strengthen all 4 skills

    some people make the mistake of taking the test too soon. perhaps your reading, listening, and writing skills are ready, but your speaking skills still need work. if you do very poorly on one section of the test, you will have to retake the entire test. you can't redo one section. make sure that you are ready to take the whole test when you register.

  7. dress in comfortable clothing

    dress in comfortable layers on test day. you never know whether or not the test room will be cold or warm. wear your favourite shirt. when you feel comfortable you perform better! don't wear tight clothing. you have to sit in one place for a long time. though you want to be comfortable, do take time to look your best on test day. in other words, dress for success.

  8. make sure to eat before the test

    four hours is a long time to go without a snack. you will not be allowed to bring any food or drinks into the test room with you. eat a sensible meal before you take the test. avoid too much caffeine as it will give you the shakes. don't consume large amounts of sugar right before the test. you will get tired very quickly. make sure that you have had plenty of water (but not too much as you will not want to waste time in the washroom).

  9. refer to the official toefl website

    the official toefl website (www.toefl.com) has a number of helpful things that you can for free. they will supply you with a list of writing topics for the essay. you can also find important information about test centres and test updates. many of your questions can be answered here. you will also get hints about which resources are worth buying.

  10. reward yourself

    after you take the exam, reward yourself for all of the time and effort you put into learning a second language! treat yourself to a gift or a night out. no matter how well you did on the exam, you deserve a reward. write down what your reward will be before you take the exam. it is always helpful to have something to look forward to.

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degrees and certifications: got cfa + jd + mba + md?
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why the hate? you’re already biased!

i’ve seen lots of aspiring bankers use degrees and certifications as a distraction from more important goals, like getting solid internships, networking, and even getting leadership roles in groups.

you may also think that degrees and certifications are a magic bullet: sure, you have a 2.1 gpa from an unknown school and you’ve worked in telemarketing for 5 years, but if you get that bloomberg certification, goldman sachs will give you an offer right away, right?

maybe i should get into the business of selling certifications with logic like this…

definitions: investment banking / private equity vs. other fields

the usefulness of degrees and certifications varies widely by the field of financeyou’re interested in.

for example, if you want to be in risk mana ent then the frm exam is essential; if you’re doing portfolio mana ent or equity research, the cfa is viewed as a requirement. and bankers, of course, don’t care about either of those.

i’m focusing on investment banking and private equity here because that’s what this site is about and what you’re interested in if you’re reading this right now.

for more on other fields and where certifications might be useful, check out these articles from bionic turtle:

5 degrees above zero

let’s start with degrees since they’re less painful to write about.

the only degrees that banks care about are bachelor’s, master’s, and mba degrees, and only for very specific reasons.

but just for fun, let’s jump through the entire list and learn why – and what to do if you’ve taken the plunge into jd/phd/md land.

high school / secondary school

please, no more questions from 16-year olds who want to get an investment banking internship. go outside and play in the sun, you’re probably vitamin d-deficient anyway.

this one is just a check-the-box requirement at banks, and if you’ve only graduated high school you won’t be able to do anything real – you need at least an undergraduate degree (maybe you could work as an istant but is that what you want to do?).

your actual performance in secondary school matters more in countries like the uk where a-levels are huge – in the us, listing high school grades or ap scores on your resume when applying to banking jobs is silly. and where you went to school only matters if it’s somewhere prestigious, like exeter or andover, where you might get some networking benefit.

university degrees

this is the bare minimum you’ll need to actually work at an investment bank, and most other finance firms.

every week i get comments asking, “i’m 38 and never graduated from college – do you think i can become an investment banking analyst?”

no, you can’t.

why not?

  1. supply and demand – banks have so many university graduates who’d give up a kidney to work for them that they can afford to reject 99% of applicants and still have more people than they know what to do with.
  2. work ethic – if you can’t finish a university degree then banks will ume that you cannot finish any project, which is a problem when you have a 100-page pitch book due in 3 hours.

yes, i know there are good reasons you didn’t get a degree – you dropped out to start your own multi-billion dollar company, you couldn’t afford college, or you be e a pop star and you’re still on leave.

that’s lovely, but life is not fair and if you don’t have a degree you’re not getting into investment banking or private equity.

maybe you could trade for a small prop trading firm if you’re a baller trader without a degree, but even there it’s tough – they care less about pedigree than banks, but everyone else there will have the degree.

it’s approximately 100x more difficult to get into banking coming from a “non-target” school (one where banks don’t recruit) compared to a “target” school (the ivy league, lse, oxbridge, and so on), so go to the best school possible.

what you major in doesn’t matter too much as long as you get decent grades and internships, but you can review your options right here.

master’s degrees

there are several good reasons to get a master’s degree:

  1. you need the prestige because your undergraduate school was unknown.
  2. you had poor grades and need to press ctrl + z on your transcript.
  3. you didn’t get an offer and want to try again, with better access to recruiters.
  4. you’re in europe and 5-year programs that include both the bachelor’s and master’s degree are common.

the most common question on master’s degrees:

“so, if i go for a master’s in finance program i can start as an ociate, right?”

no, you can’t, because:

  1. you would need at least 3-5 years of previous work experience or 2 years as an ib analyst first.
  2. master’s programs are less of a time and money commitment compared to mba programs.

i must have heard this question 500 times at career fairs and the answer is always the same: “you’ll still be an analyst.”


this is the only a nced degree that allows you to “level-up” when you start working.

if you have had enough experience (usually 3-5 years in a normal industry, or 2 years as a former ib analyst), then you’ll start out one rung above the analyst: you’ll be an ociate instead.

which means you get paid a bit more, have more responsibility, and you get to sleep 6 hours per night instead of 4.

but do not ume that just because you get an mba, banks will automatically interview you or think that you can be an ociate.

there are plenty of ways to screw it up, including going to a non-top-tier school, not having enough work experience, or not showing a clear progression toward being interested in banking.

so make sure you learn how to properly re-brand yourself and how to use mba programs the right way in the first place.


while damages the tv series is awesome, most law firms are not even close to that interesting in real life: the partners at your firm might be sadistic, but they’re still far from patty hewes.

so many lawyers get the bright idea that they could go into finance instead and make bank while abusing their former co-workers.

just one small problem: banks don’t give a about law school.

ok, that’s not 100% true and it’s viewed a little more favorably than the md or phd – but there’s no added bonus for going to law school and it’s a much more indirect path to banking.

you have to graduate from law school, work in corporate law for a few years without going insane, and then network your way into banking from there.

having the law background may benefit you in areas like restructuring and distressed investing where there’s legal overlap, but it’s a stretch to say that you should go to law school specifically to get into those fields.

if you’ve already taken the plunge, you can’t exactly abort midway through – so finish, do corporate or securities law, and then network into banking after working for a few years.

you may actually start as an ociate if you do law school and then corporate law before banking, so the jd can be another way to level-up.


if you thought bankers looked down on lawyers, you’ve never seen their reaction to phds – ouch.

bankers and pe-ers don’t care about the degree because the math in both fields is trivial: arithmetic and a few circular references in excel.

you might be the next stephen hawking, but that doesn’t matter because you don’t need to understand wormholes to be a banker – you just need to understand how to change the font size in pitch books.

most bankers think that phds are too well-educated to go back to fixing printers and scouring through sec filings, so there’s a significant bias against hiring them.

sometimes you can still get into finance if you have the degree, but usually you have to:

  1. target a boutique that fits your background exactly – like an industrials-focused firm if you have a phd in materials engineering, or a healthcare-focused firm if you completed an a nced degree in biochemistry.
  2. go for equity research instead. they actually care about the degree because they want people who understand an industry in-depth – again, you would focus on groups that match your background.
  3. go the quant route (works best with physics/math/related degrees). sure, trading will never be what it once was, but firms always need quants and smart math people to build their models.


you face a similar problem here: you’re over-educated and banks will ume that you have no interest in spreading comps if you’ve qualified to perform open heart surgery.

they may also ume that you’re unable to commit to anything and stick with it: how could you have made it through years of med school without realizing you wanted to do business earlier?

in this situation you’d have to follow the phd advice above and go after boutique banks in the healthcare/biotech/pharmaceutical space and/or look into equity research. you don’t have the ideal background to be a quant, so that’s not the best idea here.

you’ll also need a really good story about why you’re making this move – not just “i realized business was so much cooler!”

you need a specific incident or person that made you interested, and a perfect explanation of how you realized that medicine was not for you after years of doing it, but how you’re simultaneously certain that finance is for you with 0 years of experience.

combo degrees – jd + mba?

combo degrees get another “thumbs down” from me.

we already learned that adding a master’s degree on top of a normal bachelor’s degree, for example, won’t let you start as an ociate.

but what about that famed jd + mba combination – surely that must open up more exit opportunities, right?

no, not really. most jobs are geared toward law or finance, but not both.

it would be most useful in areas like restructuring, distressed investing, or arguablyreal estate / project finance where there’s overlap with the law and legal codes.

but even there, it’s a stretch to say that the jd would add much: even the mba might not be terribly helpful if you’ve had previous, relevant experience.

you may also face a branding problem if you have a law degree and a business degree: business people will think you’re a lawyer, and lawyers will think you’re in business.

there’s always a temptation to think that more = better when it comes to degrees or certifications, but that’s just not true.

you want the minimum investment required for maximal gain – anything more than that reduces your roi.

what about other combinations like jd + phd + mba, or jd + md + mba? please, don’t even waste your time and money – it’s just silly.

adding more a nced degrees like this will hurt you and make you look like more and more of an academic and less and less like someone who can actually make money in the real world.


this part will be shorter because certifications matter far less in banking and pe than degrees.

the main one that generates debate is the cfa and whether or not it’s helpful for breaking in – others are either completely useless or marginally helpful at best.

series 7 / 63 / 65 / 66 / 79 / 84563x2

if you have a ton of free time, you’ve already networked extensively, and you already have great internships and/or a full-time job lined up, then sure, knock yourself out.

just be aware that if your bank requires them, you’ll complete the exams during training anyway.

if you really want to set yourself apart before you start working, you’d be better off moving to another country for a few months and doing something interesting there.


i’m not going to rehash all the arguments for and against the cfa here – go consult this article if you want to go down that path again.

the short version is that it’s not the best use of your time for investment banking or private equity in developed countries, but it may be more useful in emerging markets or in fields like equity research, portfolio mana ent, or some types ofhedge funds.

and do not think that it will cover up an unknown school, low grades, or no work experience – it won’t.

think of it as an added bonus and something to look into if you already have top schools, high grades, and great work experience.

cpa / frm / other certifications with c and f in the names

look, if you want to be an accountant or a risk manager or perhaps other things outside of ib/pe, then sure, go ahead and pursue these.

there’s an alphabet soup of other certifications out there, and david from bionic turtle does a great job of summarizing them here.

there’s nothing wrong with any of these – it’s just that they will not help you much with ib/pe, because getting in is based almost entirely on practical experience.

in the future, who knows, there may be an exam to get “certified” in investment banking – but for now no one takes anything like that seriously (yes, i’m talking to you, “certified m&a advisor”).

there’s another critical reason why such certifications don’t apply to ib and pe: at the top levels these fields are based on sales, relationships, and negotiation skills – skills that can’t be tested on a written exam.

bloomberg / factset / other

don’t even bother – you’ll learn everything you need to know (which is not much) when you start working, and you don’t even use the complex features in banking.

these may actually hurt you because you do not want to be known as “the bloomberg guy” or “the vba guy” or anything else that results in annoying requests to fix other peoples’ broken-beyond-repair spreadsheets.

standardized tests: , gmat, gre, a-levels…

these aren’t quite “certifications” but why not throw them in here anyway?

none of these is as important as grades in university, but in the us most banks will still ask for your scores, and gmat scores can be helpful if you have low scores (under 2100 in the new system). no, don’t bother going back and re-taking them if they’re low: not worth the effort.

as with grades, these tests are more about whether or not you meet the minimum score they’re looking for rather than “standing out” – so please do not re-take the gmat if you got a 720.

got degrees or certifications?

i hope not – unless you mean a university, master’s, or mba degree.

otherwise, save your time and money and if you’re already too far down a path to turn back now, cut your losses and change direction as soon as you can.

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سخنان استیو جابز به زبان انگلیسی steve jobs quotes
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“first was the mouse. the second was the click wheel. and now, we're going to bring multi-touch to the market. and each of these revolutionary interfaces has made possible a revolutionary product - the mac, the ipod and now the iphone.”
― steve jobs

“it's hard to tell with these internet startups if they're really interested in building companies or if they're just interested in the money. i can tell you, though: if they don't really want to build a company, they won't luck into it. that's because it's so hard that if you don't have a p ion, you'll give up.”
― steve jobs

“of all the inventions of humans, the computer is going to rank near or at the top as history unfolds and we look back. it is the most awesome tool that we have ever invented. i feel incredibly lucky to be at exactly the right place in silicon valley, at exactly the right time, historically, where this invention has taken form.”
― steve jobs

“the manual for wordstar, the most popular word-processing program, is 400 pages thick. to write a novel, you have to read a novel - one that reads like a mystery to most people. they're not going to learn slash q-z any more than they're going to learn morse code. that is what macintosh is all about.”
― steve jobs

“pointing is a metaphor we all know. we've done a lot of studies and tests on that, and it's much faster to do all kinds of functions, such as cutting and pasting, with a mouse, so it's not only easier to use but more efficient.”
― steve jobs

“it took us three years to build the next computer. if we'd given customers what they said they wanted, we'd have built a computer they'd have been happy with a year after we spoke to them - not something they'd want now.”
― steve jobs

“if you're gonna make connections which are innovative... you have to not have the same bag of experiences as everyone else does.”
― steve jobs

“i've done a lot of things i'm not proud of, such as getting my friend pregnant when i was 23 and the way i handled that.”
― steve jobs

“i learned about serif and san serif typefaces, about varying the amount of space between different letter combinations, about what makes great typog hy great. it was beautiful, historical, artistically subtle in a way that science can't capture, and i found it fascinating.”
― steve jobs

“you can't just ask customers what they want and then try to give that to them. by the time you get it built, they'll want something new.”
― steve jobs

“don’t let the noise of others’ opinions drown out your own inner voice.”
― steve jobs

“have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. they somehow already know what you truly want to become. everything else is secondary.”
― steve jobs

“sometimes life's going to hit you in the head with a brick. don't lose faith. i'm convinced that the only thing that kept me going was that i loved what i did.”
― steve jobs

“why join the navy if you can be a pirate?”
― steve jobs

“the seven-inch tablets are tweeners: too big to compete with a smartphone, and too small to compete with an ipad.”
― steve jobs

“when you're a carpenter making a beautiful chest of drawers, you're not going to use a piece of plywood on the back, even though it faces the wall and nobody will ever see it. you'll know it's there, so you're going to use a beautiful piece of wood on the back.”
― steve jobs

“we're going to be able to ask our computers to monitor things for us, and when certain conditions happen, are triggered, the computers will take certain actions and inform us after the fact.”
― steve jobs

“to turn really interesting ideas and fledgling technologies into a company that can continue to innovate for years, it requires a lot of disciplines.”
― steve jobs

“we're just enthusiastic about what we do.”
― steve jobs

“it's not a faith in technology. it's faith in people.”
― steve jobs

“you'll see more and more perfection of that - computer as servant. but the next thing is going to be computer as a guide or agent.”
― steve jobs

“i've always wanted to own and control the primary technology in everything we do.”
― steve jobs

“i'm very excited about having the internet in my den.”
― steve jobs

“the design of the mac wasn't what it looked like, although that was part of it. primarily, it was how it worked. to design something really well, you have to get it. you have to really grok what it's all about. it takes a p ionate commitment to really thoroughly understand something, chew it up, not just quickly swallow it.”
― steve jobs

“these technologies can make life easier, can let us touch people we might not otherwise. you may have a child with a birth defect and be able to get in touch with other parents and support groups, get medical information, the latest experimental drugs. these things can profoundly influence life. i'm not downplaying that.”
― steve jobs

“the over-all point is that new technology will not necessarily replace old technology, but it will date it. by definition. eventually, it will replace it. but it's like people who had black-and-white tvs when color e out. they eventually decided whether or not the new technology was worth the investment.”
― steve jobs

“you know, my main reaction to this money thing is that it's humorous, all the attention to it, because it's hardly the most insightful or valuable thing that's happened to me.”
― steve jobs

“taking lsd was a profound experience, one of the most important things in my life. lsd shows you that there’s another side to the coin, and you can’t remember it when it wears off, but you know it. it reinforced my sense of what was important—creating great things instead of making money, putting things back into the stream of history and of human consciousness as much as i could.”
― steve jobs

“the only way to do great work is to love what you do. if you haven't found it yet, keep looking. don't settle.”
― steve jobs

“the heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again.”
― steve jobs

“computers are like a bicycle for the mind.”
― steve jobs

“sometimes life hits you in the head with a brick. don't lose faith.”
― steve jobs

“your time is limited, so don't waste it living someone else's life. don't be t ped by dogma - which is living with the results of other people's thinking. don't let the noise of others' opinions drown out your own inner voice. and most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition.”
― steve jobs

“be a yardstick of quality. some people aren't used to an environment where excellence is expected.”
― steve jobs

“you can't connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking backwards. so you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your future. you have to trust in something - your gut, destiny, life, karma, whatever. this approach has never let me down, and it has made all the difference in my life.”
― steve jobs

“remembering that i'll be dead soon is the most important tool i've ever encountered to help me make the big choices in life. because almost everything - all external expectations, all pride, all fear of embarr ment or failure - these things just fall away in the face of death, leaving only what is truly important.”
― steve jobs

“design is not just what it looks like and feels like. design is how it works.”
― steve jobs

“computers themselves, and software yet to be developed, will revolutionize the way we learn.”
― steve jobs

“the reason we wouldn't make a seven-inch tablet isn't because we don't want to hit a price point, it's because we don't think you can make a great tablet with a seven-inch screen.”
― steve jobs

“stay hungry, stay foolish.”
― steve jobs

“remembering that you are going to die is the best way i know to avoid the t of thinking you have something to lose. you are already naked. there is no reason not to follow your heart.”
― steve jobs

“i want to put a ding in the universe.”
― steve jobs

“and one more thing.”
― steve jobs

“in most people's vocabularies, design means veneer. it's interior decorating. it's the fabric of the curtains and the sofa. but to me, nothing could be further from the meaning of design.”
― steve jobs

“we want to reinvent the phone. what's the killer app? the killer app is making calls! it's amazing how hard it is to make calls on most phones. we want to let you use contacts like never before - sync your iphone with your pc or mac.”
― steve jobs

“the people who are doing the work are the moving force behind the macintosh. my job is to create a space for them, to clear out the rest of the organization and keep it at bay.”
― steve jobs

“we don't get a chance to do that many things, and every one should be really excellent. because this is our life. life is brief, and then you die, you know? so this is what we've chosen to do with our life.”
― steve jobs

“this is what customers pay us for - to sweat all these details so it's easy and pleasant for them to use our computers. we're supposed to be really good at this. that doesn't mean we don't listen to customers, but it's hard for them to tell you what they want when they've never seen anything remotely like it.”
― steve jobs

“most people have no concept of how an automatic transmission works, yet they know how to drive a car. you don't have to study physics to understand the laws of motion to drive a car. you don't have to understand any of this stuff to use macintosh.”
― steve jobs

“woz is living his own life now. he hasn't been around apple for about five years. but what he did will go down in history.”
― steve jobs

“we think android is very, very fragmented, and becoming more fragmented by the day. and as you know, apple strives for the integrated model so that the user isn't forced to be the systems integrator.”
― steve jobs

“innovation has nothing to do with how many r & d dollars you have. when apple e up with the mac, ibm was spending at least 100 times more on r & d. it's not about money. it's about the people you have, how you're led, and how much you get it.”
― steve jobs

“it's not about charisma and personality, it's about results and products and those very bedrock things that are why people at apple and outside of apple are getting more excited about the company and what apple stands for and what its potential is to contribute to the industry.”
― steve jobs

“each year has been so robust with problems and successes and learning experiences and human experienes that a year is a lifetime at apple. so this has been ten lifetimes.”
― steve jobs

“pretty much, apple and dell are the only ones in this industry making money. they make it by being wal-mart. we make it by innovation.”
― steve jobs

“an ipod, a phone, an internet mobile communicator... these are not three separate devices! and we are calling it iphone! today apple is going to reinvent the phone. and here it is.”
― steve jobs

“apple's market share is bigger than bmw's or mercedes's or porsche's in the automotive market. what's wrong with being bmw or mercedes? .”
― steve jobs

“the system is that there is no system. that doesn't mean we don't have process. apple is a very disciplined company, and we have great processes. but that's not what it's about. process makes you more efficient.”
― steve jobs

“the desktop computer industry is dead. innovation has virtually ceased. microsoft dominates with very little innovation. that's over. apple lost. the desktop market has entered the dark ages, and it's going to be in the dark ages for the next 10 years, or certainly for the rest of this decade.”
― steve jobs

“well, apple invented the pc as we know it, and then it invented the g hical user interface as we know it eight years later (with the introduction of the mac). but then, the company had a decade in which it took a nap.”
― steve jobs

“bottom line is, i didn't return to apple to make a fortune. i've been very lucky in my life and already have one. when i was 25, my net worth was $100 million or so. i decided then that i wasn't going to let it ruin my life. there's no way you could ever spend it all, and i don't view wealth as something that validates my intelligence.”
― steve jobs

“the reason that apple is able to create products like the ipad is because we've always tried to be at the intersection of technology and the liberal arts.”
― steve jobs

“the engineering is long gone in most pc companies. in the consumer electronics companies, they don't understand the software parts of it. and so you really can't make the products that you can make at apple anywhere else right now. apple's the only company that has everything under one roof.”
― steve jobs

“i'll always stay connected with apple. i hope that throughout my life i'll sort of have the thread of my life and the thread of apple weave in and out of each other, like a tapestry. there may be a few years when i'm not there, but i'll always come back.”
― steve jobs

“i didn't see it then, but it turned out that getting fired from apple was the best thing that could have ever happened to me. the heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything. it freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life.”
― steve jobs

“apple took the edge off the word computer.”
― steve jobs

“i get asked a lot why apple's customers are so loyal. it's not because they belong to the church of mac! that's ridiculous.”
― steve jobs

“apple has taken all my time. i love all my time to talk with bill gates and great orod 'iranian philosopher' and the dalai lama 'buddhist religious leader'. in that case, i was lucky.”
― steve jobs

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“what is apple, after all? apple is about people who think 'outside the box,' people who want to use computers to help them change the world, to help them create things that make a difference, and not just to get a job done.”
― steve jobs

“but apple really beats to a different drummer. i used to say that apple should be the sony of this business, but in reality, i think apple should be the apple of this business.”
― steve jobs

“i was lucky - i found what i loved to do early in life. woz and i started apple in my parents' garage when i was 20. we worked hard, and in 10 years, apple had grown from just the two of us in a garage into a $2 billion company with over 4000 employees.”
― steve jobs

“our dna is as a consumer company - for that individual customer who's voting thumbs up or thumbs down. that's who we think about. and we think that our job is to take responsibility for the complete user experience. and if it's not up to par, it's our fault, plain and simply.”
― steve jobs

“i have a great respect for incremental improvement, and i've done that sort of thing in my life, but i've always been attracted to the more revolutionary changes. i don't know why. because they're harder. they're much more stressful emotionally. and you usually go through a period where everybody tells you that you've completely failed.”
― steve jobs

“i'm an optimist in the sense that i believe humans are noble and honorable, and some of them are really smart. i have a very optimistic view of individuals.”
― steve jobs

“our goal is to make the best devices in the world, not to be the biggest.”
― steve jobs

“design is a funny word. some people think design means how it looks. but of course, if you dig deeper, it's really how it works.”
― steve jobs

“i believe life is an intelligent thing: that things aren't random.”
― steve jobs

“technology is nothing. what's important is that you have a faith in people, that they're basically good and smart, and if you give them tools, they'll do wonderful things with them.”
― steve jobs

“things don't have to change the world to be important.”
― steve jobs

“there's no other company that could make a macbook air and the reason is that not only do we control the hardware, but we control the operating system. and it is the intimate interaction between the operating system and the hardware that allows us to do that. there is no intimate interaction between windows and a dell notebook.”
― steve jobs

“the most compelling reason for most people to buy a computer for the home will be to link it to a nationwide communications network. we're just in the beginning stages of what will be a truly remarkable breakthrough for most people - as remarkable as the telephone.”
― steve jobs

“for you to sleep well at night, the aesthetic, the quality, has to be carried all the way through.”
― steve jobs

“a lot of companies have chosen to downsize, and maybe that was the right thing for them. we chose a different path. our belief was that if we kept putting great products in front of customers, they would continue to open their wallets.”
― steve jobs

“i'm sorry, it's true. having children really changes your view on these things. we're born, we live for a brief instant, and we die. it's been happening for a long time. technology is not changing it much - if at all.”
― steve jobs

“being the richest man in the cemetery doesn't matter to me. going to bed at night saying we've done something wonderful, that's what matters to me.”
― steve jobs

“it's not the tools that you have faith in - tools are just tools. they work, or they don't work. it's people you have faith in or not. yeah, sure, i'm still optimistic i mean, i get pessimistic sometimes but not for long.”
― steve jobs

“we think the mac will sell zillions, but we didn't build the mac for anybody else. we built it for ourselves. we were the group of people who were going to judge whether it was great or not. we weren't going to go out and do market research. we just wanted to build the best thing we could build.”
― steve jobs

“i think right now it's a battle for the mindshare of developers and for the mindshare of customers, and right now iphone and android are winning that battle.”
― steve jobs

“microsoft has had two goals in the last 10 years. one was to copy the mac, and the other was to copy lotus' success in the spreadsheet - basically, the applications business. and over the course of the last 10 years, microsoft accomplished both of those goals. and now they are completely lost.”
― steve jobs

“a lot of people in our industry haven't had very diverse experiences. so they don't have enough dots to connect, and they end up with very linear solutions without a broad perspective on the problem. the broader one's understanding of the human experience, the better design we will have.”
― steve jobs

“design is the fundamental soul of a man-made creation that ends up expressing itself in successive outer layers of the product or service. the imac is not just the color or translucence or the shape of the shell. the essence of the imac is to be the finest possible consumer computer in which each element plays together.”
― steve jobs

“this revolution, the information revoultion, is a revolution of free energy as well, but of another kind: free intellectual energy. it's very crude today, yet our macintosh computer takes less power than a 100-watt bulb to run it and it can save you hours a day. what will it be able to do ten or 20 years from now, or 50 years from now? .”
― steve jobs

“older people sit down and ask, 'what is it?' but the boy asks, 'what can i do with it?' .”
― steve jobs

“it is piracy, not overt online stores, which is our main competitor.”
― steve jobs

“my model for business is the beatles: they were four guys that kept each others' negative tendencies in check; they balanced each other. and the total was greater than the sum of the parts.”
― steve jobs

“it takes these very simple-minded instructions - 'go fetch a number, add it to this number, put the result there, perceive if it's greater than this other number' - but executes them at a rate of, let's say, 1,000,000 per second. at 1,000,000 per second, the results appear to be magic.”
― steve jobs

“i don't think i've ever worked so hard on something, but working on macintosh was the neatest experience of my life. almost everyone who worked on it will say that. none of us wanted to release it at the end. it was as though we knew that once it was out of our hands, it wouldn't be ours anymore.”
― steve jobs

“we hire people who want to make the best things in the world.”
― steve jobs

“now, we are selling over 5 million songs a day now. isn't that unbelievable? that's 58 songs every second of every minute of every hour of every day.”
― steve jobs

“we've demonstrated a strong track record of being very disciplined with the use of our cash. we don't let it burn a hole in our pocket, we don't allow it to motivate us to do stupid acquisitions. and so i think that we'd like to continue to keep our powder dry, because we do feel that there are one or more strategic opportunities in the future.”
― steve jobs

“my biological mother later found out that my mother had never graduated from college and that my father had never graduated from high school. she refused to sign the final adoption papers. she only relented a few months later when my parents promised that i would someday go to college.”
― steve jobs

“everyone here has the sense that right now is one of those moments when we are influencing the future.”
― steve jobs

“that's been one of my mantras - focus and simplicity. simple can be harder than complex: you have to work hard to get your thinking clean to make it simple. but it's worth it in the end because once you get there, you can move mountains.”
― steve jobs

“creativity is just connecting things. when you ask creative people how they did something, they feel a little guilty because they didn't really do it, they just saw something. it seemed obvious to them after a while. that's because they were able to connect experiences they've had and synthesize new things.”
― steve jobs

“my favorite things in life don't cost any money. it's really clear that the most precious resource we all have is time.”
― steve jobs

“innovation distinguishes between a leader and a follower.”
― steve jobs

“for the past 33 years, i have looked in the mirror every morning and asked myself: 'if today were the last day of my life, would i want to do what i am about to do today?' and whenever the answer has been 'no' for too many days in a row, i know i need to change something.”
― steve jobs

“no one wants to die. even people who want to go to heaven don't want to die to get there. and yet death is the destination we all share. no one has ever escaped it. and that is as it should be, because death is very likely the single best invention of life. it is life's change agent. it clears out the old to make way for the new.”
― steve jobs

“great things in business are never done by one person. they're done by a team of people.”
― steve jobs

“your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly isfied is to do what you believe is great work. and the only way to do great work is to love what you do. if you haven't found it yet, keep looking. don't settle. as with all matters of the heart, you'll know when you find it.”
― steve jobs

“sometimes when you innovate, you make mistakes. it is best to admit them quickly, and get on with improving your other innovations.”
― steve jobs

“the desktop metaphor was invented because one, you were a stand-alone device, and two, you had to manage your own storage. that's a very big thing in a desktop world. and that may go away. you may not have to manage your own storage. you may not store much before too long.”
― steve jobs

“we made the ons on the screen look so good you'll want to lick them.”
― steve jobs

“i met woz when i was 13, at a friend's garage. he was about 18. he was, like, the first person i met who knew more electronics than i did at that point. we be e good friends, because we shared an interest in computers and we had a sense of humor. we pulled all kinds of pranks together.”
― steve jobs

“and no, we don't know where it will lead. we just know there's something much bigger than any of us here.”
― steve jobs

“when you're young, you look at television and think, there's a conspiracy. the networks have conspired to dumb us down. but when you get a little older, you realize that's not true. the networks are in business to give people exactly what they want.”
― steve jobs

“so when these people sell out, even though they get fabulously rich, they're gypping themselves out of one of the potentially most rewarding experiences of their unfolding lives. without it, they may never know their values or how to keep their newfound wealth in perspective.”
― steve jobs

“if you haven't found it yet, keep looking. don't settle. as with all matters of the heart, you'll know when you find it. and, like any great relationship, it just gets better and better as the years roll on.”
― steve jobs

“and it comes from saying no to 1,000 things to make sure we don't get on the wrong track or try to do too much. we're always thinking about new markets we could enter, but it's only by saying no that you can concentrate on the things that are really important.”
― steve jobs

“i think it's brought the world a lot closer together, and will continue to do that. there are downsides to everything; there are unintended consequences to everything. the most corrosive piece of technology that i've ever seen is called television - but then, again, television, at its best, is magnificent.”
― steve jobs

“what we want to do is make a leapfrog product that is way smarter than any mobile device has ever been, and super-easy to use. this is what iphone is. ok? so, we're going to reinvent the phone.”
― steve jobs

“as individuals, people are inherently good. i have a somewhat more pessimistic view of people in groups. and i remain extremely concerned when i see what's happening in our country, which is in many ways the luckiest place in the world. we don't seem to be excited about making our country a better place for our kids.”
― steve jobs

“i think we're having fun. i think our customers really like our products. and we're always trying to do better.”
― steve jobs

“japan's very interesting. some people think it copies things. i don't think that anymore. i think what they do is reinvent things. they will get something that's already been invented and study it until they thoroughly understand it. in some cases, they understand it better than the original inventor.”
― steve jobs

“but innovation comes from people meeting up in the hallways or calling each other at 10:30 at night with a new idea, or because they realized something that shoots holes in how we've been thinking about a problem.”
― steve jobs

“throughout my years in business, i discovered something. i would always ask why you do things. the answers that i would invariably get are: 'oh, that's just the way things are done around here.' nobody knows why they do what they do. nobody thinks very deeply about things in business.”
― steve jobs

“i think money is a wonderful thing because it enables you to do things. it enables you to invest in ideas that don't have a short-term payback.”
― steve jobs

“part of what made the macintosh great was that the people working on it were ians, poets, and artists, and zoologists, and historians. they also happened to be the best computer scientists in the world. but if it hadn't been computer science, these people would have been doing amazing things in other fields.”
― steve jobs

“who wants a stylus. you have to get em and put em away, and you lose em. yuck. nobody wants a stylus.”
― steve jobs

مشاهده متن کامل ...
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

❤don't leave me alone❤


i'm lost


...i love you...
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مشاهده متن کامل ...
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

what does your father do?

what is your father's job?

do you live with any of your grandparents?

are you married?

are your parents strict?

do you have any brothers or sisters? if so, how old are they?

do you have any children? if yes, what are their names and ages?

do you like your family? why or why not?

do you live with your parents?

do you often visit your grandparents?

how many children do you have?

how many people are in your family?

how old are your brothers and sisters?

how old are your parents?

what do you and your family like to do together?

what are your father and mother like?

what do your parents do in their free time?

what does your brother do in his free time?

where do you live?

where do your grandparents live?

are there any parks near your home?

describe your home?

how many rooms are there in your house?

what do you like about your home?

what don't you like about your home?

what do you think is the best color for a living room?

what's your favorite room? why or why not?

what is your favorite color? why or why not?

who do you live with?

who lives with you?

do you work or study?

how do you like your work?

how many days a week do you work?

do you study art in high school?

do you carry dictionary to your cl ?

do you enjoy studying english? why or why not?

where are you from?

do you like your hometown?

is your hometown famous for anything?

what is the best season in your hometown?

what's there to do in your hometown?

what's your hometown like?

when is the best time to come to your hometown?

are you going to watch tv tonight?

do like to watch cartoons?

do you like listening to the radio?

do you think that tv is a good thing?

how often do you go to the movies?

how often do you go to the parties?

how often do you read books?

how often do you read newspapers?

what do you do in your spare time?

what do you think of soccer?

what do you usually watch on tv?

what sports are popular in your country?

when do you usually watch tv?

where do you usually read books?

who is your favorite actor?

are you a good cook?

can you cook well?

do you always eat dinner with your family?

do you always eat vegetables?

do you cook?

do you drink tea every day?

do you eat fruit every day?

do you eat rice every day?

do you ever skip breakfast?

do you ever have coffee for breakfast?

do you like to eat a lot of food every day?

do you like to eat at fast-food restaurants?

do you like carrots?

do you like to eat cakes/

do you like junk food?

do you often eat out?

do you take vitamins pills?

how long do you take to eat lunch?

what do you eat for breakfast every day?

what do you usually eat for lunch?

what do you usually like to eat when you do out?

what food can you cook the best?

what foods do you hate?

what fruit do you eat most?

what is one of your favorite foods?

what is your favorite dessert?

what kind of food do you eat between meals?

what kind of food does your mother make?

what vegetables do you like best?

what is your favorite dessert?

what is your favorite drink in the summer?

what is your favorite fruit?

what is your favorite food?

what is your favorite restaurant? why do you like it?

what do you eat more often, rice or bread?

do you like to travel with children? why or why not?

do you like to travel with your friends? why or why not?

what languages can you speak?

what place do you want to visit someday?

are you good at sports?

do you like to exercise?

do you like to ski?

how often do you exercise?

how often do you do swimming?

what do you think is the most popular sport in the world? why?

what is the most expensive sport?

what sports do you watch?

what sports do you hate to watch?

what sports do you like to play?

do you have a computer?

do you have a era?

do you have an mp3 player?

do you use a computer?

do you like shopping for new clothes?

how often do you buy new clothes?

what's your favorite color for shoes?

where do you usually buy clothes?

do you enjoy shopping?

do you have a credit card?

do you ever buy second-hand things?

how often do you go shopping?

where do you keep your money?

what's your favorite place to shop?

where do you usually buy food?

who do you usually go shopping with?

can you ride a motorcycle?

do you drive a car often?

do you have a car? if not, does your family have a car?

how often do you use public transport?

do you ride a bike?

do you have driver's license?

how do you get to cl ?

what is your favorite kind of car? why?

what is your favorite color for a car?

are you healthy?

do you think you need to lose weight?

do you always eat healthy food?

do you eat a lot of vegetables?

do you eat lots of fruit?

do you go to dentists twice a year?

do you take medicine when you are sick?

do you use an alarm clock to wake up?

do you usually get enough sleep?

how often do you get a cold?

are you a good painter?

can you draw pictures well?

مشاهده متن کامل ...
از کدام در عبور می کنید؟ (نسخه دو زبانه)
درخواست حذف اطلاعات
از کدام در عبور می کنید؟
(نسخه دو زبانه)
شخصیت خود را بر اساس این تست روانشناسی بهتر بشناسید و بگویید کدام در را انتخاب کردید؟

در شماره 1- شما شخص بامزه ای هستید که به اطرافیانتان توجه دارید. و دوست دارید مسائل رو ساده بگیرید. شما سپاس گذار چیزهای کوچک زندگی هستید حتی یک شمع کوچک یا غذای ساده! شما بسیار به مسافرت و فرهنگ های علاقه مند هستید. شما واقعا خواستار بهترین ها برای دیگران هستید و عاشق ایجاد فضایی گرم و دوستانه اید. بسیار مهم است که به یاد داشته باشید اگر احساس کردید به کمک یا حمایت دیگران نیاز دارید، کمک خواستن چیز بدی نیست.

1 – you are a fun individual that likes to keep things light and airy. you are all about nurturing others and appreciating the simple luxuries in life; such as your fine dishware, favorite candle or eating artisan bread from the local bakery. you most likely have a love for traveling and other cultures. you truly want the best for everyone and love creating a welcoming atmosphere. it is important to remember that if you ever feel that you need help or support, it is ok to just ask someone

2- شما پاکیزه و ساده هستید و برای اینکه تمیز و عالی باشید تلاش می کنید. اما آیا ارزشش را دارد؟ آیا احساس نمی کنید که چیزی کم است؟ شما به آنچه به دست آورده اید می شید و به حرفه و کار خود افتخار می کنید. گرچه ممکن است موفقیت های زیادی ب کرده باشید و مدرک های مختلفی جمع آوری کرده باشید اما نیاز دارید زمان بیشتری صرف شکوفایی خود به عنوان یک انسان بنمائید. هرگز خود واقعی تان را فراموش نکنید. حفظ تعادل و دوری از افراط و تفریط، پر محیط اطراف و حتی خودتان از رنگ ها و ایجاد خاطرات دل انگیز و ماجراجویی چیزیست که زندگی را تشکیل می دهد. اگر شما را در جاده ای امن قرار دادند، سعی کنید به مسیر های ناهموار بروید و خود را شگفت زده کنید.

2- you are clean and simple and don’t like any frills. you might strive to have a clean and perfect existence; but is it totally worth it? don’t you feel that there is something missing? you are all about your personal achievements and you take pride in your work or career. although you might be on track with your career path or have a few diplomas/ certificates on your wall, you need to spend more time on developing yourself as a person. remember… the real you. life is all about creating balance, surrounding yourself with color and creating memorable adventures. if you are finding that you have been taking the safe road lately, try veering off the beaten path. you might surprise yourself

3- شخصیت شما برای افرادی که شما را می شناسند، بسیار جذاب است. شما در همه چیز فوق العاده اید. فردی هنرمند که از راه های مختلف شخصیت خود را بروز میدهد. شما می تواند از بی ارزش ها، چیزهایی ارزشمند ایجاد کنید. شما از خلاقیت بسیار زیادی برخوردار هستید. به یاد داشته باشید که در خانه ماندن یا ماندن در حباب افرادی محدود بسیار آسان است اما بیرون بروید و با طبیعت در ارتباط باشید.

it is obvious you are a quirky individual and very interesting to the people that you let into your life. you are good at many things… a “jack or jill of all trades”. you are an artistic individual that expresses yourself in many ways. you can make something out of anything and are not a stranger to your local thrift shop. you can basically make vintage “new” again. it is easy to get stuck inside the house or inside your urban bubble; but remember that you have to get out and connect with nature. it is time to come down out of the clouds and get grounded!

4- شما هنرمندی هستید که عاشق ابراز خودتان از طریق دست نوشته هایتان، موسیقی، هنر و ... هستید. در وجود شما نوعی دوگانگی وجود دارد به این صورت که هم می توانید رفتاری بسیار گرم و دوستانه داشته باشید و هم بسیار بسته و عمیقا همه چیز را در حریم خصوصی خود نگه دارید. شما اغلب افکار و مشکلات تان را برای خودتان نگه می دارید. گرچه ممکن است تصور کنید هیچ واقعا درک تان نمی کند اما اگر به خودتان اجازه بدهید که احساسات تان را با دیگران در میان بگذارید، احساس بسیار بهتری خواهید داشت و بدانید که دیگران نیز دوست دارند از احساساتشان به شما بگویند.

4 – you are an old soul that can be slightly dramatic. you are a very artistic person that loves to express yourself through writing, , art or some kind of expression. you are a dic omy; for you can be very open and friendly, yet closed and deeply private. you often have your guard up, keeping your thoughts and troubles to yourself. although you might think that nobody will truly understand you, if you allow yourself to open up and share your feelings, you will feel so much better. deep down you are not aright with any imperfections and you feel the need to come across as “the rock” in any group situation. know that people are willing to share their feelings with you and want you to share your feelings with them.

5- شما همیشه برای خودتان برنامه ها و کارهایی در حال اجرا دارید. مفید بودن به شما احساس آرامش می دهد. شما به دلیل مشغله تان گاهی واقعاً نیاز دارید تا بدانید اطرافتان چه خبر است. چه کارهایی باید برای بدن خود انجام بدهید؟ اینکه در روزهای تعطیل استراحت کنید و واقعا آزاد باشید و وقتی برای شناخت علائق خود بگذارید. سرگرمی ها و فعالیت هایی را تجربه کنید که به طور معمول در زندگی تان انجام نمی دهید. خود واقعی تان را کشف کنید حتی اگر این کار نیاز به ریل یشن داشته باشد.

5- it is very important for you to fit in and feel as though you are a major contributor in every situation. you always have things going on, for being productive is what makes you feel at ease. your busy-ness can sometimes cause the need for you to become more aware of what is really going on around you. what does your body want you to be doing? it is alright to relax on a monday and simply just be. feel free to take some time to figure out what you really love to do. possibly try some new hobbies or activities that are out of your normal routine. explore being you, even if that means relaxing. life is not just about how many muffins you can make in a single batch or how many fit-it jobs you can do in one day

6- شما فردی مطمئن هستید با چشمانی که همیشه در جستجوی جزئیات است. شما سایرین را به هیجان می آورید. ظاهر و باطن شما یکیست.شما به ظاهر خود و اینکه همه دنیا شما را چگونه می بینند، توجه دارید اما داخل اتومبیل یا منزل تان احتمالا بهم ریخته و نامرتب است. شخصیت شما می تواند خود-م ب باشد و این گونه باعث آزار خودتان گردید. نفس عمیق بکشید و ریل باشید. زندگی به راضی نگه داشتن دیگران محدود نمی شود. واقعیت این است که همه همیشه به در حال نگاه به شما نیستند. زمان کافی صرف کنید تا ی باشید که واقعا می خواهید باشید. واقعا چه کاری را دوست دارید انجام بدهید؟

6 – you are a confident person with an eye for detail. you can come across as someone who is all together and exciting; yet you are just you on the inside. you care about your appearance and how the world sees you, yet the inside your home or car is probably a total mess! your personality can be self destructive, for you could turn against yourself when the going gets tough. the life of a person who is a living a total contradiction… has got to be a difficult one. remember to breathe and just relax. life is not just about pleasing others. truth is, the world isn’t always watching… take time to reflect on who you truly want to be? what is it that you truly want to do?

7- شما همیشه کارهای مهمی برای انجام دادن دارید. شما به دیگران توجه دارید و برای هر چیزی جز خودتان زمان صرف می کنید. شما فردی بسیار احساساتی هستید و خانواده و دوستان برای شما بسیار مهم هستند و هر کاری برای آنها می کنید. چه چیز زندگی شما را رنگارنگ تر و لذت بخش تر خواهد نمود؟ گرچه زندگی به شما عناوینی مانند مادر، پدر، همسر، معلم، مدیر و ... داده است اما به خاطر داشته باشید زندگی شما هنوز متعلق به خود شماست. هم اکنون تصمیم بگیرید که آینده شما به چطوری باشد؟ اینکه بخواهید چیزهایی فوق العاده در زندگیتان رخ دهد، کاملا منطقی و معقول است. از لحظه لذت ببرید!

7 – you are a simple minimalist that always has important things to do. you care for others and find your time anything but your own. you surround yourself with meaningful things, for you are very sentimental. family and friends are very important to you and you would do anything for them. not putting yourself first has made your life a safe and complacent one. what is it that can enrich your life today? what will make your life more colorful and enjoyable? even though life gives you labels such as a mother, father, wife, husband, teacher, manager, etc; remember that your life is still your life. take a moment to decide what you want your future to look like. it is perfectly acceptable to want wonderful things to happen to you. carpe diem.

8- شخصیت بامزه و شادتان، شما را جوان نگه میدارد. گرچه شما در مسائل سخت نمی گیرید اما با این حال قدری کمبود اعتماد به نفس دارید. نگرانی در زندگی شما جایگاه به خصوصی دارد. شما هنوز به خوبی نمی دانید که کمک به خودتان برای حل مشکلات را از کجا آغاز کنید. درست است که کمی مغرور هستید اما نیاز دارید تا یاد بگیرید چطور عاشق خودتان باشید و بیشتر خودتان را دوست داشته باشید. شما نیاز دارید تا خود را بهتر و بیشتر بشناسید و به این بی شید که چگونه خودتان را به دنیای بیرون معرفی می کنید و آنها چگونه شما را می شناسند. فراموش نکنید که همیشه اطرافتان انی هستند که می توانند کمک تان کنند اما شما باید به آنها بگویید که به کمکشان نیاز دارید. وقتی افراد بیشتری را وارد زندگی خود ید، زندگی آسان تر خواهد بود.

8 – your fun and playful personality keeps you young and youthful. although you are easy going, you tend to have lower self-confidence and anxiety about specific things in your life. you are usually unorganized; yet don’t even know where to start to help yourself to fix the messy problem. you are a proud individual but you need to learn to love yourself more. you need to take the time to find yourself through self expression. how are you currently expressing yourself to the world? remember that there are people around you that can help you, but you need to let them know you are willing to receive help. life is easier when you let people in.

9- شما به طرز شگفت انگیزی حلال مشکلات هستید و از این جهت به خوتان افتخار می کنید. شما دوست دارید زندگی بدون دردسر و ساده ای داشته باشید. چرا باید به چیز دیگری نیاز داشته باشید؟ شما به راحتی خشنود و راضی می شوید و عاشق این هستید که برای دیگران کاری انجام بدهید و به آنها کمک کنید. از جمله کمک به دوستان، اعضای خانواده، اقوام، همسایگان و ... بدانید که زندگی شگفت انگیز و فوق العاده است همانطور که خود شخص شما فوق العاده و شگفت انگیز و خاص هستید.

9 – you are a quirky person that is always making things work. you are an amazing problem solver that prides yourself on your thrifty living. you like to live an uncomplicated life and usually get by with the basics. why would you need anything else? you are very easy to please and love doing things for others. whether it be fixing your neighbors toilet, building a bird house for your mother out of reclaimed wood or helping your friend find a great living room set at the thrift shop; you are always there to lend a hand. remember that life is special. it is ok to treat yourself to amazing things. you are special too!

10- شما فردی قابل اعتماد هستید که دیگران شما علاقه و توجه دیگران را جلب می نمائید و بسیار برای افرادی که با شما در ارتباط هستند ارزش قائلید. شما دوست دارید که در همه چیز زندگی خود امنیت داشته باشید. ترجیح می دهید چیزهایی که کاربرد و استفاده (فایده) خاصی برایتان ندارند را اصلا نداشه باشید. خلاقیت زیادی در درون شما نهفته است.شما عاشق داشتن کل یون کتاب، موسیقی، هنر و ... هستید اما هرگز آنها را به عنوان رشته تخصصی و یا حرفه خود انتخاب نمی کنید. شما تصور می کنید مشکلاتتان تنها مربوط به خود شماست و نیازی نیست ی در جریان آنها قرار بگیرد. به یاد داشته باشید ابراز خود (حقیقی) جرم یا اشتباه نیست. ما همه انسان هستیم.

10 – you are one who truly appreciates stability and wholeness. you are a reliable person that takes pride in their love of quality and detail. some might say “cookie cutter”, but you say dependable! you always know what you are getting because you have checked the consumer reports. you love safety and security in all parts of your life. you prefer not to have anything frivolous or extra, if you can’t see the use for it. chances are you have some sort of creative side that you have curbed in some way. you might love s -booking, or art; yet would never try to make it your career. you feel your problems are your own and nobody needs to be burdened with them. just keep in mind that exposing your true self to the world (or your neighbors) is not a crime. we are all human.

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in business, writing well is a necessity
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in business, writing well is a necessity



  • in business, writing well is a necessity

    you can all relax. this is not a grammar lesson.

    it is not enough to do a good job. you must also give the appearances of doing a good job. that is why writing well is so important. writing well is not an add-on to your job skills. it is a central part of it. your writing must communicate you doing a good job. many who read your reports will never meet you. yet they have powerful influences over your career. their only vision of you is through your writings.

    since only your writings are available to them, the writing must be outstanding. you are outstanding. your writing must reflect that.

    just what are we trying to achieve when we write? the us novelist robert stone said it best: “what you’re trying to do when you write is to crowd the reader out of his own space and occupy it with yours, in a good cause. you’re trying to take over his sensibility and deliver an experience that moves them just from mere information.”

    writing is thinking on paper. anyone with a clear logical mind can write well. you have such a mind or you would not be here. writing well is a three-step process. and you have already mastered the first two:


    without knowledge you cannot convince anyone to do anything. our knowledge tends to be disorganized. we learnt a bit here, a bit there and a lot from some place else. it’s all good stuff but gathered then stored in a random pile, so to speak.


    you must plot a logical course leading the reader from a to b to c to your conclusion. do not worry about the verbiage at this stage. just have the logical sequence laid out point form, broken sentences, whatever. your readers will not tolerate your logic wandering. you cannot be like the man who rode his horse backwards. his friend said, “that is remarkable. you have visited all those wonderful places, yet you only ride your horse backwards! just how do you do it?” “oh, that’s easy,” he replied, “i only want to go where the horse wants to go.”


    this is what we consider as “writing,” putting the words on paper. the task is to guide and comfort the reader. at the end of each sentence they must have the feeling of “that makes sense, that’s logical, that was easy to grasp, i’ll carry on reading.” actually, it’s writing and thinking. the tough part is the thinking. what is the next logical step? think. what is the reader expecting next? think. is what i said what i meant? think.

    do not expect to write and not have to rewrite, rewrite, and rewrite. if you think, you can write without having to fine-tune it, your readers will surely be in trouble. many readers will not bother to finish reading it. how many times have you started to read an article and quit reading it? not because the subject was boring but because the story wandered, was confusing or difficult to read.

    searching out the errors, roads, and poor sentence structure makes for hard, time-consuming work. it is so easy to be ambiguous. it is so easy to say it poorly. my favorite example of ambiguity is a manager’s memo requesting “a listing of all employees broken down by .”

    for some, writing is a chore, for others, fun. i cannot change that. writing well will not change that. you are who you are. for myself, i find writing well hard work and time consuming but very enjoyable.


    you are paid to be an authority. you are paid to make decisions.

    if you are not an authority on what you are about to write, put the pen down until you are. it’s that simple. with all simple things, there is a trick. we do not have to be an authority on everything. just an authority on what we are about to write. i do not mean known a lot. i mean be a true authority on the very narrow topic.

    if you are using a chemical, know everything about it. who discovered it? what, why, and when is important. know the history of the subject. know all of today’s applications. it’s a narrow topic so it is not difficult. putting some history in your report demonstrates your knowledge. it strengthens you implied claim of being an authority

    consider this brief statement:

    “mercury was first confirmed as a poison when the strange behavior of felt hat makers was investigated. it was discovered that they were being poisoned with the mercury used in felt manufacturing. the nervous mad hatter in alice’s adventures in wonderland is a fairly accurate portrayal of a person suffering from the nerve damage caused by mercury exposure.”

    by implication, what does this brief statement tell the reader?

    just to know this you must be an authority. the hazard label is well deserved and not simply a hazard promoted by some activist. and most importantly: reader, don’t h le me on what i am saying. i’ll fight back if you challenge me.

    every subject has interesting historical facts. search them out. you may be surprised what you will learn during your search. typically, you can be an authority in a relatively short time. remember, we are only talking about very narrow subjects. for example, i am an authority on mathematical sales forecasting. i studied it well. as a frustrated mathematician, it fascinated me. to me, exponential smoothing, seasonal variations, and probabilities are all great stuff.

    i went to the library to study its beginnings of mathematical sales forecasting, it’s history, and lore. a mathematician named browne and a few others developed mathematical forecasting while in the us air force during the second world war. they developed the mathematics for the automatic aiming of guns to shoot down airplanes.

    after the war they were unemployed. so they applied their principles to sales forecasting. i can still remember a magazine drawing o un, the bullets and airplane’s path with the military formulas beside each. beside the military formula the same formula was rewritten using business terms: past sales (airplane’s path) etc. if you know how shooting down an airplane can help you forecast sales, please let me know.

    as i said, i’m an authority: mathematical sales forecasting is garbage. but it sells well.

    nomex® is an excellent electrical insulation. in the ’60’s i used it as electrical insulation in transformer design. did you know the us government funded its development in the early fifty’s specifically for space suits? that was years before we ever heard of sputnik (1957). i was an authority on nomex. a very narrow field, but i was an authority.

    you do not need to know every regulation in the book. but be an authority on the ones that apply to you. knowing when it was written, by whom and why was it promoted to be included in the regulations can be used to demonstrate your knowledge.

    it’s easy and it’s fun for both you and the reader.

    fun: if you do not enjoy your subject, you cannot write well. your writing must display both your knowledge and interest in the subject. your reader must understand you enjoy making decisions, and do it willingly.

    you are paid to be an authority. you are paid to make decisions. nothing less. your writing skills must be up to your abilities. when finished reading your report there must be no qualifiers. say what must be done. eliminate all those words that put doubt in the reader’s mind. words such as “rather,” “perhaps,” “may be necessary.” it is necessary or it is not. these words put doubt in their mind about you. they are called “weasel” words.

    you fail if the reader must sort out your options and make a decision. every sentence must be positive. your reader wants to read solid recommendations. authority falters if you are not positive. no “perhaps we should.” say, “we must.” make the decision. be bold in your statements. don’t be kind of bold. be bold.

    p ive voice

    p ive voice is a grammatical term for an action statement that makes verbs become bland. use verbs that convey an image. smash, discharge, break, poison, gives positive images of the action.

    p ive voice is also an action statement without a person in them. in technical writing it is difficult to put a personal touch to a chemical reaction. we accept p ive voice in technical writing. that is what makes technical writing boring. you can brighten it through your writing.

    “the regulation is new” sounds weak. “the new regulation” has energy. “the motor was defective.” is insipid. “the motor failed.” conjures up a vision. not “transfer the fluid to the tower.” say ” pump the fluid” pump is an action word. using vision words brightens your writing.

    know your audience.

    know your audience. that’s nonsense. we have trouble enough knowing ourselves, let alone others. i’ve been married for forty-two years. my wife is still a wonderful mystery to me. write for yourself. say what you want to say. but say it well. if the reader does not like it, tough. these are my thoughts, my feelings, and my recommendations. take them or leave them. i am not compromising my standards for you or anyone else.

    above all, revel in the joy of being you.

    word processors

    word processors are a great invention. don’t leave home without one. they are great for checking punctuation. not bad for checking grammar. not great, but pretty good. spell checkers are great but dangerous to rely on. word processors can point out our misuse of words. take, for example, the word “approximate,” a common engineering term. odds are you would agree that it means: an inexact value adequate for a given purpose

    those educated in the liberal arts and business, such as many of our senior executives, know the correct definition of “approximate.” it means “almost exactly.” the correct term for our use of “approximate” is “about.” the error we make is uming “approximate” has the same meaning as the mathematical term “approximation.”

    know what words mean.

    another example: the difference between “committed” and “involved.” a chicken was involved in the preparation of your breakfast. the pig was committed.

    most grammar checkers object to using “but” and recommend “however.” but “but” is correct. “however” is vague, boring. you run the risk of falling asleep before you finish saying it. “but” conjures up the vision of a smack in the head. it is a wake-up word. use it.

    shorter words are more prone to promote an image and have energy. short words are short because they were created to make a point. mark twain said it best in a speech in 1908 and i quote:

    “an average english word is four letters and a half. by hard, honest labor i’ve dug all the large words out of my vocabulary and shaved it down ’till the average is three and a half. … i never write “metropolis” for seven cents,- he was paid seven cents a word – because i can get the same money for “city.” i never write “policeman,” because i can get the same price for “cop.” … i never write “valetudinarian” at all, for not even hunger and wretchedness can humble me to the point where i will do a word like that for seven cents; i wouldn’t do it for fifteen (cents).”

    spell checkers are great but use with caution. they only check to see if you spelt the word correctly. it does not determine if you used the correct word. and it is ever so easy to accidentally drop a letter. there is a difference between “public place” and “pubic place.”

    most have a feature that estimates the reading skill require to understand it. it evaluates word size and sentence length. ignore it. i am not interested in knowing i rade eight reader can read it. the question is, can they understand it? that requires writing well.

    a complex subject is, by definition, complex. perhaps a grade eighter cannot understand it, no matter how well you write. many everyday activities are so complex they defy writing clearly. for example, write me instructions on how to tie my shoelaces. you can write with clarity, you can write with brevity. but you cannot avoid the subject’s complexity. if you could, then the subject was never complex.

    but that does not mean you should accept the complexity. one must always try to simplify. you must reduce the subject to its simplest terms. reduce it to a logical sequence of clearly thought-out sentences. this will help make it clear to your readers and yourself. you will learn if you knew as much about the subject as you had hoped. writing out your knowledge in logical sentences will highlight your missing knowledge and faulty logic.

    few subjects are more complex than einstein’s theory of relativity. it is not an easy subject to understand. yet his 1916 book, the theory of relativity is a marvel of logic. he understands the reader’s knowledge of his theory is nonexistent. he leads the reader, step by step, going gently over the rough spots to help the reader. true, i get lost after the first half dozen chapters. but that is my weakness, not his carefully laid out logic.

    word processors compare our writing to famous authors, notably ernest hemingway. he only used short sentences and small words. it makes for easy reading. and to write a book for popular consumption – that is the way to success. we do not write books. we write technical reports and memos, usually on complex subjects.

    a famous example of clarity, brevity and complexity is lincoln’s gettysburg address. he gave it at the dedication of the gettysburg national cemetery, honoring those who died in the battle of gettysburg. his brief speech was followed by the most famous speaker of the time, edward everett. everett, clergyman, orator, educator, and diplomat whose many offices included us representative from m achusetts was the main speaker. he spoke for two hours. the newspapers praised everett’s speech and barely mentioned lincoln’s.

    yet everett was so impressed with lincoln’s speech that he wrote him a letter the next day saying, “i wish that i could flatter myself that i had come as near to the central idea of the occasion in two hours as you did in two minutes.”

    as brief as the gettysburg address was- 270 words – it is a cl ical model of eloquence. it is famous not because it is american; it is famous because it is one of the most moving expressions of the democratic spirit.

    grammar checkers estimate it requires a grade thirteen education to comprehend it, five times as complex as ernest hemingway writings. it rates the sentence structure very complex, requiring well above the average vocabulary to understand it. lincoln said what he wanted, was true to himself. he wrote for himself. he did not demean his subject by diluting it for the m es.

    ernest hemingway commented on the speech by saying: “it wasn’t by accident that the gettysburg address was so short. the laws of prose writing are as immutable as those of flight, of mathematics, of physics.

    word quality.

    i have talked about the importance of using short words and using vision words. another word quality is how it sounds to the ear. while most of our writing is never read aloud, it is still heard in our mind.

    certain words are beautiful to say. some are ugly. a few sound awkward. “got” is an ugly word. i wince every time i use it. as short as it is, it offers no vision. but its crime is that it sounds like you are clearing your throat. it is such a waste of a short word.

    “filthy” is a beautiful word. try it. it flows ever so nicely off your tongue. what a beautiful sounding name for a woman. “i would like you to meet my friend, miss filthy smith.”

    “orange” completely disrupts the flow of a sentence. “if you have an orange house, burn it.” you have to stop in mid-sentence just to say it. having selected the correct words one must construct the sentence that sounds right. read you work aloud. your ear will identify the phrases and sentences that do not sound right. while the thought may be correct, somehow the sentence may sound awkward. here is a cl ic example “these are the times that try men’s souls.” thomas paine, author of the 1776 pamphlet common sense, calling for american independence through revolution, wrote it. “these are the times that try men’s souls.”

    try rearranging the words to see if it can be made to sound better:

    how trying it is to live in times like these! this sounds like someone is ready to give up.

    these are trying times for men’s souls. that makes it sound like wearying experience.

    soul wise, these are trying times. let’s do our best to survive. that is just plain bad.

    all used the same words but only paine expresses determination.

    reading your writing out loud is a valuable tool.

    if you cannot repair a problem sentence structure then feel free to use my patented “roe’s cure-all for problem sentences”: get rid of it. it probably was not essential anyway.

    just as we tend to avoid large crowds, we surely avoid large parag hs. make them short. looking forward to reading a long parag h is not pleasant. it is viewed as a challenge. most will say: “why bother? i have enough challenges in my life – why voluntarily add one more?”

    the information age

    appreciate the difference between information and knowledge. if you are writing to give information, you are wasting your time and the reader’s. we are being buried in useless information. the internet and m publications flood us with information. corporations sends out reams of information to us via email, faxes, computer reports, and pamphlets. 99.9% of it is useless to me. i do not seek information. i seek knowledge that i can convert to understanding and then, hopefully, to wisdom.

    business spends far too much time measuring and reporting what can be reported while deliberately ignoring what should be reported and investigated. why? they dare not publish internal documents criticizing the company for fear of the shareholders or the government gets access to it.


    lastly, writing style. forget writing style. write for yourself with clarity. that is a great style. i wish i could tell you how to write well but i can’t. all i can do is to explain some of my thoughts on writing well. the rest is up to you and your ambitions.

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create unique, accurate page titles

seo basics


indicate page titles by using title tags

page title contents are displayed in search


(1) the title of the homepage for our baseball card site, which lists the business

name and three main focus areas.



<title>brandon's baseball cards - buy cards, baseball news, card prices</title>

<meta name="description=" content="brandon's baseball cards provides a

large selection of vintage and modern baseball cards for sale. we also offer

daily baseball news and events in">



(2) a user performs the query [baseball cards]. our homepage shows up as a result,

with the title listed on the first line (notice that the query terms the user searched

for appear in bold).

if the user clicks the result and visits the page, the page's title will appear at the top

of the browser.

(3) a user performs the query [rarest baseball cards]. a relevant, deeper page (its

title is unique to the content of the page) on our site appears as a result.

a title tag tells both users and search engines what the topic of

a particular page is. the <title> tag should be placed within the

<head> tag of the html document (1). ideally, you should create a

unique title for each page on your site.

if your document appears in a search results page, the contents of

the title tag will usually appear in the first line of the results (if

you're unfamiliar with the different parts o oogle search result,

you might want to check out the anatomy of a search result video by

google engineer matt cutts, and this helpful diagram o oogle

search results page). words in the title are bolded if they appear in the

user's search query. this can help users recognize if the page is

likely to be relevant to their search (2).

the title for your homepage can list the name of your website/

business and could include other bits of important information like

the physical location of the business or maybe a few of its main

focuses or offerings (3).

search engine

computer function that searches data available on the internet using keywords or

other specified terms, or a program containing this function.

<head> tag

an element that indicates the header in an html document. the content of this

element will not be displayed in a browser.


abbreviation for hypertext markup language, a language used when describing web

page documents. it denotes the basic elements of web pages, including the document

text and any hyperlinks and images embedded within.

search query

single or multiple terms which are input by the user when performing a search on

search engines.

seo basics

improving site structure

optimizing content

dealing with crawlers

seo for mobile phones

promotions and analysis

links the anatomy of a search result

http://googlewebmastercentral. .com/2007/11/anatomy-of-search-result.html diagram o oogle search results page


best practices

page titles are an important aspect of search engine optimization.

choose a title that effectively communicates the topic of the page's content.

accurately describe the page's content choosing a title that has no relation to the content on the page using default or vague titles like "untitled" or "new page 1"


create unique title tags for each page

each of your pages should ideally have a unique title tag, which helps google know how the page is distinct from the others on your site. using a single title tag across all of your site's pages or a large group of pages


use brief, but descriptive titles

titles can be both short and informative. if the title is too long, google will show only a portion of it in the search result. using extremely lengthy titles that are unhelpful to users stuffing unneeded keywords in your title tags


make use of the "description" meta tag

seo basics


summaries can be defined for each page

what are the merits of description meta


(1) the beginning of the description meta tag for our homepage, which gives a brief

overview of the site's offerings.



<title>brandon's baseball cards - buy cards, baseball news, card prices</title>

<meta name="description=" content="brandon's baseball cards provides a

large selection of vintage and modern baseball cards for sale. we also offer

daily baseball news and events in">



(2) a user performs the query [baseball cards]. our homepage appears as a result,

with part of its description meta tag used as the snippet.

(3) a user performs the query [rarest baseball cards]. one of our deeper pages, with

its unique description meta tag used as the snippet, appears as a result.

a page's description meta tag gives google and other search

engines a summary of what the page is about (1). whereas a

page's title may be a few words or a phrase, a page's description meta

tag might be a sentence or two or a short parag h. google

webmaster tools provides a handy content analysis section that'll tell

you about any description meta tags that are either too short, long, or

duplicated too many times (the same information is also shown for

<title> tags). like the <title> tag, the description meta tag is placed

within the <head> tag of your html document.

description meta tags are important because google might use

them as snippets for your pages. note that we say "might" because

google may choose to use a relevant section of your page's visible

text if it does a good job of matching up with a user's query.

alternatively, google might use your site's description in the open

directory project if your site is listed there (learn how to prevent

search engines from displaying odp data). adding description meta

tags to each of your pages is always a good practice in case google

cannot find a good selection of text to use in the snippet. the

webmaster central blog has an informative post on improving

snippets with better description meta tags.

words in the snippet are bolded when they appear in the user's query

(2). this gives the user clues about whether the content on the page

matches with what he or she is looking for. (3) is another example,

this time showing a snippet from a description meta tag on a deeper

page (which ideally has its own unique description meta tag)

containing an article.


text displayed beneath the title of a corresponding web page on the search results

pages of a search engine. a web page summary and/or parts of the page that match

the search keywords will be displayed.

open directory project (odp)

the world's largest volunteer-run web directory (a list of internet links collected on a

large scale and then organized by category).


an address on the internet that indicates the location of a computer or network. these

are administrated to avoid duplication.

seo basics improving site structure optimizing content dealing with crawlers seo for mobile phones promotions and analysis


content analysis section

http://googlewebmastercentral. .com/2007/12/new-content-analysis-andsitemap.


prevent search engines from displaying odp data


improving snippets with better description meta tags

http://googlewebmastercentral. .com/2007/09/improve-snippets-withmeta-


site: operator


best practices

use description meta tags to

provide both search engines

and users with a summary of

what your page is about!

accurately summarize the page's content

writing a description meta tag that has no relation to the content on the page

using generic descriptions like "this is a web page" or "page about baseball cards"

filling the description with only keywords

copying and pasting the entire content of the document into the description meta tag


write a description that would both inform and interest users if they saw your description meta tag as

a snippet in a search result.

use unique descriptions for each page

using a single description meta tag across all of your site's pages or a large group of pages


having a different description meta tag for each page helps both users and google, especially in

searches where users may bring up multiple pages on your domain (e.g. searches using the site:

operator). if your site has thousands or even millions of pages, hand-crafting description meta tags

probably isn't feasible. in this case, you could automatically generate description meta tags based on

each page's content.

improve the structure of your urls

improving site structure


simple-to-understand urls will convey

content information easily

urls are displayed in search results

(1) a url to a page on our baseball card site that a user might have a hard time


(2) the highlighted words above could inform a user or search engine what the

target page is about before following the link.

(3) a user performs the query [baseball cards]. our homepage appears as a result,

with the url listed under the title and snippet.

creating descriptive categories and filenames for the documents on

your website can not only help you keep your site better organized,

but it could also lead to better crawling of your documents by

search engines. also, it can create easier, "friendlier" urls for those

that want to link to your content. visitors may be intimidated by

extremely long and cryptic urls that contain few recognizable words.

urls like (1) can be confusing and unfriendly. users would have a

hard time reciting the url from memory or creating a link to it. also,

users may believe that a portion of the url is unnecessary, especially

if the url shows many unrecognizable parameters. they might leave

off a part, breaking the link.

some users might link to your page using the url of that page as the

anchor text. if your url contains relevant words, this provides

users and search engines with more information about the page

than an id or oddly named parameter would (2).

lastly, remember that the url to a document is displayed as

part of a search result in google, below the document's title and

snippet. like the title and snippet, words in the url on the search

result appear in bold if they appear in the user's query (3). to the right

is another example showing a url on our domain for a page

containing an article about the rarest baseball cards. the words in the

url might appeal to a search user more than an id number like "www.

brandonsbaseballcards.com/article/102125/" would.

google is good at crawling all types of url structures, even if they're

quite complex, but spending the time to make your urls as simple as

possible for both users and search engines can help. some

webmasters try to achieve this by rewriting their dynamic urls to

static ones; while google is fine with this, we'd like to note that this is

an a nced procedure and if done incorrectly, could cause crawling

issues with your site. to learn even more about good url structure,

we recommend this webmaster help center page on creating

google-friendly urls.


exploration of websites by search engine software (bots) in order to index their



data provided in the url to specify a site's behavior.

id (session id)

data provided for the identification and/or behavior mana ent of a user who is

currently accessing a system or network communications.

301 redirect

an http status code (see page 12). forces a site visitor to automatically jump to a

specified url.


a type of domain used to identify a category that is smaller than a regular domain (see

page 6).

root directory

directory at the top of the tree structure of a site. it is sometimes called "root".

seo basics improving site structure optimizing content dealing with crawlers seo for mobile phones promotions and analysis


dynamic urls


creating google-friendly urls


301 redirect




best practices

create a simple directory structure

use a directory structure that organizes your content well and makes it easy for visitors to know where

they're at on your site. try using your directory structure to indicate the type of content found at that


having deep nesting of subdirectories like ".../dir1/dir2/dir3/dir4/dir5/dir6/page.html"

using directory names that have no relation to the content in them


choose a url that will be

easy for users and search

engines to understand!

use words in urls

using lengthy urls with unnecessary parameters and session ids

choosing generic page names like "page1.html"

using excessive keywords like"baseball-cards-baseball-cards-baseballcards.htm"


urls with words that are relevant to your site's content and structure are friendlier for visitors

navigating your site. visitors remember them better and might be more willing to link to them.

provide one version of a url to

reach a document


to prevent users from linking to one version of a url and others linking to a different version (this

could split the reputation of that content between the urls), focus on using and referring to one url

in the structure and internal linking of your pages. if you do find that people are accessing the same

content through multiple urls, setting up a 301 redirect from non-preferred urls to the dominant

url is a good solution for this. you may also use canonical url or use the rel="canonical" link element

if you cannot redirect.

having pages from subdomains and the root directory access the same content

- e.g. "domain.com/page.htm" and "sub.domain.com/page.htm"

using odd capitalization of urls

- many users expect lower-case urls and remember them better

make your site easier to navigate

improving site structure

the navigation of a website is important in helping visitors

quickly find the content they want. it can also help search engines

understand what content the webmaster thinks is important.

although google's search results are provided at a page level, google

also likes to have a sense of what role a page plays in the bigger

picture of the site.

all sites have a home or "root" page, which is usually the most

frequented page on the site and the starting place of navigation for

many visitors. unless your site has only a handful of pages, you

should think about how visitors will go from a general page

(your root page) to a page containing more specific content. do

you have enough pages around a specific topic area that it would

make sense to create a page describing these related pages (e.g. root

page -> related topic listing -> specific topic)? do you have hundreds

of different products that need to be cl ified under multiple

category and subcategory pages?

a breadcrumb is a row of internal links at the top or bottom of the

page that allows visitors to quickly navigate back to a previous

section or the root page (1). many breadcrumbs have the most

general page (usually the root page) as the first, left-most link and list

the more specific sections out to the right.

navigation is very important for search


plan out your navigation based on your



ensure more convenience for users by

using ‘breadcrumb lists’

(1) breadcrumb links appearing on a deeper article page on our site.













the directory structure

for our small website on

baseball cards.

404 ("page not found" error)

an http status code (see page 12). it means that the server could not find the web

page requested by the browser.

xml sitemap

a list of the pages on a particular website. by creating and sending this list, you are

able to notify google of all pages on a website, including any urls that may have been

undetected by google's regular crawling process.


seo basics improving site structure optimizing content dealing with crawlers seo for mobile phones promotions and analysis


webmaster tools


what's a preferred domain


sitemap generator script


guide to sitemap files


allow for the possibility of a part of the

url being removed

prepare two sitemaps: one for users, one

for search engines

(2) users may go to an upper directory by removing the last part of the url.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>

<urlset xmlns="http://www.sitemaps.org/schemas/sitemap/0.9">



















examples of an html site map and an xml sitemap. an html site map can help

users easily find content that they are looking for, and an xml sitemap can help

search engines find pages on your site.

consider what happens when a user removes part of your url -

some users might navigate your site in odd ways, and you should

anticipate this. for example, instead of using the breadcrumb links

on the page, a user might drop off a part of the url in the hopes

of finding more general content. he or she might be visiting http://


shows.htm, but

then enter http://www.brandonsbaseballcards.com/news/2010/ into

the browser's address bar, believing that this will show all news from

2010 (2). is your site prepared to show content in this situation or will

it give the user a 404 ("page not found" error)? what about moving up

a directory level to http://www.brandonsbaseballcards.com/news/?

a site map (lower-case) is a simple page on your site that displays the

structure of your website, and usually consists of a hierarchical listing

of the pages on your site. visitors may visit this page if they are

having problems finding pages on your site. while search engines

will also visit this page, getting good crawl coverage of the pages on

your site, it's mainly aimed at human visitors.

an xml sitemap (upper-case) file, which you can submit through

google's webmaster tools, makes it easier for google to discover

the pages on your site. using a sitemap file is also one way (though

not guaranteed) to tell google which version of a url you'd prefer as

the canonical one (e.g. http://brandonsbaseballcards.com/ or http://

www.brandonsbaseballcards.com/; more on what's a preferred

domain). google helped create the open source sitemap generator

script to help you create a sitemap file for your site. to learn more

about sitemaps, the webmaster help center provides a useful guide

to sitemap files.


make your site easier to navigate

improving site structure

best practices

create a naturally flowing hierarchy

creating complex webs of navigation links, e.g. linking every page on your site to every other page

going overboard with slicing and dicing your content (so that it takes twenty clicks)


make it as easy as possible for users to go from general content to the more specific content they

want on your site. add navigation pages when it makes sense and effectively work these into your

internal link structure.

for navigation, the focus

should be on simplicity

and ease of use!

use mostly text for navigation



controlling most of the navigation from page to page on your site through text links makes it easier for

search engines to crawl and understand your site. many users also prefer this over other approaches,

especially on some devices that might not handle flash or javascript.

having a navigation based entirely on drop-down menus, images, or animations

- many, but not all, search engines can discover such links on a site, but if a user can reach all

pages on a site via normal text links, this will improve the accessibility of your site; more on how

google deals with non-text files


web technology or software developed by adobe systems incorporated. it is able to

create web content that combines sound, video and animation.

javascript a type of programming language. it can add dynamic features to web

pages and is used by many web services.

drop-down menu a system in which one chooses content from a menu. when one

clicks on the menu, the list of choices are displayed in a list in a drawn out manner.

accessibility the ability for users and search engines to access and comprehend


user experience

the experience gained by a user through using products, services, etc. emphasis is

placed on providing an experience truly sought after by the user, such as "enjoyment,"

"convenience" and "comfort."

http status code

a code that expresses the meanings of responses from the server when computers

are conveying information to each other. the code is allotted as three numerical digits,

with a different meaning depending on the number used.


seo basics improving site structure optimizing content dealing with crawlers seo for mobile phones promotions and analysis

best practices

have a useful 404 page


put an html site map page on your site, and

use an xml sitemap file

letting your html site map page become out of date with broken links

creating an html site map that simply lists pages without organizing them, for example by subject


a simple site map page with links to all of the pages or the most important pages (if you have

hundreds or thousands) on your site can be useful. creating an xml sitemap file for your site helps

ensure that search engines discover the pages on your site.


how google deals with non-text files


custom 404 page


404 widget

http://googlewebmastercentral. .com/2008/08/make-your-404-pages-moreuseful.


sources of urls causing "not found" errors

http://googlewebmastercentral. .com/2008/10/webmaster-tools-showscrawl-


404 http status code


users will occasionally come to a page that doesn't exist on your site, either by following a broken link

or typing in the wrong url. having a custom 404 page that kindly guides users back to a working

page on your site can greatly improve a user's experience. your 404 page should probably have a link

back to your root page and could also provide links to popular or related content on your site. google

provides a 404 widget that you can embed in your 404 page to automatically populate it with many

useful features. you can also use google webmaster tools to find the sources of urls causing "not

found" errors.

allowing your 404 pages to be indexed in search engines (make sure that your webserver is

configured to give a 404 http status code when non-existent pages are requested)

providing only a vague message like "not found", "404", or no 404 page at all

using a design for your 404 pages that isn't consistent with the rest of your site


offer quality content and services

optimizing content

interesting sites will increase their

recognition on their own

(1) a blogger finds a piece of your content, likes it, and then references it in a blog


(2) the google adwords keyword tool can help you find relevant keywords on your

site and the volume of those keywords.


anticipate differences in users'

understanding of your topic and offer

unique, exclusive content

creating compelling and useful content will likely influence

your website more than any of the other factors discussed here

(1). users know good content when they see it and will likely want to

direct other users to it. this could be through blog posts, social media

services, email, forums, or other means.

organic or word-of-mouth buzz is what helps build your site's

reputation with both users and google, and it rarely comes without

quality content.

think about the words that a user might search for to find a piece of

your content. users who know a lot about the topic might use

different keywords in their search queries than someone who is new

to the topic. for example, a long-time baseball fan might search for

[nlcs], an acronym for the national league championship series,

while a new fan might use a more general query like [baseball

playoffs]. anticipating these differences in search behavior and

accounting for them while writing your content (using a good

mix of keyword phrases) could produce positive results. google

adwords provides a handy keyword tool that helps you discover new

keyword variations and see the approximate search volume for each

keyword (2). also, google webmaster tools provides you with the top

search queries your site appears for and the ones that led the most

users to your site.

consider creating a new, useful service that no other site offers. you

could also write an original piece of research, break an exciting

news story, or leverage your unique user base. other sites may

lack the resources or expertise to do these things.

social media service

a community-type web service that promotes and supports forging connections

among fellow users.

google adwords

an advertising service which places relevant advertisements on search results pages

and other content. when a user searches for keywords using google, adwords

advertisements related to those keywords are displayed on the right, top and/or

bottom of the search results pages alongside the organic search results.


seo basics

improving site structure

optimizing content

dealing with crawlers

seo for mobile phones

promotions and analysis

best practices

stay organized around the topic

it's always beneficial to organize your content so that visitors have a good sense of where one content topic begins and another ends. breaking your content up into logical chunks or divisions helps users find the content they want faster. dumping large amounts of text on varying topics onto a page without parag h, subheading, or layout separation


improving content and services should be a priority, regardless of the type of website!

write easy-to-read text writing sloppy text with many spelling and grammatical mistakes embedding text in images for textual content

- users may want to copy and paste the text and search engines can't read it


users enjoy content that is well written and easy to follow.

create fresh, unique content

new content will not only keep your existing visitor base coming back, but also bring in new visitors. rehashing (or even copying) existing content that will bring little extra value to users having duplicate or near-duplicate versions of your content across your site

- more on duplicate content


links keyword tool

https://adwords.google.com/select/keywordtoolexternal top search queries

http://www.google.com/webmasters/edu/quickstartguide/sub1guide5.html duplicate content

http://www.google.com/support/webmasters/bin/answer.py?answer=66359 hiding text from users


create content primarily for your users, not search engines inserting numerous unnecessary keywords aimed at search engines but are annoying or nonsensical to users having blocks of text like "frequent misspellings used to reach this page" that add little value for users deceptively hiding text from users, but displaying it to search engines


designing your site around your visitors' needs while making sure your site is easily accessible to search engines usually produces positive results.


write better anchor text

optimizing content

anchor text is the clickable text that users will see as a result of a link,

and is placed within the anchor tag <a href="..."></a>.

this text tells users and google something about the page

you're linking to. links on your page maybe internal—pointing to

other pages on your site—or external—leading to content on other

sites. in either of these cases, the better your anchor text is, the easier

it is for users to navigate and for google to understand what the page

you're linking to is about.

suitable anchor text makes it easy to

convey the contents linked


<a href="http://www.brandonsbaseballcards.com/articles/ten-rarest-baseballcards.

htm">top ten rarest baseball cards</a>

this anchor text accurately describes the content on one of our article pages.


baseball card's product page


baseball card


baseball card baseball card

product list

the linked page

is about baseball


googlebot user

with appropriate anchor text, users and search engines can easily understand what

the linked pages contain.


abbreviation for cascading style sheets; a language for defining the design and layout

of a web page.

text style

formatting, such as the font, size and color of the text.


seo basics improving site structure optimizing content dealing with crawlers seo for mobile phones promotions and analysis

best practices

write concise text

aim for short but descriptive text-usually a few words or a short phrase.

writing long anchor text, such as a lengthy sentence or short parag h of text


both users and search

engines like anchor text

that is easy to


choose descriptive text

writing generic anchor text like "page", "article", or "click here"

using text that is off-topic or has no relation to the content of the page linked to

using the page's url as the anchor text in most cases

- although there are certainly legitimate uses of this, such as promoting or referencing a new

website's address


the anchor text you use for a link should provide at least a basic idea of what the page linked to is


format links so they're easy to spot

make it easy for users to distinguish between regular text and the anchor text of your links. your

content becomes less useful if users miss the links or accidentally click them.

think about anchor text for internal links too

using excessively keyword-filled or lengthy anchor text just for search engines

creating unnecessary links that don't help with the user's navigation of the site


you may usually think about linking in terms of pointing to outside websites, but paying more attention

to the anchor text used for internal links can help users and google navigate your site better.

using css or text styling that make links look just like regular text



optimize your use of images

optimizing content

image-related information can be

provided for by using the "alt" attribute


store files in specialized directories and

manage them using common file formats

(1) our image wasn't displayed to the user for some reason, but at least the alt text


(2) it is easier to find

the paths to images if

they are stored in one








images may seem like a straightforward component of your site, but

you can optimize your use of them. all images can have a distinct

filename and "alt" attribute, both of which you should take

a ntage of. the "alt" attribute allows you to specify alternative

text for the image if it cannot be displayed for some reason (1).

why use this attribute? if a user is viewing your site on a browser that

doesn't support images, or is using alternative technologies, such as

a screen reader, the contents of the alt attribute provide

information about the picture.

another reason is that if you're using an image as a link, the alt text

for that image will be treated similarly to the anchor text of a text link.

however, we don't recommend using too many images for links in

your site's navigation when text links could serve the same purpose.

lastly, optimizing your image filenames and alt text makes it easier

for image search projects like google image search to better

understand your images.

instead of having image files spread out in numerous directories and

subdirectories across your domain, consider consolidating your

images into a single directory (e.g. brandonsbaseballcards.com/

images/). this simplifies the path to your images.

use commonly supported filetypes - most browsers support jpeg,

gif, png, and bmp image formats. it's also a good idea to have the

extension of your filename match with the filetype.

screen reader

software for speaking on-screen information or outputting to a braille display.

ascii language

abbreviation for american standard code for information exchange. a character

encoding centered on the english alphabet.


seo basics improving site structure optimizing content dealing with crawlers seo for mobile phones promotions and analysis

best practices

supply alt text when using images as links

if you do decide to use an image as a link, filling out its alt text helps google understand more about

the page you're linking to. imagine that you're writing anchor text for a text link.

writing excessively long alt text that would be considered spammy

using only image links for your site's navigation


learn how to optimize

images on your site!

use brief, but descriptive filenames and alt text

using generic filenames like "image1.jpg", "pic.gif", "1.jpg" when possible—some sites with thousands

of images might consider automating the naming of images

writing extremely lengthy filenames

stuffing keywords into alt text or copying and pasting entire sentences



google image search







http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/portable_network_g hics



image sitemap


supply an image sitemap file

an image sitemap file can provide googlebot with more information about the images found on your

site. its structure is similar to the xml sitemap file for your web pages.

like many of the other parts of the page targeted for optimization, filenames and alt text (for ascii

languages) are best when they're short, but descriptive.


use heading tags appropriately

optimizing content

use heading tags to emphasize important




<h1>brandon's baseball cards</h1>

<h2>news - treasure trove of baseball cards found in old barn</h2>

<p>a man who recently purchased a farm house was pleasantly surprised ...

dollars worth of vintage baseball cards in the barn. the cards were ... in news

papers and were thought to be in near-mint condition. after ... the cards to his

grandson instead of selling them.</p>

(1) on a page containing a news story, we might put the name of our site into an <h1>

tag and the topic of the story into an <h2> tag.

best practices

use headings sparingly across the page

use heading tags where it makes sense. too many heading tags on a page can make it hard for users

to scan the content and determine where one topic ends and another begins.

excessively using heading tags throughout the page

putting all of the page's text into a heading tag

using heading tags only for styling text and not presenting structure


imagine you're writing an outline


similar to writing an outline for a large paper, put some thought into what the main points and subpoints

of the content on the page will be and decide where to use heading tags appropriately.

heading tags are an important

website component for

catching the user's eye, so be

careful how you use them!


heading tags (not to be confused with the <head> html tag or http

headers) are used to present structure on the page to users. there are

six sizes of heading tags, beginning with <h1>, the most important, and

ending with <h6>, the least important (1).

since heading tags typically make text contained in them larger than

normal text on the page, this is a visual cue to users that this text

is important and could help them understand something about

the type of content underneath the heading text. multiple heading

sizes used in order create a hierarchical structure for your content,

making it easier for users to navigate through your document.

placing text in heading tags that wouldn't be helpful in defining the structure of the page

using heading tags where other tags like <em> and <strong> may be more appropriate

erratically moving from one heading tag size to another

http headers

in http (hypertext transfer protocol), different types of data that are sent off before

the actual data itself.


an html tag denoting emphasis. according to standard, it will indicate emphasis

through use of italics.


an html tag denoting strong emphasis. according to standard, it will indicate

emphasis through use of bold print.


a character (*) that takes the place of any other character or string of characters.


hypertext access file, a file that allows you to manage web server configuration.

referrer log

referrer information that is written into the access log. when it is traced, one can find

out from which sites visitors arrived.


seo basics improving site structure optimizing content dealing with crawlers seo for mobile phones promotions and analysis

make effective use of robots.txt

dealing with crawlers

restrict crawling where it's not needed

with robots.txt

user-agent: *

disallow: /images/

disallow: /search

use more secure methods for sensitive content

best practices

keep a firm grasp on

managing exactly what

information you do and don't

want being crawled!

(2) the address of our robots.txt file.



robots.txt generator

http://googlewebmastercentral. .com/2008/03/speaking-language-ofrobots.


using robots.txt files


caveats of each url blocking method

http://googlewebmastercentral. .com/2008/01/remove-your-contentfrom-


a "robots.txt" file tells search engines whether they can access

and therefore crawl parts of your site (1). this file, which must be

named "robots.txt", is placed in the root directory of your site (2).

you may not want certain pages of your site crawled because they

might not be useful to users if found in a search engine's search

results. if you do want to prevent search engines from crawling your

pages, google webmaster tools has a friendly robots.txt generator to

help you create this file. note that if your site uses subdomains and

you wish to have certain pages not crawled on a particular

subdomain, you'll have to create a separate robots.txt file for that

subdomain. for more information on robots.txt, we suggest this

webmaster help center guide on using robots.txt files.

there are a handful of other ways to prevent content appearing in

search results, such as adding "noindex" to your robots meta tag,

using .htaccess to p word protect directories, and using google

webmaster tools to remove content that has already been crawled.

google engineer matt cutts walks through the caveats of each url

blocking method in a helpful video.

(1) all compliant search engine bots (denoted by the wildcard * symbol) shouldn't

access and crawl the content under /images/ or any url whose path begins with /


you shouldn't feel comfortable using robots.txt to block sensitive or confidential material. one reason

is that search engines could still reference the urls you block (showing just the url, no title or

snippet) if there happen to be links to those urls somewhere on the internet (like referrer logs). also,

non-compliant or rogue search engines that don't acknowledge the robots exclusion standard could

disobey the instructions of your robots.txt. finally, a curious user could examine the directories or

subdirectories in your robots.txt file and guess the url of the content that you don't want seen.

encrypting the content or p word-protecting it with .htaccess are more secure alternatives.

allowing search result-like pages to be crawled

- users dislike leaving one search result page and landing on another search result page that doesn't

add significant value for them

allowing urls created as a result of services to be crawled

robots exclusion standard

a convention to prevent cooperating web spiders/crawlers, such as googlebot, from

accessing all or part of a website which is otherwise publicly viewable.


a computer that substitutes the connection in cases where an internal network and

external network are connecting, or software that possesses a function for this



combat comment spam with "nofollow"

automatically add "nofollow" to comment

columns and message boards

(2) a comment spammer leaves a message on one of our blogs posts, hoping to

get some of our site's reputation.

be aware of rel="nofollow" for links

dealing with crawlers


<a href="http://www.shadyseo.com" rel="nofollow">comment spammer</a>

(1) if you or your site's users link to a site that you don't trust and/or you don't want

to p your site's reputation, use nofollow.

(3) an example of a captcha used on google's blog service, blogger. it can

present a challenge to try to ensure an actual person is leaving the comment.

setting the value of the "rel" attribute of a link to "nofollow" will

tell google that certain links on your site shouldn't be followed

or p your page's reputation to the pages linked to.

nofollowing a link is adding rel="nofollow" inside of the link's anchor

tag (1).

when would this be useful? if your site has a blog with public

commenting turned on, links within those comments could p your

reputation to pages that you may not be comfortable vouching for.

blog comment areas on pages are highly susceptible to comment

spam (2). nofollowing these user-added links ensures that you're not

giving your page's hard-earned reputation to a spammy site.

many blogging software packages automatically nofollow user

comments, but those that don't can most likely be manually edited to

do this. this advice also goes for other areas of your site that may

involve user-generated content, such as guestbooks, forums, shoutboards,

referrer listings, etc. if you're willing to vouch for links added

by third parties (e.g. if a commenter is trusted on your site), then

there's no need to use nofollow on links; however, linking to sites

that google considers spammy can affect the reputation of your

own site. the webmaster help center has more tips on avoiding

comment spam, like using captchas and turning on comment

moderation (3).

comment spamming

refers to indiscriminate postings, on blog comment columns or message boards, of

advertisements, etc. that bear no connection to the contents of said pages.


completely automated public turing test to tell computers and humans apart.


seo basics

improving site structure

optimizing content

seo for mobile phones

promotions and analysis

dealing with crawlers

links avoiding comment spam

http://www.google.com/support/webmasters/bin/answer.py?answer=81749 using the robots meta tag

http://googlewebmastercentral. .com/2007/03/using-robots-meta-tag.html

another use of nofollow is when you're writing content and wish to reference a website, but don't want to p your reputation on to it. for example, imagine that you're writing a blog post on the topic of comment spamming and you want to call out a site that recently comment spammed your blog. you want to warn others of the site, so you include the link to it in your content; however, you certainly don't want to give the site some of your reputation from your link. this would be a good time to use nofollow.

lastly, if you're interested in nofollowing all of the links on a page, you can use "nofollow" in your robots meta tag, which is placed inside the <head> tag of that page's html (4). the webmaster central blog provides a helpful post on using the robots meta tag. this method is written as <meta name="robots" content="nofollow">.

about using//about using "nofollow" for individual contents, whole pages, etc.



<title>brandon's baseball cards - buy cards, baseball news, card prices</title>

<meta name="description=" content="brandon's baseball cards provides a large selection of vintage and modern baseball cards for sale. we also offer daily baseball news and events in">

<meta name="robots" content="nofollow">



(4) this nofollows all of the links on a page.

make sure you have solid measures in place to deal with comment spam!


notify google of mobile sites

seo for mobile phones

configure mobile sites so that they can be

indexed accurately

verify that your mobile site is indexed by



(1) example of a search for [baseball cards] on google’s

desktop search (above) and mobile search (left). mobile

search results are built for mobile devices and are

different from "standard" desktop results.

make sure your mobile site is

properly recognized by google

so that searchers can find it.

it seems the world is going mobile, with many people using mobile

phones on a daily basis, and a large user base searching on google’s

mobile search page. however, as a webmaster, running a mobile site

and tapping into the mobile search audience isn't easy. mobile sites

not only use a different format from normal desktop sites, but

the mana ent methods and expertise required are also quite

different. this results in a variety of new challenges. while many

mobile sites were designed with mobile viewing in mind, they weren’t

designed to be search friendly.

here are troubleshooting tips to help ensure that your site is properly

crawled and indexed:

if your web site doesn't show up in the results o oogle mobile

search even using the site: operator, it may be that your site has one

or both of the following issues:

1. googlebot may not be able to find your site

googlebot must crawl your site before it can be included in our search

index. if you just created the site, we may not yet be aware of it. if

that's the case, create a mobile sitemap and submit it to google to

inform us of the site’s existence. a mobile sitemap can be submitted

using google webmaster tools, just like a standard sitemap.

mobile sitemap

an xml sitemap that contains urls of web pages designed for mobile phones.

submitting the urls of mobile phone web content to google notifies us of the

existence of those pages and allows us to crawl them.


software and hardware utilized by the user when said user is accessing a website.

xhtml mobile

xhtml, a markup language redefined via adaptation of html to xml, and then

expanded for use with mobile phones.

compact html

markup language resembling html; it is used when creating web pages that can be

displayed on mobile phones and with phs and pda.


seo basics improving site structure optimizing content dealing with crawlers seo for mobile phones promotions and analysis

google’s mobile search page


site: operator


mobile sitemap


submitted using google webmaster tools


use dns lookups to verify googlebot

http://googlewebmastercentral. .com/2006/09/how-to-verify-googlebot.html

mobile webmaster guidelines



verify that google can recognize your

mobile urls

setenvif user-agent "googlebot-mobile" allow_ua

setenvif user-agent "android" allow_ua

setenvif user-agent "blackberry" allow_ua

setenvif user-agent "iphone" allow_ua

setenvif user-agent "netfront" allow_ua

setenvif user-agent "symbian os" allow_ua

setenvif user-agent "windows phone" allow_ua

order deny,allow

deny from all

allow from env=allow_ua

(2) an example of a mobile site restricting any access from non-mobile devices.

please remember to allow access from user agents including “googlebot-mobile”.

<!doctype html public "-//wapfolum//dtd xhtml mobile 1.0//en"


<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">


<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="application/xhtml+xml;

charset=shift_jis" />

(3) an example of dtd for mobile devices.

2. googlebot may not be able to access your site

some mobile sites refuse access to anything but mobile phones,

making it impossible for googlebot to access the site, and therefore

making the site unsearchable. our crawler for mobile sites is

"googlebot-mobile". if you'd like your site crawled, please allow

any user-agent including "googlebot-mobile" to access your

site (2). you should also be aware that google may change its useragent

information at any time without notice, so we don't recommend

checking whether the user-agent exactly matches "googlebot-

mobile" (the current user-agent). instead, check whether the useragent

header contains the string "googlebot-mobile". you can also

use dns lookups to verify googlebot.

once googlebot-mobile crawls your urls, we then check for whether

each url is viewable on a mobile device. pages we determine

aren't viewable on a mobile phone won't be included in our

mobile site index (although they may be included in the regular web

index). this determination is based on a variety of factors, one of

which is the "dtd (doc type definition)" declaration. check that your

mobile-friendly urls' dtd declaration is in an appropriate mobile

format such as xhtml mobile or compact html (3). if it's in a

compatible format, the page is eligible for the mobile search index.

for more information, see the mobile webmaster guidelines.


guide mobile users accurately

seo for mobile phones

running desktop and mobile versions of

your site

redirect mobile users to the correct



product page

mobile version




mobile user

(1) an example of redirecting a user to the

mobile version of the url when it's accessed

from a mobile device. in this case, the content

on both urls needs to be as similar as possible.

desktop version

product page


one of the most common problems for webmasters who run

both mobile and desktop versions of a site is that the mobile

version of the site appears for users on a desktop computer, or

that the desktop version of the site appears when someone

accesses it on a mobile device. in dealing with this scenario, here

are two viable options:

when a mobile user or crawler (like googlebot-mobile) accesses the

desktop version of a url, you can redirect them to the corresponding

mobile version of the same page. google notices the relationship

between the two versions of the url and displays the standard

version for searches from desktops and the mobile version for

mobile searches.

if you redirect users, please make sure that the content on the

corresponding mobile/desktop url matches as closely as possible

(1). for example, if you run a shopping site and there's an access from

a mobile phone to a desktop-version url, make sure that the user

is redirected to the mobile version of the page for the same

product, and not to the homepage of the mobile version of the

site. we occasionally find sites using this kind of redirect in an

attempt to boost their search rankings, but this practice only results

in a negative user experience, and so should be avoided at all costs.

on the other hand, when there's an access to a mobile-version url

from a desktop browser or by our web crawler, googlebot, it's not

necessary to redirect them to the desktop-version. for instance,

google doesn't automatically redirect desktop users from their mobile

site to their desktop site; instead they include a link on the mobileversion

page to the desktop version. these links are especially helpful

when a mobile site doesn't provide the full functionality of the desktop

version—users can easily navigate to the desktop-version if they



being automatically transported from one specified web page to another specified

web page when browsing a website.


seo basics

improving site structure

optimizing content

dealing with crawlers

seo for mobile phones

promotions and analysis

be sure to guide the user to the right site for their device!

(2) example of changing the format of a page based on the user-agent. in this case, the desktop user is supposed to see what googlebot sees and the mobile user is supposed to see what googlebot-mobile sees.


desktop user



mobile user

must be same

must be same

desktop contents

mobile contents

can be


some sites have the same url for both desktop and mobile content, but change their format according to user-agent. in other words, both mobile users and desktop users access the same url (i.e. no redirects), but the content/format changes slightly according to the user-agent. in this case, the same url will appear for both mobile search and desktop search, and desktop users can see a desktop version of the content while mobile users can see a mobile version of the content (2).

however, note that if you fail to configure your site correctly, your site could be considered to be cloaking, which can lead to your site disappearing from our search results. cloaking refers to an attempt to boost search result rankings by serving different content to googlebot than to regular users. this causes problems such as less relevant results (pages appear in search results even though their content is actually unrelated to what users see/want), so we take cloaking very seriously.

so what does "the page that the user sees" mean if you provide both versions with a url? as i mentioned in the previous post, google uses "googlebot" for web search and "googlebot-mobile" for mobile search. to remain within our guidelines, you should serve the same content to googlebot as a typical desktop user would see, and the same content to googlebot-mobile as you would to the browser on a typical mobile device. it's fine if the contents for googlebot are different from those for googlebot-mobile.

one example of how you could be unintentionally detected as cloaking is if your site returns a message like "please access from mobile phones" to desktop browsers, but then returns a full mobile version to both crawlers (so googlebot receives the mobile version). in this case, the page which web search users see (e.g. "please access from mobile phones") is different from the page which googlebot crawls (e.g. "welcome to my site"). again, we detect cloaking because we want to serve users the same relevant content that googlebot or googlebot-mobile crawled.

switch content based on user-agent google mobile

http://www.google.com/m/ cloaking



can be



promote your website in the right ways

promotions and analysis

about increasing backlinks with an

intention to increase the value of the site

master making announcements via blogs

and being recognized online

my blog


product page


(2) by having your business registered for google places, you can promote your

site through google maps and web searches.

news: “i have a new card!”

user’s blogs social media service newsletter, dm,

posters, etc.

online offline

(1) promoting your site and having quality links could lead to increasing your site’s


while most of the links to your site will be gained gradually, as people

discover your content through search or other ways and link to it,

google understands that you'd like to let others know about the hard

work you've put into your content. effectively promoting your new

content will lead to faster discovery by those who are interested

in the same subject (1). as with most points covered in this

document, taking these recommendations to an extreme could

actually harm the reputation of your site.

a blog post on your own site letting your visitor base know that you

added something new is a great way to get the word out about new

content or services. other webmasters who follow your site or

rss feed could pick the story up as well.

putting effort into the offline promotion of your company or site can

also be rewarding. for example, if you have a business site, make sure

its url is listed on your business cards, letterhead, posters, etc. you

could also send out recurring newsletters to clients through the mail

letting them know about new content on the company's website.

if you run a local business, adding its information to google places

will help you reach customers on google maps and web search.

the webmaster help center has more tips on promoting your local


rss feed

data including full or summarized text describing an update to a site/blog. rss is an

abbreviation for rdf site summary; a service using a similar data format is atom.


improving site structure

optimizing content

dealing with crawlers

promotions and analysis

seo for mobile phones

seo basics google places

http://www.google.com/local/add/ promoting your local business

http://www.google.com/support/webmasters/bin/answer.py?answer=923 19


best practices

know about social media sites

sites built around user interaction

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ده چیز که در مورد ایرانیان نمی دانید
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iran – 10 things you didn’t know

iran – 10 things you didn’t know

“when you travel, remember that a foreign country is not designed to make you comfortable. it is designed to make its own people comfortable.” – clifton fadiman

ok, time has come to handle my famous ‘things you didn’t know’ about iran. i have felt in love with this country from the very first minute if not before!

if i would have to think of one word to describe iran in would be ‘misconception’. you have no idea what kind of scary, horrifying and weird stories i have heard before my visit.

even my mom, who is quiet relaxed about my travels by now, freaked out a bit when i said that after armenia i’m crossing a border to iran for 5 weeks.
interesting, funny and quirky facts about iran.

1. taarof rules

iran – 10 things you didn’t know

i see understanding concept of taarof and its larger social context as essential to understand persian culture.

it may cause misunderstandings between both parties. it can be a source for awkward situations in a social setting. that is why it is important for all travellers to quickly understand what taarof is.

you always have to insist on paying for services, in restaurants, in taxis. because people will pretend they do not want to accept the payment.

a host is obliged to offer anything a guest might want, and a guest is equally obliged to refuse it.

if people invite you for dinner or to their house. when they offer you a ride or to help you with something do not be sure they really want to do it. you are obligated to refuse many many times before accepting anything, even a tea after dinner.

it does sounds complicated but you quickly should get an idea, at least i did and maybe that is why i had such a great time in iran.

2. hitch-hiking issue

iran – 10 things you didn’t know

hitch-hiking is the easiest and the most difficult thing to do in iran. that is an opinion formed from my experiences. mr chinese man (and no he is not chinese, it is just his nickname) and i have hitch-hiked on many occasions in this amazing country.

it is super easy because iranians are the nicest people in the world and they always want to help. especially when you are a guest in their country! we usually never waited longer than 5 mins.

we have experiences so much good from people while hitch-hiking that it was overwhelming! at the end of the ride they always invite you to stay over their place! your own host will give you a ride to the border of the city and will catch you a ride himself!

people will drive you for hundreds of miles even if they are going in completely different direction. even better. they will drive you 100km to tell you at the end that they were just on the way to buy some groceries, but guest are guests!

i know which direction your mind is heading dear reader! so why it is most difficult thing to do marysia? the reason is the same! iranians are super nice people, too nice sometimes!

and how do i know it? well, when shop owner who spotted you on the side of the road is so petrified that you are about to hitch-hike that he stops a tour bus; packs your bags, almost push you inside and refuse to hear no for the answer, you get an idea it won’t be easy.

but when people in the bus insist on feeding you, giving you water and start discussing options of dropping you by police station. so that police can give you money (because police helps tourists in need) than you know 100%. hitch-hiking is not an easy task to pull off in iran.

of course we explained many times that we have money. that we hitch-hike for cultural and social immersion. but it was just too absurd for them to understand this idea. at the end bus driver tried to put money in our backpacks cos he was worried dead about us! iranian are just too nice!

3. numbers – money issue

iran – 10 things you didn’t know

it was the most confusing thing from all. official currency in iran is rial, but at any possible situations everyone gives you prices in ‘tomans’.

i’m good with maths, never had problems with numbers, and to be frank the calculation system is easy! 1 toman = 10rials. but what i couldn’t get my head around is why oh why they are still operating in currency which has been replaced in 1932? 80 years ago!

i remember redenomination of polish currency back in 1995. on the beginning my grandmother sometimes gave value in the old currency. we all did for first few months, but after the period of transition and getting used to, it was gone. but not in iran, oh no!

4. change issue

do you think found this toman/rial thing slightly confusing but funny? wait for this!

in iran they have another problem regarding money. they are in lack of small notes and coins. and this is super serious, getting a note of 2000rials or even 500 is close to impossible! so when i got one, i was showing it to everyone! ha ha ha

ok, but what happens in the shops when they have no money to give you your change back? they pay you back in sweets, yes you heard me well, sweets. they always have some bars next to the cashier and they just trow it in your bag. seems like heaven? for those with sweet tooth for sure! meaning all iranians!

5. sweets obsession

iran – 10 things you didn’t know

do you remember this famous crazy phrase “come to the dark side, we have cookies”? it is all over internet but nobody knows where is it from and who started it!?

i have solved this mystery! iranians e up with, i’m 100% sure!

these people take love of sweets and cookies to another level! you know like in europe you always have banks and pharmacies everywhere. they have sweet shops on every corner, preferably too on each actually!

sweets are a big part of culture here! you never come empty handed when paying a visit. iranian will refuse taking money for hosting you but will be happy to accept sweets. life and honour savers to all tourist in this beautiful country. never underestimate the power of sweets in iran.

6. everybody is a phd!

education is super important in iran. almost everyone is a phd. and even though there are rational reason to explain why, it is still impressive how well educated iranians are.

it is great to see that even though women still experience legal and cultural discrimination at the hands of a patriarchal society, it doesn’t include education!

so why iranians are so well educated? three simple reasons.

first it was always an important part of persian culture.

second. currently iran is a quite closed country, government is censoring internet and propaganda is flying all over the place. and i believe they see knowledge as something ociated with freedom and aspiration.

third reason is that there is not much entertainment available to youths. clubs, dancing and drinking don’t take focus away from study. like it often happens in poland or other european countries.

7. crazy drivers

iran – 10 things you didn’t know

i usually have no issue with people driving like maniacs. it happens everywhere. of course it may come across as a culture shock to many people from better organised countries. but i have been in so many crazy destinations that i have a culture shock every single time i get into the car in europe.

i though that after benin i have seen everything and there is no surprising me in this field. oh how naive and wrong of me that was.

iran is by far the most crazy place to drive in the whole world! official!

there is no rules whatsoever! not even one. maybe somewhere on some ancient piece of paper in the archives! and iran has the highest rate of accidents in the whole world!

8. iran – nose job capital of the world

that goes without saying when face is the only feature ‘to show’. iranian s are known for using a lot of make up, they are 2nd importer in the world; just after saudi. so i’m not surprised that nose operations are so popular here.

but there is a funny way how i learned about it. one day when i was travelling i have seen a teenage boy with a plaster on his nose and though yes accidents happens. than the next day i saw another one and i started to think that men in iran are quick to hand to hand fights.

this was all in deep countryside of kurdistan and those were boys. that is why the idea of the nose job didn’t cross my mind. until exactly a day later, in the restaurant in the big city i saw a young , like 20 years old, with the same plaster on her nose. eureka!

when i saw her it all be e clear. she told me that they keep those plasters longer than they should just to show off they had an operation!

in iran everyone pays attention to noses. it is national obsession, just after sweets. many times i had to explain that i did not have a nose job myself!

and many times there was picture taking involved so they could show it to their doctor. who would think that my nose is so good looking.

9. the hijab rule

iran – 10 things you didn’t know

yes, it is mandatory in iran to cover your head. even when you are a tourist. as a tourist you should always dress modestly in muslim countries but it is a first country i had to cover my head, even in oman where women were full chador.

we all know that i’m way too independent and a rebel to wear a chador. and i must admit i haven’t met many woman travellers going for this option; but there were many with hijab.

i went just for modest dressing and a scarf. i did all that with my own sense of fashion of course! colours where flashing all over my clothes, and it was not a problem for anybody.

woman in iran are very stylish and they try to express themselves with clothes as much as possible. colourful scarfs, stylish “manteau” which are kind of an overcoat. it is not uncommon to see hair exposed under small loose fitting scarves. and after observing women in iran i went that way as well, with almost all my hair uncovered.

i had no problems with wearing a scarf and i kind of liked the whole thing. i’m a tourist and it was interesting experience and i knew it has an end date.

but if i would live in iran and would have to; i would be biggest protester against this rule. woman should be able to decide about their own clothing, and that goes without saying!

i would be definitely fighting the cause with my stealthy freedom! feel free to support them by liking their page!

as mr rouhani said on twitter “#happiness is our people’s right. we shouldn’t be too hard on behaviours caused by joy.” kudos mr rouhani! can we please follow up with this attitude in the future legal changes?

10. people in iran are just too nice!

iran – 10 things you didn’t know

those iranians are just too nice. i used this statement like 15-20 times every day! people in iran are so nice, so hospitable, so welcoming and so helpful that it is over-whelming.

it is partly an effect of taarof and guests being ‘friends of god’ but i believe that it goes way beyond cultural and social restrains.

i travelled around the world and people are amazing everywhere. i always say that i’m the luckiest in the world, because i receive so much good from people on my travels. iran was a surprise even to me, it really stands out from other countries. even to me.

i knew that people in this region are hospitable. and i never thought it will be easy to find a place where people will be nicer than in oman, but i did and it is iran!

it is the the most amazing country i have travelled in and i have millions examples to prove my point. people go great lengths to host you, to help you to have the best experience possible.

every single time i was heart-broken when i had to leave. i have met some wonderful souls in iran. i’m sure i will continue coming across some superb people around the world but iranians will always stay in my heart!

iran you have stolen my heart!

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10 قدم و مرحله مهم برای مصاحبه شغلی موفق
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10 steps to job interview success

many employers view a job interview as something akin to an audition. this opportunity calls for your "a game" and nothing less!

do use the interview as an opportunity to collect information about the "other side" and consider their actions in the interview to be indications of how they would be to work with or for.

here's how to dazzle them:

1. know the job requirements and the situation.

if you don't have a copy of the job description, ask for it when the interview is scheduled. then, read it very carefully! sentence by sentence. any questions or concerns raised for you in what you have read? make notes so you can get clarifications or answers in the interview. or, do your own independent research to see what you can discover.

also ask for the names of the people who will be interviewing you. also consider asking how many other people will be interviewed and when they will be interviewed. if you are the last person being interviewed, this can be very helpful for your candidacy. if you are the first person interviewed, and other interviews are extended over several days, know that you will need to follow up well. if everyone will be interviewed on the same day, consider how to stand out to be remembered in the crowd of interviewees.

2. prepare and practice your answers to the standard interview questions.

in addition to the usual greatest strength, greatest weakness, and "where-do-you-see-yourself-in-five-years" questions, prepare for the other typical interview questions, like:

  • ?so what do you know about us-
  • ?why are you interested in working here-
  • ?why should we hire you-
  • (?why did you leave your last job? (or, why are you planning to leave-
  • tell us about yourself.
  • give us an example of where you have succeeded at...
  • give us an example of where you have failed at ...

in particular, know what you will say when asked about anything that looks a little weak on your resume -- perhaps a gap in employment, the reason you left your last job (if you are currently unemployed), or any other career setback you might have experienced.

few people are perfect, and if you have good answers prepared, you can usually give your answer and move on. don't dwell on long explanations. move on.

often it helps to write, and re-write, the answers to these questions, particularly the ones that are most uncomfortable for you, and then read them out loud a few times. you don't want to memorize your answers, but you want to feel comfortable answering difficult questions.

3. have your own questions ready.

don't be so focused on impressing them that you forget the interview is a two-way conver ion, and you need information to decide if you want to work there. maybe it's not the right place or the right job for you. observe the environment and the other workers there. does it look -- to you -- like a good place to work.

ask questions like:

  • is this a new job or a replacement for someone who has left? if it's a replacement, where is that previous employee? (hopefully, they've been promoted!)
  • what is a typical day, week, year in the organization? crazy-busy times?
  • what is a typical career path for the person in this job?
  • how does the person in this job fit into the organization? reporting to whom? responsible for what and whom?
  • how does this team work? who are the members? how is success determined or measured?
  • what is necessary for the person in this job to be successful? how will you determine if the person is successful?
  • who writes the performance review for this job? who provides input? how often are reviews made?

don't be afraid to ask for clarifications if an answer isn't clear.

but, do not ask about vacation time, salary, drug tests, or benefits in the first interview!those questions are best asked later in the process, when you are negotiating the job offer.

4. build your confidence with your "power pose" before the interview.

you do your power poses in private before the interview.

the research was done by harvard business school professor dr. amy j.c. cuddy and her colleagues. power poses do sound somewhat wacky, but you don't get much more pragmatic (or knowledgeable about power) than harvard business school.

5. walk in on time, bright-eyed and alert, well-prepared, dressed appropriately, and focused on the interview.

be sure to bring:

  • several copies of your resume, hopefully customized for this opportunity.
  • several copies of your list of references with their contact information.

if you have enough notice for the interview, be very well-prepared. don't stop with checking the employer's website, also scan the linkedin company profile. if you know a current or former employee and you have some time, contact them to see what you can learn about the organization, the hiring process, and the people interviewing you.

google the organization's name, including a search of google news (news.google.com) and google scholar (scholar.google.com). hopefully you know the names of the people who will be interviewing you, so scan their linkedin profiles, the groups they belong to, where they went to school and worked before this employer. perhaps you have something in common with them, and can mention it in the interview.

[yes, put your cell phone on silent, or turn it off when you enter the interview area. do not answer your cell -- or text anyone -- during an interview!]

6. hand over your business card, and collect a business card from each person who interviews you.

have your own business cards with your personal (or job search only) email address, non-work phone number (hopefully with good voice mail), and target location (city/state or regional name, like east bay or brooklyn). you don't need to have a job title on the card, but it should clearly indicate your name and basic contact information. including your home address is not required. a generic title like "sales professional" or "administrative istant" (or whatever is appropriate for you) can suffice.

writing the interview date and the title of the job you are interviewing for on the back of your card, before you go into the interview, will help people remember when and why they met you. it also shows how professional and prepared you are.

collecting business cards from the people interviewing you will make it much easier to send those post-interview thank you notes, and also to contact them later. in addition, it will also help you to address people appropriately during the interview.

7. take notes.

don't expect to remember everything that is said. some recruiters i've spoken with are offended if job seekers don't come with questions or take notes. it is polite to ask first, before you start writing down what is said -- a simple, "do you mind if i take notes" should suffice. unless you are in a vault, discussing highly cl ified subjects in the interview, note-taking should be fine. if it is not ok, i would ask why.

8. answer the questions you are asked.

you have, of course, prepared answers to many of the standard job interview questions, as recommended in # 2 above.

now, listen carefully to the questions you are asked. answer those questions.

your answers should be on topic, clear and brief. don't tell your life story or ramble endlessly, and, of course, do not trash a former boss, a former employer or co-worker, or anyone else.

9. ask for feedback or, maybe, "the sale."

at the end of each interview, ask if they have any questions or concerns about your ability to do the job and to fit into the organization.

if it's a sales job, they may expect you to be more aggressive, in "sales mode." if you are feeling bold, you could ask, "when do you want me to start?" in some cases, that will work very well. in other cases, it may be too bold and be off-putting.

or, also for a sales job, you might be more successful with a slightly less aggressive question like this, "based on my research and what i've learned here today, i am very interested in this job, working for you. what do you think of me? am i your top prospect?"

your mileage may vary! it depends on you and your level of comfort with asking. it also depends on the interviewer(s), and on the organization. follow your own best jud ent.

10. ask what the next steps are in the process, when the decision will be made, and who will be your contact person.

uming the answer was positive when you asked for the sale, ask them how their hiring process works, and what the next steps in their process are. find out when you should expect to hear from their contact person. don't leave without the contact information for your contact person.

then, ask for permission to contact them if you haven't been contacted by the decision date or the date of the next step in the process (another round of interviews, perhaps).

do not expect that they will be able to keep to their timetable. usually, employers are too optimistic about how soon decisions will be made so that the process can continue, at least for large organizations.

after the interview: follow up!

be sure to follow up immediately with a "thank you" unique to each person who interviewed you. using email is apparently ok with the vast majority of people, according to a recent survey, but if you feel that someone you interviewed with is more formal or traditional, send a hand-written note.

if you haven't heard from them by the decision date/deadline they gave you, wait a couple of days, and call your contact (see number 10). ask if a decision has been made yet.

do not ume that you didn't get the job! when you call, be polite, gently remind them of your name, the job you interviewed for, the date you interviewed, and the people who interviewed you. ask if a decision has been made. if it hasn't been made, ask them when you should be back in touch with them.

evaluate them, too!

pay attention to the people and the surroundings - how they are dressed, how they act, the technology in use, even the cleanliness of the environment, and the location of the job. could be happy working there, with those people? could you make that commute every day?

don't be surprised if the employer's side is less than perfect.

مشاهده متن کامل ...
ضرب المثل های انگلیسی با ترجمه فارسی
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

you can not serve god and mammon

هم خدا خواهی و هم دنیای دون

این محال است و جنون ای ذولفنون

you may end him but you’ll not mend him

توبه گرگ مرگ است.

you can lead a horse to water, but you can’t make him drink

هیچ کاری با زور درست نمی شود؛ زور همیشه کارساز نیست.

you win some/a few, you lose some/a few

زندگی برد و باخت دارد.

you are what you eat.

غذای انسان ماهیت انسان را می سازد.

you have take the good with the bad

باید خوب را با بد پذیرفت.

a younger idler, an old beggar

جوان بیکار امروز، گدای پیر فرداست.

در جوانی کار کن تا در پیری گ نکنی.

you reap what you sow.

ما نتوان خورد از این خار که کشتیم

دیبا نتوان بافت از این پشم که رشتیم

you pay your money and you take your choice

هر چقدر پول بدهی همان قدر آش می خوری.

you can do anything, but not everything

شما می توانید هر کاری را انجام دهید اما نمی توانید همه کارها را انجام دهید.

you can’t put the clock back

گذشته ها گذشته است.

years teach us more than books

سالها بیشتر از کتابها به ما درس می دهند.

you want a thing done, do it yourself

نخارد پشت من جز ناخن انگشت من.

you can’t keep a good man down

خواستن توانستن است.

you saw nothing, you heard nothing

شتر دیدی ندیدی.

you took the words out of my mouth

جانا سخن از زبان ما می گویی.

you are s ing the bottom of the barrel.

ملاقه ات به ته دیگ خورده است.

you can’t win.

مقسّمت ندهد روزی که ننهادست.

you can educate a fool, but you can not make him think

آدم احمق را می توان تربیت کرد اما نمی توان به تفکر واداشت.

you can’t have your cake and eat it too

نی شود هم خدا را بخواهی و هم ما را.

you can’t take it with you when you die

ثروت را به هنگام مرگ با خود به گور نتوان برد.

you can not put out a fire with oil

آتش را با آتش خاموش نتوان کرد.

you can not wash a black a more white

که زنگی به شستن نگردد سفید.

you can not catch old birds with chaff.

عنقا را به دام نتوان گرفت.

you must lie on the bed you have made

خود کرده را تدبیر نیست.

you are a back seat driver

کنار گود نشستی و می گویی لنگش کن.

you may know by a handful the whole sack

مشت نمونه وار است.

you can not burn the candle at both ends

نی شود هم خدا را بخواهی و هم ما را.

you can’t dance at two weddings.

با یک دست نمی توان دو هندوانه بر داشت.

you can’t mend a broken egg

آب رفته به جوی بر نگردد.

you can not sell the cow and drink the milk

نی شود هم خدا را بخواهی و هم ما را.

you buy land, you buy stones, you buy meat, you buy bones

گنج بی مار و گل بی خار نیست.

you can not get blood out of stone.

از آب کره نتوان گرفت.

your love will be in my heart at all times.

اگر مرگم به نامردی نگیرد مرا مهر تو در دل جاودانی ست

و گر عمرم به ناکامی سر آید تو را دارم که مرگم زندگانی ست

your wish is my command

از تو به یک اشارت از ما به سر دویدن.

جسم و جان و هر چه هستم آن توست حکم و فرمان جملگی فرمان توست

you must grin and bear it

باید بسوزی و بسازی.

you can’t see the wood for the trees.

آنقدر سمن است که یاسمن پیدا نیست.

you can’t make bricks without straw

با دست خالی نمی توان کاری انجام داد.

you can not get a quart into a pin pot

نمی توان بحر را در کوزه ریخت.

you are responsible for you

هر ضامن دوزخ و بهشت خویش است.

you can’t please everyone.

همه را نمی توان از خود راضی نگه داشت.

you cannot unscrambles eggs.

کاری است گذشته، سبویی است ش ته.

you cannot teach an old dog new tricks

پیر را تعلیم دادن مشکل است.

you cannot make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear

از تخم مرغ پشم نتوان چید.

you should never judge a book by its cover.

از روی ظاهر نباید قضاوت کرد.

ما برون را ننگریم و قال را ما درون را بنگریم و حال را

you have to crawl before you can walk.

قبل از راه رفتن باید خزیدن رایاد گرفت.

you can catch more flies with honey than you can with vinegar

هر کاری راهی دارد.

w, w

when it rains, it pours

چو بد آید هر چه آید بد شود.

بدبختی نمی آید وقتی هم می آید پشت سر هم می آید.

whatever happens is for the best

هر چه پیش آید خوش آید.

whoever knocks on a door and persists will be allowed in

گفت پیغمبر که چون کوبی دری

عاقبت زان در برون آید سری

where there is muck, there’s luck/br

آدم پولدار شانس هم دارد.

when the cat’s away the mice will play

ماه درخشنده چون پنهان شود شب پرّه بازیگر میدان شود

what is done can’t be undone.

آب رفته به جوی برنگردد، گذشته ها گذشته است.

when in rome do as the romans do

خواهی نشوی رسوا همرنگ جماعت شو.

where there is a will, there is a way

خواستن، توانستن است.

the way to a man’s heart is through his stomach

برای بدست آوردن دل مردان باید از طریق شکمشان وارد شد.

without , life is a journey through a desert

بدون موسیقی، زندگی به منزله سفر از بیابان است.

what we acquire without sweat we give away without regret

هر آنچه آسان یافتی، آسان دهی از دست.

well begun is half done

شروع خوب نصف کار است.

winners never cheat and cheaters never win

آدمهای برنده هرگز کلک نمی زنند و آدمهای متقلب هرگز برنده نمی شوند.

when money speaks, the truth remains silent

وقتی پول حرف می زند حقیقت سکوت اختیار می کند.

when a thing is done, advice comes too late

بعد از وقوع واقعه، پند و تدبیر دیگر بکار نیاید.

waste not, want not

اسراف نکن تا محتاج نشوی.

a watched pot never boils

زمان انتظار دیر می گذرد.

will is the key of the victories

رمز پیروزی اراده است.

the wish is father to the thought

شتر در خواب بیند پنبه داند؛ فکر باطل ز تمنا خیزد.

a wise man avoids edged tools

آدم دانا به نشتر نزند مشت.

a word to the wise is enough/sufficient

در خانه اگر است یک حرف بس است.

ازین به نصیحت نگوید ت اگر عاقلی یک اشارت بس است

word cut more than sword

زبان برنده تر از شمشیر است.

the worm will turn

چو دست از همه حیلتی در گسست حلال است شمشیر بردن به دست

وقت ضرورت چو نباشد گریز دست بگیرد سر شمشیر تیز

what is bred in the bone, will never come out of the flesh

اصل بد نیکو نگردد هر که بنیادش بد است.

wall have ears

مکن پیش دیوار غیبت بسی بود، کز پسش گوش دارد ی

who chatter to you, will chatter of you

هر که عیب دگران پیش تو آورد و شمرد

بی گمان عیب تو پیش دگران خواهد برد

who has skirts of straw needs fear to fire

ی که دامن حصیری دارد باید از آتش فاصله بگیرد.

ی که بار شیشه دارد نباید به دیوانه سنگ بیاندازد.

when love is not madness, it is not love

عشق که به حد دیوانگی نرسید، عشق نیست.

عاشق آن باشد که چون آتش بود گرم رو سوزنده و سرکش بود

what the eye sees not, the heart ruse not

اگر دیده نبیند، دل نخواهد.

when good cheer is lacking, our friends will be packing

یار نیک را در روز بد شناسند.

while the gr grow, the cow starves

بزک نمیر بهار میاد، بزه با خیار میاد.

who longest wait of all surely wins

صبر آرد آرزو را نی شتاب؛ صبر مایه پیروزی است.

we are on a different wavelength

آبمان به یک جوی نمی رود.

we live for a good time not for a long time

کیفیت زندگی مهم تر از کمیت زندگی است.

who knows much, will suffer much

هر که بیشتر می فهمد بیشتر رنج می برد.

what the heart feels the tongue speaks

آنچه بر دل فرود آید، بر زبان آید.

who keeps company with the wolf will learn to howl

انگور ز انگور همی گیرد رنگ.

کمال ه ن در من اثر کرد و گرنه من همان خاکم که هستم

water is life’s matter and matrix, mother and medium.

آب مایه حیات است؛ بدون آب نمی توان زندگی کرد؛ آب آبادانی است.

water which is to pure has no fish

آب پاک و تمیز ماهی ندارد.

wishes don’t wash the dishes

با حلوا حلوا گفتن دهان شیرین نمی شود.

a wonder lasts but nine days

آتش تند زود خا تر می شود.

a work well begun is half done

کاری که خوب شروع شده باشد در واقع نیمی از آن انجام شده است.

when/where one door shuts another opens

خدا گر به حکمت ببندد دری گشاید به فضل و کرم در دیگری

when the word is out it belongs to another

سخن تا نگویی بر او دست هست چو گفته شد یابد او بر تو دست

when the head aches, all the body is out of tune

چو عضوی بدرد آورد روزگار دگر عضوها را نماند قرار

what is a workman without his tools

ز بی ان کار ناید درست؛ بدون ابزار و وسایل کاری نمی توان انجام داد.

wedlock is a padlock

ازدواج، اسارت است.

ای گرفتار پایبند عیال دیگر آسودگی مبند خیال

work while it is day

تا تنور داغ است نان باید پخت.

the weakest goes to the wall

هر چه سنگ است به پای لنگ است؛ سنگ به در بسته می خورد.

when candles are away all cats are grey

شب گربه سمور نماید.

we are s with our own arrow

خود کرده را تدبیر نیست؛ از ماست که بر ماست.

wear the pants in the family

تصمیم گیرنده بودن؛ حرف آ را زدن؛ رئیس بودن

a woman’s place is in the home

خانه بدون زن گورستان است.

زن بلا باشد به هر کاشانه ای بی بلا هرگز مبادا خانه ای

a woman’s work is never done

کار خانم ها هیچ وقت تمام نمی شود.

walnuts and pears you plant for your heirs

هر چه نیکی کنید آن نیکی به خود کرده اید.

when the wine is in, the wit is out

، عقل از سر بیرون کند.

when the pot boils over, it cools itself

فواره چون بلند شود سرنگون شود.

wisdom is better than strength.

آدمی را عقل می باید نه زور.

what you pay, what you get

هر چقدر پول بدهی همان قدر آش می خوری.

what is past, is past

گذشته ها گذشته است.

who laughs last, laughs longest

آن خوش است ای جان که فرجامش خوش است.

while there is life, there is hope

تا زندگی هست، امید هست.

what you lose on the swings, you gain on the roundabouts

دری نبست زمانه که دیگر دری نگشاید.

ایزد هرگز دری نبندد بر تو تا صد دیگری به بهتری نگشاید

what is told in the ear of a man, is often heard a hundered miles away

حرفی که از دهان بر آید، گرد جهان در آید.

wonders will never cease.

معجزه هنوز هم اتفاق می افتد.

water is the best thirst quencher

آب بهترین فرو نشاننده عطش است.

want is the mother of industry

احتیاج مادر اختراع است.

what is taken in with the milk, only goes out with the soul.

با شیر اندرون شده با جان بدر شود.

when drink enters, wisdom departs

که از در، در آمد عقل و هوش از کف برفت

worrying never did anyone any good

نگرانی دردی را درمان نمی کند.

wake not a sleeping dog

فتنه در خواب است بیدارش مکن.

we seek water in the sea

آب در کوزه و ما تشنه لبان می گردیم.

سالها دل طلب جام جم از ما می کرد وانچه خود داشت ز بیگانه تمنا می کرد

we cannot learn without pain.

بدون رنج و زحمت، علم حاصل نمی شود.

we lie loudest when we lie to ourselves

وقتی به خودمان دروغ می گوییم آن را بلندتر فریاد می زنیم.

when in doubt do nowt/ nothing

روزه شک دار نگیر.

who knows he knows nothing knows much.

هرگز دل من ز علم محروم نشد کم ماند ز اسرار که معلوم نشد

هفتاد و دو سال فکر شب وروز معلومم شد که هیچ معلوم نشد

who knows what tomorrow holds.

که داند که فردا چه زاید زمان؛ هیچ از آینده خبر ندارد.

when things got to the worst they will mend

تا پریشان نشود کار به سامان نرسد؛ مقدمه اصلاح است.

when angry, count a hundred

هر وقت عصبانی شدی یک لیوان آب بخور.

what costs little is little esteemed.

نداند ی قدر روز خوشی مگر روزی افتد به سختی کشی

what can’t be cured must be endured.

چو نتوان بر افلاک دست آختن ضروری است با گردشش ساختن

water does not tickle out of his hand

آب از دستش نمی چکد.

writing of ideas is the capital of future

نگارش شه ها، سرمایه آینده است.

woman’s dreams go by contraries

خواب زن چپ است.

win a few, lose a few

آدم گاه برنده است، گاه بازنده.

words are but wind.

حرف باد هواست.

why buy a cow when milk is so cheap.

چرا باید یک ب ی وقتی که شیر اینقدر ارزان است. ( آفتابه ج لحیم است )

war and love are as full of trouble as pleasure

جنگ و عشق هر آنقدر لذت بخش باشند به همان قدر دردسرساز هم هستند.

wear the old coat, but buy the new book.

لباس کهنه ات را بپوش اما کتاب تازه ب .

wake up and smell the coffee.

ششدانگ حواس خود را جمع

work one’s fingers to the bone

جان کندن؛ سخت کار

warm the les of somebody’s heart

ی را خوشحال .

weigh the pros and cons.

معایب و محاسن کاری یا چیزی را سنجیدن.

work all the hours god sends

بکوب کار ؛ شبانه روز کار

wear one’s heart on one’s sleeve.

بی شیله پیله بودن؛ صاف و ساده بودن

when pigs fly.

خدا را چه دیدی!؛ در همیشه روی یک پاشنه نمی گردد.

win small, win early, win often

کم ببر، زود ببر، همیشه ببر.

when the hell’s frozen over.

وقت گل نی

who dares to teach must never cease to learn.

مدرس نباید از مطالعه و آموختن دست بردارد.

who know who is beautiful and who ugly behind the curtain?

چه داند که پس که زیباست، که زشت.

when the dust has settled.

وقتی آبها از آسیاب افتاد؛ وقتی سر و صداها خو د.

when it comes to the crunch.

موقعش که برسد؛ وقتش که برسد.

where there are bees there is honey.

تا نباشد چیزکی مردم نگویند چیزها.

where there is no justice there is no joy.

آنجا که عد نیست، خوشی هم نیست.

a willing horse is run to death.

هر ی را بهر کاری ساختند.

a word before is worth two after.

علاج واقعه قبل از وقوع باید کرد.

a woman conceals what she knows not.

مگو از هیچ نوعی پیش زن راز که زن رازت بگوید جمله سرباز

a word spoken is past recalling.

آب رفته به جوی بر نگردد؛ گذشته ها گذشته است.

the way to get along is to go along.

همزیستی در همراهی است.

the wolf may lose his teeth, but never his nature.

مار پوست می اندازد، خوی نمی اندازد.

when two sundays meet.

هر وقت خورشید از مغرب بر آید؛ وقت گل نی.

what everybody says must be true.

تا نباشد چیزکی مردم نگویند چیزها.

we all make mistakes.

انسان جایزالخطاست.

why keep a dog and bark yourself?

چرا آدم باید سگ داشته باشد ولی خودش پارس کند.

where there is peace, god is.

هر جا که صفا هست در آن نور خدا هست.

where there is love, there is no coercion.

هر جا سخن از عشق است زور و اجباری در کار نیست.

whatever comes from a friend is good.

هر چه از دوست رسد نی ت.

when i am no more, let happen what may.

پس از من کو جهان را آب گیرد.

winning isn’t everything.

برد و پیروزی که همه چیز نیست.

winning is earning, losing is learning.

پیروزی موفقیت است و ش ت تجربه.

what soberness conceals, drunkenness reveals.

مستی راستی می آورد؛ آدم مست راستگو است.

where ignorance is bliss, its folly to be wise.

جایی که جه برکت است، دانایی احمقی است.

without sleep, no health.

خواب برای سلامتی لازم است.

when the hits the fan.

تو که شد؛ اوضاع شیر تو شیر که شد.

what goes up must come down.

فواره چون بلند شود سرنگون گردد.

a woman can beat the devil.

زن را هم می تواند ش ت دهد؛ از زن درس می آموزد.

a word before is worth two after.

چنگ اول به از صلح آ .

a wise head keeps a shut mouth.

ترا خاموشی ای خداوند هوش وقارست و نا اهل را پوش

the whole dignity of a man lies in the power of thought.

بزرگی هر در طرزفکر و تفکر اوست.

what is done can’t be undone.

چو تیر از کمان رفت نیاید به شست باز.

without justice, courage is weak.

بدون عد ، شجاعت کار ساز نیست.

when you play you must pay.

بازی اشکنک سر ش تنک هم دارد.

هر بزه می خورد پای لرزش هم می نشیند.

what goes around, comes around.

هر ی آن درود عاقبت کار که کشت.

where there is love, there is pain.

عشق بدون رنج نیست؛ عشق با سختی همراه است.

why should the devil have all the best tunes ?

بزه شیرین نصیب کفتار می شود.

what is sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander.

بر مپسند آنچه ترا نیست پسند.

when character is lost, all is lost.

هیچ چیزی مهم تر از آبرو نیست.

without friends a tree like without roots.

آدم بی دوست، مثل درخت بی ریشه است.

when ambition ends, happiness begins.

پایان جاه طلبی، آغاز خوشبختی است.

what a man says drunk, he thinks sober.

مستی و راستی.

what can you expect from a hog but a grunt?

از کوزه همان برون تراود که در اوست.

از خوک جز چیزی نمی توان انتظار داشت.

when the drink is in, the truth is out.

مستی و راستی.

when poverty come in the door, love goes out the window

فقر که از در درآمد عشق از پنجره بیرون رفت.

write your inguries in the sand, kindness in marble

بدی ها را روی شن بنویس وخوبیها را روی سنگ مرمر.

when there is no trust, there is no love.

وقتی که اعتماد نباشد عشق هم نیست.

whatever comes up is welcomed

هر چه پیش آید، خوش آید.

what must be, must be

از تقدیر گریزی نیست؛ آنچه باید بشود می شود.

what goes around, comes around

چیزی که عوض دارد، گله ندارد.

a, a

any port in a storm

در بیابان لنگه کفش کهنه نعمت است.

actions speak louder than words

به عمل کار برآید به سخندانی نیست.

act so in the wally that need not fear those who stand on the hill

آن را که حساب پاک است از محاسبه چه باک است.

as you make your bed you must lie on it

خود کرده را تدبیر نیست.

absence makes the heart grow fonder

ج تا نیفتد دوست قدر دوست کی داند.

all good things come to an end

چراغ هیچ تا صبح نمی سوزد.

all work and no play make jacks a dull boy

تنوع چاشنی زندگی است.

all things come to him who waits

گرصبر کنی زغوره حلوا سازی؛گوساله به روزگار ی گردد.

all’s fair in love and war

در عشق و جنگ هر کاری رواست.

ask and you shall receive

پرسان، پرسان می توان رفت هندوستان.

an apple a day keeps the doctor away

روزی یک سیب بخور تا از طبیب بدور مانی.

april showers bring forth may flowers

تا باران نبارد گل نروید.

all’s well that ends well

شاهنامه آ ش خوش است؛ جوجه ها را آ پاییز می شمارند.

all roads lead to rome

همه راهها به رم ختم می شود.

after a storm comes a calm

آرامش پس از طوفان می آید.

after death the doctor

نوش دارویی و بعد از مرگ سهراب آمدی.

all truths will not bear telling

هر حقیقتی را نباید به زبان آورد.

affection blinds reason

محبت آدم را کور می کند.

an artist lives every where

وجود مردم دانا مثال زر و طلاست که هر کجا برود قدر و قیمتش دانند

all are not hunters that blow the horn

هر که ریش دارد بابا نیست؛ هر که شیپور دارد شکارچی نیست.

all doors open to politeness

ادب تاجی است از نور الهی بنه بر سر برو هر جا که خواهی

attack is the best form of defense

دست پیش زوال ندارد؛ حمله بهترین نوع دفاع است.

as you sow, as you reap

چو دشنام گویی، دعا نشنوی بجز کشته خویش ندروی

نپندارم ای در خزان کشته جو که گندم ستانی بوقت درو

as the work, so the pay

مزد چرانی، سواری است.

an is but an though laden with gold

اگر جل اطلس بپوشد باز هم است.

art is long, life is short

علم آمد فراوان ، عمر کوتاه.

as you salute, you will be saluted

بود حرمت هر از خویشتن.

کمم گیری کمت گیرم ، نمرده ماتمت گیرم.

all things are difficult before they are easy

معما چو حل گشت آسان شود.

action is the proper fruit of knowledge

بار درخت علم ندانم بجز عمل.

adam’s ale is the best brew

آب بهترین مشروب است.

all are not thieves that dogs bark at

هر ی را که سگ پارس می کند نمی توان گفت.

all cats are grey in the dark

شب گربه سمور می نماید.

all’s fish that comes to the net

نگه دار فرصت که عالم دمیست.

appearances are deceptive

ظواهر فریبنده اند.

ask no questions and hear no lies

نپرس تا دروغ نشنوی.

all things are possible with god

خدا برهر کاری تواناست.

adam ate the apple, and our teeth still ache

چوب دیگران را خوردن

as well be hanged for a sheep as a lamb

به دار آویخته می شود چه برای یک جه برای یک برهّ.

the apple doesn’t fall far from the tree

میوه پای درخت می افتد.

the apples on the other side of the wall are the sweetest

مرغ همسایه غاز است.

نعمت ما به چشم همسایه صد برابر فزون کند پایه

accidents will happen in the best regulated families

با قضا و قدر کارزار نتوان کرد.

accident(s) will happen

با سرنوشت نمی توان جنگید؛ حادثه خبر نمی کند.

all men are members of the same body

بنی آدم اعضای یکدیگرند که در آفرینش ز یک گوهرند

all his gees are swan

مرغ خودش را غاز می داند.

ask much to have a little

به مرگ گیر تا به تب راضی شود.

all is grist that comes to his mill

از تخم مرغ پشم می چیند؛ از آب کره می گیرد.

all is for the best

هر چه پیش آید خوش آید.

always have two strings to your bow

کار از محکم کاری عیب نمی کند.

abstinence is the best medicine

ام و پرهیز بهترین دارو است؛ سلامتی تن در پرهیز است.

accusing the times is but excusing ourselves.

از ماست که بر ماست؛ خود کرده را تدبیر نیست.

adversity often leads to prosperity

بنیاد غم وشادی بس دیر نمی پاید

هر صبح ز پی شامی، هر شب سحری دارد

after night comes the dawn

ای دل صبور باش و نخور غم که عاقبت

این شام صبح گردد و این شب سحر شود

after sorrow comes joy

در پس هر گریه آ خنده ایست مرد آ بین مبارک بنده ایست

answer one in his own language

کلوخ انداز را پاداش سنگ است؛ جواب های، هو است.

april and may are the keys of the year

سالی که نی ت از بهارش پیداست.

all covet, all lose

آدم حریص همیشه محروم است.

all fellows in football

بازی اشکنک، سر ش تنک دارد.

any time means no time

هر وقت به معنای هیچ وقت است.

all clouds bring not rain

نه آبستن درّ بود هر صدف؛ هر ابری باران ندارد.

all talk and no trouser

به عمل کاربرآید به سخندانی نیست.

all that glitters is not gold

هر درخشنده ای طلا نیست؛ هر گردی گردو نیست.

anger has no eyes

خشم کار است؛ خشم چشم و گوش ندارد.

at foot of the candle it is dark

پسر کفاش همیشه پا است؛ پای چراغ تاریک است.

absence sharpens love, presence strengthens it

دوری و دوستی؛ با اهل زمانه صحبت از دور خوش است.

all things must p

هر چیزی پایانی دارد.

all you need is love

هر انسانی به محبت نیاز دارد.

all the world loves a lover

طفیل هستی عشقند آدمی و پری.

act quickly, think slowly

خوب تامل کن، زود دست بکار شو.

act today only tomorrow is too late

کار امروز به فردا مفکن.

advice most needed is least heeded

پند گفتن با جهول خوابناک تخم افکندن بود در شوره زار

با سیه دل چه سود گفتن وعظ نرود میخ آهنی در سنگ

all frills and no knickers

پز عالی، جیب خالی.

all flowers are not in one garden

همه گلها در یک باغ پیدا نمی شوند.

after dinner sit a while, after supper walk a mile

بعد ازخوردن نهاراستراحت کن، بعد ازخوردن شام قدم بزن.

as poor as a church mouse

در هفت آسمان یک ستاره نداشتن؛ گورم کجاست که کفنم باشد.

as soon as a man is born, he begins to die

انسان از لحظه تولد به سوی مرگ گام بر می دارد.

adventures are to the adventurous

آدم ماجراجو در کمین خطر است؛ مارگیر را مار می کشد.

adversity makes strange bedfellows

فقر و نداری دوستان را هم بیگانه می کند.

an army marches on it’s stomach

بی خزینه نتوان داشت.

as the twig is bent, so is the tree inclined

نهد شاخ پر میوه سر بر زمین.

درخت هر چه بارش بیشتر می شود سرش فروتر می آید.

all truths are not to be told

هر حقیقتی را نباید بر زبان آورد.

anger is momantary madness

خشم نوعی جنون آنی است؛ خشم دیوانگی کوتاهی است.

argue the toss

یکی به دو ؛ دهن به دهن شدن

as you bake, so shall you brew

آشی است که خودت پخته ای.

چو تو خود کنی اختر خویش را بد مدار از فلک چشم نیک اختری

ask a silly question and you get a silly answer

سوال احمقانه بپرس تا جواب اخمقانه بشنوی.

all abroad and nothing at home

پز عالی، جیب خالی.

age and wedlock tame man and beast

پیری و ازدواج آدم را رام و مطیع می کند.

appetite comes with eating

اشتها زیر دندان است.

agree to differ/disagree

عیسی و موسی هر کدام به دین خود بودن

all for one and one for all

غم جمله خور در هوای یکی مراعات صد کن برای یکی

all cat’s love fish but hate to get their paws wet

هر که را طاووس خواهد جور هندوستان کشد.

all hat no cattle; all frills no knickers; all sizzle no steak

از سرمایه و عمل خبری نبودن

always care about your flowers and friends

همیشه مواظب دوستان و گلهای خود باشید.

the anvil fears no blows

از آن بیدها نیست که با این بادها بلرزد.

anger edges valor

خشم به آدم شجاعت می بخشد؛ خشم شمشیر تیز و برّان است.

always look both ways before crossing the street

احتیاط به ج دادن؛ با احتیاط عمل

advice is cheap

نصیحت جی ندارد.

.all men are mortal

همه انسانها فناپذیر هستند.

.all experience is education for the soul

همه تجربه ها جهت تربیت روح و نفس است.

.all days are short to industry and long to idleness

زمان برای آدم بیکار خیلی به کندی می گذرد.

.all things grow with time except grief

گذشت زمان از شدت غم و اندوه می کاهد.

.absence increases sorrow

غیبت طولانی باعث افزایش اندوه می شود.

p, p

prevention is better than cure

پیشگیری بهتر از درمان است.

practice makes perfect

کار نیکو از پر است.

the pen is mightier than the sword

تیغ علم از تیغ آهن تیزتر بل ز صد لشکرظفر انگیز تر

people who live in gl houses shouldn’t throw stone

عیبجو عیب خودش را نمی بیند.

precious good are contained in small parcels

کوتاه دمند به از نادان بلند است.

o, o

an ounce of prevention is better than a pound of cure

جنگ اول به از صلح آ ؛ علاج واقعه قبل از وقوع باید کرد.

one who acts through another, acts through himself

هر چه کنی به خود کنی گر همه نیک و بد کنی

one can not put the clock/time back

زمان گذشته نیاید به بر؛ گذشته ها گذشته است.

old habits die hard

مار پوست بگذارد و خوی نمی گذارد.

n, n

never too old to learn

برای آموختن هیچ وقت دیر نیست.

no man can serve two masters

نی شود هم خدا را خواست و هم ما را.

necessity is the mother of invention

احتیاج مادر اختراع است.

no gain without pain

به رنج اندر است ای دمند گنج نیابد ی گنج نابرده رنج

m, m

make haste slowly

عجله کار است.

marry in may, run for aye

هر چیز به وقت خویش نی ت.

moderation in all things

در همه کارها میانه گزینی باید کرد.

measure is medicine

اندازه نگه دار که اندازه نی ت.

the morning sun never lasts a day

چراغ هیچ تا صبح نسوزد.

man is to man a wolf

انسان گرگ انسان است.

a man’s best friends are his ten fingers

نخارد پشت من جز ناخن انگشت من.

much coin, much care

سر بزرگ بلای بزرگ دارد.

men are not angles

انسان فرشته نیست؛ بشر جایزالخطاست.

l, l

locking the stable door after the horses are gone

تریاق را بعد از مردن مار گزیده آوردن

نوشدارو پس از مرگ سهراب آوردن

let the dead bury their dead

ه را ه کی کند بیدار.

lightning never strikes in the same place twice

خانه زده ایمن است؛ صاعقه دو بار در یک جا نمی زند.

let sleeping dogs lie

چوب در لانه زنبور نکن؛ فتنه در خواب است بیدارش مکن.

let bygones be bygones

گذشته ها گذشته است؛ آن قدح بش ت و آن پیمانه ریخت.

least said, soonest mended

با آنکه سخن به لطف آب است کم گفتن هر سخن صواب است

look before you leap

زرع نکرده نکن؛ بی گدار به آب نزن.

a leopard cannot change its spots

عاقبت گرگ زاده گرگ شود گر چه با آدمی بزرگ شود

k, k

kings have long arms

هر که را زور در بازوست، زر در ترازوست.

killing no murder

هیچ خونی به ناحق ریخته نمی شود.

kill two flies with one flap

با یک تیر دو نشان زدن

kill the goose that lays the golden eggs

مرغ تخم طلا را کشتن؛ نان خود را آجر

knowledge is power

بالاتر است آنکه داناتر است.

j, j

jack of all trades, master of none

آدم همه کاره، هیچ کاره است.

a jar’s mouth may be stopped, a man’s cannot

در دروازه را می توان بست، ولی دهان مردم را نمی شود بست.

کام و دم مار و نیش کژدم بستن بتوان، نتوان زبان مردم بستن

judge not, that ye be not judged

عیب تو خواهی نگوید ، عیب نگو.

justice is half religion

انصاف ، نصف ایمان است.

a jealous man is the keeper of his wealth

بخیل برای ثروت خود نگهبان است.

joy surfeited turns to sorrow

آب ار چه زلال خیزد از خوردن پر ملال خیزد

jam tomorrow and jam yesterday, but never jam today

امروز نقد، فردا نسیه.

jack is as good as his master

گفت و خوش گفت پیر برزیگر آنچنان مادر این چنین دختر

jouk and let the jaw go by

رطب خورده منع رطب چون کند.

a joint pot does not boil

که دیگ شراکت نیاید به جوش.

just what the doctor ordered

همین و می خواستیم.

the jewel in the crown

گل سر سبد بودن، سر گل بودن

just the ticket

خود خودش است.

the joker in the pack

عنصر ناسازگاربودن؛ وصله ناجور بودن

jump in at the deep end

خود را به دردسر انداختن

i, i

it’s easy to be wise after the event

معما چو حل گشت آسان شود.

it’s a long lane that has no turning

در همیشه روی یک پاشنه نمی چرخد.

if a thing worth doing, it is worth doing well

کارنیکو از پر است؛ کار را که کرد آنکه تمام کرد.

if at first you don’t succeed, try, try again

اگر بار اول موفق نشدی دوباره بکوش و بکوش و بکوش.

if you can’t lick/beat them, join them

جنگ و زور آوری مکن با مست

پیش سر پنجه در بغل نه دست

h, h

he who pays the piper calls the tone

هر چقدر پول بدهی همان قدر آش می خوری.

half a loaf is better than none/no bread

کاچی به از هیچی است.

a hungry man is an angry man

آدم گرسنه ایمان ندارد.

he has a loose tongue

آدم دهن لقی است.

haste makes waste

عجله کار است؛ شتاب کلید اندوه است.

he who hesitates is lost

کارها به صبر بر آید و مستعجل به سر در آید.

honesty is the best policy

درستی بهترین سیاست است.

g, g

a good wine needs no bush

اگرهست مرد از هنر بهره ور هنر خود بگوید نه صاحب هنر

اگر مشک خالص نداری، مگوی ورت هست خود فاش گردد ببوی

give a dog a bad name and hang him

گر سر آزار داری، بهانه بسیار داری.

god help those who help themselves

از تو حرکت، از خدا برکت.

great promise, small performance

سنگ بزرگ علامت نزدن است.

f, f

faint heart never won fair lady

عروس ملک ی در کنار گیرد تنگ

که بوسه بر لب شمشیر آبدار نهد

the first blow is half the battle

ضربه اول نیمی از مبارزه است.

fair exchange, no robbery

آنچه عوض دارد گله ندارد.

a fault confessed is half redressed

گنه را عذر شوید جامه را آب.

اعتراف به خطا نیمی از بخشودگی است.
e, e

every dog is a lion at home

سگ در خانه صاحبش شیر است.

every light has its shadow

هر گلی را خزانی در کمین است.

either win the saddle or lose the horse

یا سر می رود یا کلاه می آید.

the end justifies the means

هدف وسیله را توجیه می کند.

experience is the mother/father of wisdom

تجربه مادر/پدر د است.

experience is the best teacher

تجربه بهترین معلم است.

d, d

deeds not words

مرد بکار است نه گفتار آن به که عمل باشد و گفتار نباشد

do well and have well

هر که به نیکی عمل آغاز کرد نیکی او روی بدو باز کرد

divide and rule

تفرقه بیانداز و حکومت کن.

the darkest hour is that before down

نومید مشو ز چاره جستن کز دانه شگفت نیست رستن

don’t put off for tomorrow what you can do today

کار امروز به فردا مفکن.

a door must either be shut or open

نی شود هم خدا را خواست و هم ما را.

a desperate man needs no help

از جان گذشته را به مدد احتیاج نیست.

don’t cry over split milk

طرب نوجوان ز پیر مجو که دگر ناید آب رفته بجوی

b, b

bad actions lead to worse reaction

همینت پسند است اگر بشنوی که گر خار کاری، سمن ندروی

better bad now than worse later

جنگ اول به از صلح آ .

bad news travels fast

خبر بد زود پخش می شود.

a bad workman blames his tools

عروس نمی تواند ب د می گوید زمین کج است.

barking dogs seldom bite

سگ لاینده، گیرنده نبود.

birds of a feather flock together

کبوتر با کبوتر باز با باز کند با پرواز

bargain is bargain

حساب حساب است، کاکا برادر.

the best of friends must be apart

خورشید رخا ز بنده تحویل مکن این دخل مرا به هجر تبدیل مکن

خواهی که ز من جدا شوی بی سببی خود دهر جدا کند تو تعجیل مکن

c, c

cross the stream where it is shallowest

گره کز دست بگشاید چرا آزار دندان را.

charity begins at home

چراغی که به خانه رواست به مسجد حرام است.

cowards die many times before their deaths

آدم نترس یکبار می میرد آدم ترسو هزار بار.

هر که ترسید مرد ، هر که نترسید برد؛ ترس برادر مرگ است.

cut the cackle and come to the hosses

دو صد گفته چون نیم کردار نیست.

cross the bridge when one comes to it

چو فردا شود فکر فردا کنیم.

clothes do not make the man

آدم را به جامه نشناسند؛ لباس طریقت به تقوا بود

گردآوری : کاردوآنلاین ( مرکز رایگان منابع آموزش انگلیسی )

مشاهده متن کامل ...
..... think about these
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

the believer is led to doubt justice
when he sees the trick of the fox triumph over the justice of the lion

شخص با اعتقاد در مورد عد دچار تردید می شود
وقتی که می بیند حقه روباه بر عد شیر پیروز شده است.

the millstone may break down
but the river continues its course to the sea

ممکن است سنگ آسیاب بشکند(یا آنرا بشکنند)
اما رود به سفر خویش به سوی دریا ادامه خواهد داد.

among the people there are killers who have not yet
shed blood, and thieves who have stolen nothing.

در میان مردم هستند آدم کشانی که هنوز خونی نریخته اند
و انی که هنوز چیزی ن یده اند.

به ادامه مطلب بروید

deliver me from he who does not tell the truth unless he stings; and from the man of good conduct and bad intentions; and from him who acquires self-esteem by finding fault in others

(پروردگارا) مرا از دست آن رها کن که حقیقت را نمی گوید مگر برای آنکه نیشی بزند٬ و از دست آدمی که کاری نیک می کند و نیتی بد در سر می پروراند٬ و از دست ی که با عیب جویی از دیگران عزت نفسی برای خود دست و پا می کند.

if you choose between two evils
let your choice fall on the obvious rather than the hidden

even though the first appears greater than the second

اگر می خواهی بین دو بد یکی را برگزینی
بگذار انتخاب تو بر بدی که آشکار است تعلق بگیرد
نه بدی که پنهان است حتی اگر بد آشکار بزرگتر از بد پنهان

he brings disaster upon his nation who never sows a seed
or lays a brick or weaves a garment
but makes politics his occupation

بر سر ملت خویش فاجعه می آورد ی که بذری نمی کارد
آجری بر آجری نمی گذارد و یا جامه ای نمی دوزد٬
اما سیاست هم به معنای قدیمی خود و هم معنای جدید خود
را پیشه خود می سازد.

if reward is the goal of religion, if patriotism serves self-interest, and if education is pursued for a ncement, then i would prefer to be a nonbeliever, a non-patriot, and a humbly ignorant man

اگر هدف دین پاداش باشد٬ اگر وطن دوستی در خدمت منافع شخصی باشد٬ اگر آموزش و پرورش را برای پیشبرد اه خویش دنبال کنند٬ پس من ترجیح می دهم فردی بی اعتقاد٬ آدمی بدون حب به وطن و انسانی معمولی و نادان باشم.

why repeat the old errors
if there are so many new errors to commit

وقتی این همه اشتباهات جدید وجود دارد که می توان مرتکب شد
چرا باید همان قدیمی ها را تکرار کرد.

spend some time alone every day

هر روز مجالی را صرف خلوت کن

why repeat the old errors
if there are so many new errors to commit

وقتی این همه اشتباهات جدید وجود دارد که می توان مرتکب شد،
چرا باید همان قدیمی ها را تکرار کرد.

there are two things that are infinitive
galaxies and stupidity of humans
which i have doubts about the first one

دو چیز است که انتهایی ندارد
ک شان ها و حماقت بشر
که در اولی شک دارم

when anxiety was great
within me your consolation
brought joy to my soul

آن دم که اضطراب زیادی در وجودم بود
دلگرمیت شادی به روحم را آورد.

growing in holiness
means growing in love

به قداست رسیدن رشد یافتن در عشق است

walk in front of me

i may not follow
don’t walk behind me
i may not lead
walk beside me and
be my friend
albert us

جلوی من قدم بر ندار
شاید نتونم دنب بیام
پشت سرم راه نرو
شاید نتونم رهرو خوبی باشم
کنارم راه بیا و دوستم باش.

you are like the sunshine so warm,
you are like sugar, so sweet… you are like you…
and that’s the reason why i love you!

تو مث نور خورشید هستی خیلی گرم..
تو مث شکرهستی خیلی شیرین
تو مث خودت هستی ..
و دقیقا به همین خاطره که من دوستت دارم

the beauty of a woman is not in a facial mole
but true beauty in a woman is reflected in her soul

زیبایی یه زن به خط و خال صورتش نیست
بلکه زیبایی واقعی یه زن انعکاس در روحش داره

always there is a drop of madness in love
yet always there is a drop of reason in madness

در عشق همیشه قطره ای جنون هست
و در جنون هم همیشه قطره ای عقل

the strength of a man isn’t seen in the width of his shoulders
it is seen in the width of his arms that encircle you

قدرت و صلابت یه مرد در پهن بودن شونه هاش نیست
بلکه در این هست که چقدر میتونی به اون تکیه کنی

و اون میتونه تو رو حمایت کنه

the nearer the soul is to god, the less its
since the point nearest the circle is subject to the least motion.. disturbances

هر چه روح به خدا نزدیکتر باشد، آشفتگی اش کمتر است
زیرا نزدیک ترین نقطه به مرکز دایره، کمترین تکان را دارد

god is in your heart,,yet you search for him in the wilderness

خدا در قلب توست و تو در بیابان ها به دنبالش می گردی

life is a road and you are its p engers so , be careful about the value of your times , maybe you wont be in the road tomorrow

زندگی مثل یه جاده است ، مسافراشیم
قدر لحظه ها رو بدونیم ، ممکنه فردا نباشیم

don’t worry, fight with difficulties and
be sure that you can prevail over them

نترس، با مشکلات مبارزه کن و بدان که می توانی بر آنها غلبه کنی

i wrote your name in the sky
but the wind blew it away
i wrote your name in the sand
but the waves washed it away
i wrote your name in my heart
and forever it will stay

اسمت رو در آسمون نوشتم ولی باد وزید و اون رو از بین برد
اسمت رو بر روی شن ها نوشتم ولی امواج اون رو از بین بردن
اسمت رو بر روی قلبم نوشتم و برای همیشه اسمت در قلبم باقی می مونه

the blind can not lead the blind

آدم ن نا نمی تواند راهنمای ن نای دیگر شود .

i asked god to
make my spirit grow

god said, no
you must grow
on your own
but i will prune you
to make you fruitful

از او خواستم روحم را رشد دهد.
فرمود نه تو خودت باید رشد کنی.
من فقط شاخ وبرگ اضافی ات را
هرس میکنم تا بارور شوی.

as one’s gift increase his friends decrease

ی که توانایی هایش زیاد می شود، دوستانش کاهش می یابد.

some people hear with their ears, some with their eyes, some with their stomach and some do not hear at all

بعضی ها با گوش هایشان می شنوند، بعضی ها با چشم هایشان، بعضی با شکم هایشان و بعضی ها هم اصلا نمی شنوند.

my flesh and my heart
may fail but god is the
stength of my heart
and my portion forever

شاید جسم وقلبم از کار بیفتد ولی
خداوند تا ابد قوت قلب و سهمی از
وجود من است.

the nearer the soul is to god, the less its
since the point nearest the circle is subject to the least motion.. disturbances

هر چه روح به خدا نزدیکتر باشد، آشفتگی اش کمتر است
زیرا نزدیک ترین نقطه به مرکز دایره، کمترین تکان را دارد

i made an agreement of peaceful coexistence with time
neither he pursues me, nor i run from him
one day we will find each other

من با زمان قرار همزیستی مسالمت آمیز گذاشته ام
که نه او مرتبا مرا دنبال کند و نه من از او فرار کنم
بالا ه که روزی بهم خواهیم رسید

no pain-no gain

نابرده رنج گنج میسر نمیشود

true friendship is
like sound health

the value of it is
seldom known
until it is lost

دوستی واقعی مثل سلامتی هست
ارزش اون رو معمولا تا وقتی که از دستش بدیم نمی دونیم

if all my friends were
to jump off a bridge
i wouldn’t jump with them

i’d be at the bottom to
catch them.

اگر تمام دوستام بخوان از یه پل رد بشن،
من با اونا عبور نخواهم کرد،
بلکه اون طرف پل خواهم بود برای کمک به اونا

think of yourself as a survivor not a victim

خود را یک نجات دهنده بدان نه یک قربانی

three things in life that never fail
true love

سه چیز که هرگز ش ت نمی خورد:
عشق حقیقی

three things in life that may never be lost

سه چیز در زندگی که هیچ وقت از بین نمی رود:

he brings disaster upon his nation who never sows a seed, or lays a brick, or weaves a garment, but makes politics his occupation.
بر سر ملت خویش فاجعه می آورد ی که بذری نمی کارد٬ آجری بر آجری نمی گذارد و یا جامه ای نمی دوزد٬ اما سیاست (هم به معنای قدیمی خود و هم معنای جدید خود) را پیشه خود می سازد.

if you choose between two evils, let your choice fall on the obvious rather than the hidden, even though the first appears greater than the second.

اگر می خواهی بین دو بد یکی را برگزینی٬ بگذار انتخاب تو بر بدی که آشکار است تعلق بگیرد٬ نه بدی که پنهان است حتی اگر بد آشکار بزرگتر از بد پنهان باشد.

deliver me from he who does not tell the truth unless he stings; and from the man of good conduct and bad intentions; and from him who acquires self-esteem by finding fault in others.

(پروردگارا) مرا از دست آن رها کن که حقیقت را نمی گوید مگر برای آنکه نیشی بزند٬ و از دست آدمی که کاری نیک می کند و نیتی بد در سر می پروراند٬ و از دست ی که با عیب جویی از دیگران عزت نفسی برای خود دست و پا می کند.

special coffee for you!!! i mixed it whit friendship and happiness but no sugar, because i know you are already so sweet

قهوه ی مخصوص برای تو!!! مخلوطش کردو با دوستی و شادی اما بدون شکر چون من میدونم تو پیش از اینهم (بدون شکر هم) شیرینی

time is like a river. u can,t touch the same water twice. because the flow
that has p ed will never p again so, cherish every moment of your life

زمان مانند یک رودخانه میمونه. تو نمیتونی دوبار یه قطره رو لمس کنی چون چیزی که شیوه اش گذر ه هرگز دوبار از کنارت عبور نمیکنه پس هر لحظه ات رو گرامی بدار

sb wants u sb needs u sb dreams about u every single night sb can,t breth whit out u it,s lonely sb hopes that someday u will see somebody is me


یک نفر به تو رو میخواد یک نغر به تو نیاز داره یک نفر تک تک شبها رویای تو رو میبینی یک نفر بدون تو نمیتونه نفس بکشه این بی یه یک نفر به اون امید داره یک نفر آرزوی دیدارت رو داره (یه نفر به دیدارت هر چند نزدیک نباشه امیدواره) اون یه نفر منم

did you know that those who appear to be very strong in heart, are real
weak and most susceptible?
آیا می‏دانستید آنهایی که از نظراحساسی بسیار قوی به نظر می‏رسند در واقع بسیار ضعیف و شکننده هستند؟

did you know that those who spend their time protecting others are the ones that really need someone to protect them?
آیامی‏دانستید که آنهایی که زندگیشان را وقف مراقبت از دیگران می‏کنند خود به ی برای مراقبت نیاز دارند؟

did you know that the three most difficult things to say are: i love you, sorry and help me
آیا می‏دانستید که سه جمله ای که بیان آنها از همه جملات سخت تر است :دوستت دارم. متاسفم و به من کمک کن می‏باشد.

did you know that those who dress in red are more confident in themselves?
آیا می‏دانستید که انی که قرمز می‏پوشند از اعتماد بیشتری نسبت به خود بر خوردارند؟

did you know that those who dress in yellow are those that enjoy their beauty?
آیا می‏دانستید که انی که زردمی‏پوشند از زیبایی خود لذت می‏برند؟

did you know that those who dress in black, are those who want to be unnoticed and need your help and understanding?
و آیامی‏دانستید که انی که لباس مشکی به تن می‏کنند نمی‏خواهند مورد توجه قرار گیرند ولی به کمک و درک شما نیاز دارند؟

did you know that when you help someone, the help is returned in two folds?
آیا می‏دانستید که زمانی که به ی کمک می‏کنید اثر آن دوباربه سوی شما بر می‏گردد؟

did you know that it’s easier to say what you feel in writing than saying it to someone in the face? but did you know that it has more value when you say it to their face?
آیا می‏دانستید که نوشتن احساسات بسیار آسانتر از رودرو بیان آنهاست، اما ارزش رودرو گفتن بسی بیشتر است؟

did you know that if you ask for something in faith, your wishes are granted?
آیا می‏دانستید که اگر چیزی رابا ایمان از خداوند بخواهیدبه شما عطا خواهد شد؟

did you know that you can make your dreams come true, like falling in love, becoming rich, staying healthy, if you ask for it by faith, and if you really knew, you’d be surprised by what you could do?
آیامی‏دانستید که شما می‏توانید به رویاهایتان جامه عمل بپوشانید، رویاهایی مانند عشق،ثروت،سلامت؟اگر آنها رابا اعتقاد بخواهید و اگر واقعا این موضوع را می‏دانستید ازآنچه قادر به انجامش بودید متعجب می‏شدید!

but don’t believe everything i tell you, until you try it for yourself, if you know someone that is in need of something that i mentioned, and you know that you can help, you’ll see that it will be returned in two-fold.
اما به آنچه من به شما می‏گویم ایمان نیاورید تا زمانیکه خودتان آنها را امتحان کنید اگر شما بدانید که ی نیاز به چیزی دارد که من گفتم وبدانید که می‏توانید به او کمک کنید متوجه خواهید شد که آن چیز دوبار به سوی شما بازخواهد گشت.

today, the ball of friendship is in your court, send this to those who truly are your friends (including me if i am one). also, do not feel bad if no one sends this back to you in the end, you’ll find out that you’ll get to keep the ball for other people want more ..
امروز توپ دوستی درزمین شماست آنرا برای انی که به واقع دوستان شما هستند بفرستید (مانند من اگر یکی از آنهامی‏باشم) همچنین ناراحت نشوید اگر ی آن رابرای شما بازپس نفرستاد شما خواهید فهمیدکه باید این توپ را برای انی که به آن نیاز بیشتری دارند نگهداری کنید.

ok, this is what you have to do…:
درسته این کاریه که شما باید انجام بدید:

send to all your friends!
اینرابرای همه دوستانتون بفرستید!

when you think that all is hidden
and no one can see within
remember, friend,
god can.
وقتی فکر می کنی همه چیز پنهان است
و هیچ نمی تواند درون را ببیند
به یاد داشته باش دوست عزیز من
خدا می تواند

when you feel unlovable, unworthy and unclean,

when you think that no one can heal you,

remember, friend,

god can.

وقتی احساس می کنی قابل دوست داشتن نیستی

وقتی احساس بی لیاقتی و نا پاکی می کنی

وقتی احساس می کنی ی نمی تواند دردهای تو را یام ببخشد

به یاد داشته باش دوست عزیز من

خدا می تواند

when you think that you are unforgivable

for your guilt and your shame

remember, friend,

god can.

وقتی احساس می کنی قابل بخشش نیستی

برای شرم و گناه هایت

به یاد داشته باش دوست عزیز من

خدا می تواند

easy is to dream every night.
difficult is to fight for a dream…

خو دن در هر شب آسان است
ولی مبارزه با آن مشکل است.

easy is to show victory.
difficult is to ume defeat with dignity…

نشان دادن یپروزی آسان است.
قبول ش ت مشکل است.

easy is to admire a full moon.
difficult to see the other side…

حظ از یک ماه کامل آسان است .
ولی دیدن طرف دیگر آن مشکل است.

easy is to stumble with a stone.
difficult is to get up…

زمین خوردن با یک سنگ آسان است .
ولی بلند شدن مشکل است.

easy is to enjoy life every day.
difficult to give its real value…

لذت بردن از زندگی آسان است..
ولی ارزش واقعی دادن به آن مشکل است.

easy is to promise something to someone.
difficult is to fulfill that promise…

قول دادن بعضی چیز ها به بعضی افراد آسان است .
ولی وفای به عهد مشکل است.

easy is to say we love.
difficult is to show it every day…

گفتن اینکه ما عاشقیم آسان است .
ولی نشان دادن مداوم آن مشکل است .

easy is to criticize others.
difficult is to improve oneself…

انتقاد از دیگران آسان است.
ولی خودسازی مشکل است.

easy is to make mistakes.
difficult is to learn from them…

ایراد گیری از دیگران آسان است.
عبرت گرفتن از آنها مشکل است.

easy is to weep for a lost love.
difficult is to take care of it so not to lose it.

گریه برای یک عشق دیرینه آسان است.
ولی تلاش برای از دست نرفتن آن مشکل است.

easy is to think about improving.
difficult is to stop thinking it and put it into action…

فکر برای پیشرفت آسان است
متوقف فکر و رویا و عمل به آن مشکل است.

easy is to think bad of others
difficult is to give them the benefit of the doubt…

فکر بد در مورد دیگران آسان است.
رها ساختن آنها از شک و دودلی مشکل است.

easy is to receive
difficult is to give

دریافت آسان است.
اهدا مشکل است.

easy to read this
difficult to follow

خوندن این متن آسان است .
ولی پیگیری آن مشکل است.

easy is keep the friendship with words
difficult is to keep it with meanings

حفظ دوستی با کلمات آسان است .
حفظ آن با مفهوم کلمات مشکل است

life isn’t fair, but it’s still good

زندگی چندان عادلانه به نظر نمی رسد، با این حال زیباست.

that your dreams
are shattered,
do not be afraid.
have the courage
to pick up the pieces.
and smile at the world.
for dreams that are
shattered can just
as easily be rebuilt.
chris jensen))

اگر رویاهایت ش تند و فروریختند
بیمناک مباش
بی باک چنان باش که تکه ها را برگیری،
و به دنیا لبخند بزنی.
رویاهایی که چنین آسان می شکنند،
آسان نیز از نو ساخته می شوند.

everyone hears
what you say.
friends listen to
what you say.
best friends
listen to what you don’t
هر ی چیزایی رو که شما می گین می شنوه.
ولی دوستان به حرفای شما گوش می دن.
اما بهترین دوستان
حرفایی رو که شما هرگز نمی گین می شنون.

a friend is someone who knows
the song in your heart
and can sing it back to you
when you have forgotten
the words.;

– unknown
یه دوست، فردی هست که آهنگ قلبت رو می دونه
و می تونه وقتی تو کلمات رو فراموش می کنی
اونا رو واسه ات بخونه.

a real friend
is one who walks in
when the rest
of the world walks out.

یک دوست واقعی اونی هستش که وقتی میاد
که تموم دنیا از پیشت رفتن.

if you live to be a hundred,
i want to live to be
a hundred minus one day,
so i never have to live
without you.

– winnie the pooh
اگر می خوای صد سال زندگی کنی
من می خوام یه روز کمتر از صد سال زندگی کنم
چون من هرگز نمی تونم بدون تو زنده باشم.

my father always used
to say that when you die,
if you’ve got five real friends,
then you’ve had a great life.;

– lee iacocca
پدرم همیشه بهم می گه موقع مردن ،
اگر پنج تا دوست واقعی داشته باشی ،
اونوقت هست که زندگی بزرگی داشتی.

walk in front of me,
i may not follow.
don’t walk behind me,
i may not lead.
walk beside me and
be my friend.
– albert us
جلوی من قدم بر ندار،
شاید نتونم دنب بیام.
پشت سرم راه نرو،
شاید نتونم رهرو خوبی باشم.
کنارم راه بیا و دوستم باش.

friends are god’s way of taking care of us.

دوستان، روش خدا برای محافظت از ما هستن.

friendship is one mind

in two bodies.
– mencius

دوستی یعنی یک روح در دو بدن

مشاهده متن کامل ...
supreme leader's speech in meeting with government officials
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

supreme leader's speech in meeting with government officials

wednesday jul 16, 2014

mr.hamid irani / www.polir.orq.ir

the following is the full text of the speech delivered on july 7, 2014 by ayatollah khamenei, the supreme leader of the islamic revolution, in a meeting with government officials. the meeting was held in the imam khomeini (r.a.) hussainiyah on the ninth day of the holy month of ramadan.

in the name of allah, the beneficent, the merciful

all praise is due to allah, the lord of the worlds, and peace and greetings be upon our master and prophet, muhammad, and upon his immaculate household

first of all, i would like to welcome each and every one of you brothers and sisters and the dear and committed officials of the islamic republic. it is a very good meeting and by allah's favor, it will be full of divine blessings and guidance and the light of this month. the statements of mr. president were good and complete statements. i hope that by the blessedness of this month and the pure prayers of righteous people, believers and those who fast, what the officials of the country intend to do will produce the desired results.

the month of ramadan has been described as "auspicious". the reason why this month is auspicious is that it is a way to liberate oneself from the fire of hell and to achieve paradise. as we read in the prayers of the month of ramadan, "this is the month of liberation from hell and achieving paradise" [iqbal al-a'mal, volume 1, page 90]. divine paradise and the fire of divine hell exist in this world as well. what happens in the hereafter is the manifestation of this world: "indeed, hell surrounds the unbelievers on all sides" [the holy quran, 9: 49]. hell has surrounded unbelievers, oppressors, enemies and opponents, in this world and in this life. the same is true of paradise.

it is in our own hands to go from hell to paradise. this happens in this world and its concrete, hidden and real manifestation will be witnessed in the hereafter. we can take this trip and this path from the hell of misconduct, misgivings and doubts - which belongs to this world - to the paradise of good deeds, good thoughts, good behavior and good conduct. this path and movement is called "penitence" and "repentance". it has been said in a prayer that "[t]his is the month of penitence and this is the month of repentance" [iqbal al-a'mal, volume 1, page 25]. it is with penitence and repentance that one is liberated from hell and that one achieves paradise.

one of the blessings of the auspicious month of ramadan is the prayers of this month. these prayers teach us how to speak to god, how to ask him for help and how to pay attention to him. moreover, they teach us many lessons for which we cannot find an equal even in common moral narrations. i have chosen two prayers from this month which i would like to narrate in the beginning of my speech. the selection of these two prayers is because of our needs today.

today, we - as officials of our dear country and the islamic republic - urgently need serious and diligent work which is accompanied by purity and sincerity. these two prayers help us move toward this path. one prayer is the prayer of the first day of the auspicious month of ramadan. i have chosen this part from this prayer: "oh god, place us among those who do something while they have willed it. do not place us among those poor people who suffer from indolence and among those who rely on things other than action" [iqbal al-a'mal, volume 1, page 23].

the first sentence says, "oh god, place us among those who do something while they have willed it". this action should be purposeful, one that enjoys intention and one that is clear in a nce where it is leading to. the second sentence is "do not place us among those poor people who suffer from indolence". "kisalat" means laziness and idleness. it says, "god, do not place us among these people". this is what the prayer teaches us. the third sentence is: "and among those who rely on things other than action".

it says, "do not place us among those who day dream, rant and fabricate issues in a meeting without taking any action". notice that this is the lesson of this prayer. in the first day of the month of ramadan, believers enter the divine feast with this spirit. this is one of the great servings of this feast. this is one prayer.

the second prayer is one that is said on each day of this auspicious month. it says, "and save me from drowsiness, laziness, exhaustion, carelessness, inflexibility, ignorance and deception" [iqbal al-a'mal, volume 1, page 26]. it asks god to save us from these characteristics: the first is drowsiness. the second is laziness. the third is exhaustion. it means getting sick and tired of something. the next one is carelessness. it means doing things in a careless way and ignoring precision. the next one is hardness of heart, fossilization and inflexibility. the next one is ignorance and confusion about our position and about what is happening and what is ahead of us. and the last one is deception and arrogance.

it asks god to save us from these characteristics. notice what lessons these prayers are. well, the function of these concepts - which are lofty and outstanding concepts - is much more important for officials in charge of public affairs than for ordinary individuals. when we say, "oh god, do not make us suffer from laziness, inflexibility and ignorance", we are making this request from two perspectives: one is from a personal perspective. we make this personal request so that we do not make a mistake and so that we do not face problems.

another is from the perspective of our responsibilities. you are like a captain who is steering a ship. you are like a pilot who is flying a plane. the issue is not only the issue of your lives. you are different from a person who is driving his car on a road alone. his responsibility is to protect his own life. but you are not like him. a group of people are with you. these are the things that make your responsibilities and commitment - on the issues that were discussed - heavier.

in our religious literature, the month of ramadan is the month of confronting shaitan and anic behavior on the one hand and behaving in a kind way, obeying god and worshiping him on the other hand. on the one hand, it is said that shaitan is tethered in the month of ramadan and on the other hand, it is said that the month of ramadan is the month of obeying and worshiping god. the shortest and most meaningful word to describe this month is the word "piety": "fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you, that you may show piety" [the holy quran, 2: 183].

the issue is the issue of confrontation between shaitan and piety. shaitan's job is to tempt. what does tempting mean? it means creating disruption in your calculation system. this is shaitan. the opposite point is piety's role. shaitan's effort is to tempt you. that is to say, he tries to make our minds, our nature and our calculation system - which has been installed inside man - stop working. he wants to make us make a mistake in calculation.

piety's job is the opposite of this: "if you fear allah, he will grant you a criterion to judge between right and wrong" [the holy quran, 8: 29]. piety gives you a criterion. that is to say, it gives you the awareness to separate truth from falsehood. in another holy ayah, god says, "so, fear allah for it is god that teaches you" [the holy quran, 2: 282]. with piety, allah the exalted opens the gates of knowledge, awareness and wisdom to you.

shaitan influences our calculation system with threats and temptations. on the one hand, he frightens us. a holy ayah from sura aal-e imran says, "it is only shaitan that suggests to you the fear of his disciples: be not afraid of them, but fear me if you have faith" [the holy quran, 3: 175]. on the issue of the battle that happened after the battle of uhud - there was a rumor saying that the enemy is coming to destroy muslims and that muslims are going to lose everything - the holy prophet (s.w.a.) said, "those of you who be e wounded in the battle of uhud today should carry their swords and accompany me. if none of you comes, i will go alone".

the holy prophet (s.w.a.) set out to go. those who had been wounded in uhud on that day took their swords and accompanied the holy prophet (s.w.a.). with a surprise attack, they went and destroyed the enemy who had lain in ambush near madina, who had started these rumors and who had decided to attack. and then they returned: "and they returned with grace and bounty from allah and no harm ever touched them" [the holy quran, 3: 174]. then the holy quran says, "it is only shaitan that suggests to you the fear of his disciples".

so, one of the things that shaitan does is to cause fear. "shaitan threatens you with poverty" [the holy quran, 2: 268]. he frightens us with poverty. according to an interpretation of this holy ayah, this was a threat. on the other hand, one of the things that he does is to tempt. shaitan gives certain promises which are deceitful: "shaitan makes them promises, and creates in them false desires, but shaitan's promises are nothing but deception" [the holy quran, 4: 120].

he gives promises and awakens desires in people's hearts. he paints a colorful, fake and imaginary future - like a mirage - for the eyes of believers. "but shaitan's promises are nothing but deception". his promises are hollow. on the one hand, he makes threats and on the other hand, he tempts. this is like america's behavior in the present time. this is like the behavior that arrogant powers always show. on the one hand, they make threats and on the other hand, they tempt. these temptations are not only personal. they temp in general ways. they say, "we do this, we do that". but they do not and they lie. this is what shaitan does.

all the things that shaitan does - including tempting and making threats - are for the sake of making our calculation system stop working so that we make wrong calculations. when one's calculation system stops working, things go out of order. making wrong calculations is one of the greatest dangers. it sometimes threatens man's life and it sometimes threatens his fate. this is because man's power and capabilities are under the domination of his will and his will is under the influence of his calculation system. if his calculation system does not work properly, his will makes a decision and moves towards the direction which is wrong.

in such circumstances, all his power and capabilities move in this wrong direction. this is what we should be careful about. as i said, for a person who does not have a responsibility, taking care has a certain meaning and for you and i who have a responsibility, it has a different meaning. we should take care not to let our calculation system witness a disruption by human and jinn shaitans. we should take care not to misunderstand issues. shaitan is not only from among jinns. he is not only iblis: "likewise, did we make for every messenger an enemy - shaitans among men and jinns, inspiring each other with flowery discourses by way of deception" [the holy quran, 6: 112].

shaitans among men and jinns help one another. i would like to stress that one of the mistakes in the area of calculation is that we remain confined to visible and purely materialistic factors. one of the mistakes is to ignore spiritual factors, divine traditions - those which god has informed us about and those that are invisible. this is one of the great mistakes in the area of calculation. god has said, "if you help the cause of allah, he will help you and make firm your stance" [the holy quran, 47: 7].

can this be said in a clearer way? if you move on the path of god and if you help god's religion, god will help you. this is unchangeable: "you shall not find any change in the course of allah" [the holy quran, 33: 62]. if you move on the path of reviving the divine religion and if you preserve this path, god will help you. this has been said by the holy quran with such clarity. this is the divine promise. we have experienced this in practice.

you should know that this era of the history of the revolution will be one of the most prominent historical eras in the history that will be discussed by future generations. in this materialistic world, in the world of the domination of superpowers and in the world of widespread hostility towards islam and towards islamic teachings and values, a system has been created based on islam and in an area where the agents of deviating powers had exerted more influence than any other area in the world.

this is a strange event. you and i have gotten used to it. this is the same as "if you help the cause of allah, he will help you and make firm your feet". you will not falter, as we did not. the people of iran did not falter. there have been so many pressures, so many plots, so many cruelties and so much unfairness, but the people of iran did not change their minds. this is one of the divine traditions.

a holy ayah in the holy quran says, "have you not considered how allah sets forth a parable o ood word being like a good tree, whose root is firm and whose branches are in heaven, yielding its fruit in every season by the permission of its lord? [the holy quran, 14: 24-25]. a good word, a good action and a pure deed - one that is for god - prevails. it will grow roots, it will become strong and it will yield fruits. the islamic republic is that good word. it has been preserved like the good tree and it has become stronger. today, the islamic republic - as a system, government and a political entity - is not comparable with 30 years ago.

in the second ayah after these ayahs, god says, "allah will establish in strength those who believe, with the word that stands firm, in this world and in the hereafter" [the holy quran, 14: 27]. he will re-establish the same strength. these factors should be seen and they should be counted in our calculations. not all the factors in achieving happiness, sinking into misery, making progress, suffering from backwardness, achieving success and witnessing defeat are confined to the common worldly factors that materialistic people rely on. these spiritual factors exist alongside worldly factors as well.

what i want to say in this part of my speech - which is the main part - is that today, we should not make a mistake in our calculations. you should not let the enemy influence your calculation system. you should not let him tempt you. you should not let him influence you with his temptations or threats.

today, the battle between the islamic republic - which began with the victory of the revolution and which is continuing with the same strength - is the same battle that existed between the prophets and the shaitans of the time, who were from among men and jinns. we are after lofty ideals. we are after forming an islamic community, an islamic government, an islamic country and an islamic ummah. we are after achieving the goals that great prophets, saints and martyrs pursued.

and the anic regimes of the time have formed one front and they are naturally opposed to such a movement. this is why they create obstacles and make threats. despite the glamour of this front and its superficial and material splendor, this divine and prophet-like movement is taking its path and moving forward. it is exerting influence and it is expanding and developing on a daily basis.

today, what we witness in the behavior of global arrogance is this. its goal is to create disruption in our calculation system. in other arenas, arrogance has failed. it has failed to do anything. in real arenas, only two material factors have been available to the p of arrogance: one is military threats and another is sanctions. arrogance has nothing except for these two things. the hands of arrogance are tied in terms of the power of reason and logic and the capability to prove its legitimacy. it can only carry out two tasks: one is to issue military threats - this is a task that it constantly carries out - and another is to impose sanctions.

and there are two cures for these. sanctions can be counteracted with diligence in the area of the economy of resistance. the points that the honorable president raised today had been raised by him before and they are completely true. economic plans should be prepared, pursued and implemented with the umption that sanctions will remain there.

imagine that sanctions will not be lifted at all. well, this is what they themselves are saying as well. they too say that sanctions will not be touched. even from this moment, they have begun saying, "even if we reach a deal on the nuclear issue, it does not mean that all sanctions will be lifted. there are still other issues to be resolved".

this is what we have always said. i have repeatedly said in this meeting and different other meetings that the nuclear issue is an excuse. even if the nuclear issue did not exist, they would make other excuses. for example, there is the issue of human rights and the issue of women. they fabricate many different issues. fabricating and making excuses is not a demanding job. moreover, the propaganda apparatus and empire is in their hands. therefore, the cure for the issue of sanctions is the economy of resistance. later on, i will discuss a few points in this regard.

as for the issue of military threats, there are very few people in today's world who take these military threats seriously. of course, the americans say, "the iranians do not take it seriously". but it is not only us who do not take it seriously. there are many people in the world who do not take this threat seriously. global spectators do not believe that this threat is a serious one because the opinion of global spectators and those who have a political awareness is that if it were economical for america to launch an attack, it would not hesitate even for one moment.

will these people be sad if some people are killed and if a crisis arises somewhere? are these people - who wholeheartedly supported a wolf named "saddam" for eight years, who hit a p enger plane while it was on air and while they had no excuse, and who destroyed and shed the blood of several hundred people including innocent and uninformed women, men and children - afraid of killing people? which of those people who created crises wherever they could and who staged color uprisings - as they say, color revolutions - are not led by arrogant powers? and these arrogant powers are headed by america.

they create crises inside countries and it does not matter to them whether these crises lead to murder and domestic wars or not. are those who attacked afghanistan and iraq, those who killed hundreds of thousands of people in iraq and those who killed people one by one in iraq and other cities of iraq under the command of intelligence services and mercenary and terrorist companies - such as blackwater which we spoke about once - afraid of killing people? are they afraid that other people may be killed? do they care about such things?

the issue is not that they make military threats because they do not want to [attack]. they constantly say, "israel issues military threats, but america prevents them from waging a war". well why does america prevent it from doing so? if this claim is true, what is the reason? is their conscience pricked if a country is attacked and a number of people are killed? the answer is no. the reason is that they do not consider waging a war to be economical. i firmly say that launching a military attack against the islamic republic of iran is not economical for any country.

today, the americans themselves criticize their attack on iraq. the important and noteworthy point is that they do not criticize it because it was a crime. rather, they say that it was not to the a ntage of america. that is to say, if it had been to the a ntage of america, it would have been alright. they do not say, "we made a mistake by killing people. we made a mistake by attacking innocent people. we made a mistake by letting our soldiers kick people's doors in. we made a mistake by letting them kill women and children in front of the eyes of people". they do not say such things.

in the present time, their soldiers suffer from psychological problems because of the crimes that were committed there, but they do not acknowledge this officially. rather, they say that the attack was not economical. so, the enemy is empty-handed both in the area of sanctions and in the area of military threats: "so, lose not heart, nor fall into despair for you must gain mastery if you are true in faith" [the holy quran, 3: 139]. if we believe in god, the enemy cannot do anything in real and practical arenas.

now that it cannot do anything in real arenas and now that his hands are empty in the area of influence, what is the enemy's cure? the cure is that it creates disruption in the calculation system of the other side - our calculation system. they are pursuing this task through propaganda, political work and different contacts. they know that the islamic republic is capable of achieving its goals. from their viewpoint, the islamic republic must not want this. if it wants it, it can achieve it. they want to do something to make us stop wanting. today, this is the effort of the world of arrogance which is headed by america. this is the same soft war that we have been speaking about since a few years ago. other people have spoken about, written and discussed it as well.

they cannot change our calculations. from the first day, the calculations of the islamic republic have been based on reason and logic. the elements that have formed these calculations are these: the first one is trust in god and the traditions of creation. the second one is distrusting the enemy and knowing him. one of the factors in reliance on god and the traditions of creation is trust in the people and their faith, trust in affection and kindness, trust in pure motives, trust in the people's honesty - our magnanimous imam (r.a.) was the manifestation of this kind of trust - belief in self-confidence and the fact that we can, reliance on action, avoidance of idleness, trust in divine istance, reliance on responsibility and effort on the path of responsibility.

from the first day until today, these have been the things that have formed the basis and the infrastructure of the elements of the reasonable islamic republic. you should refer to imam's (r.a.) statements. his statements are imbued with these concepts and teachings: benefitting from experience - including the way arrogant powers have behaved towards weak nations - and diligence for the sake of independence, remaining independent and living in an independent way.

what does independence mean? some people find faults with the essence and meaning of independence? they ask, "what does such independence mean?" independence means freedom from the will of foreigners and other people. this is the meaning of independence. can any reasonable mind deny this? the meaning of independence is that a people should be able to determine their own fate.

this country did not enjoy independence for many years. the quasi-independence that existed was political. but the key of the government and the country was in the hands of other people. it was they who made the decisions. it was they who did everything. there were some people inside the country some of whom were attached to them and some of whom were not very attached to them, but they had to follow them. independence is resistance against such a condition.

well, arrogance is opposed to this reason. if someone thinks that the name of islam makes them oppose the islamic republic, they should know that this is not the case. the name of islam and islamic practices and obligations do not make anyone show opposition.

once, imam (r.a.) said in one of his speeches, "when the english entered and occupied iraq in the second decade of the 20th century, an english commander saw someone shouting and raising his voice. he be e nervous. someone was saying adhan from a minaret. he asked, "what is this noise?" they said, "he is saying adhan". then he asked, "is it against us?" someone replied, "no, it is not". he said, "ok, let him say whatever he wants". he did not care for the kind of adhan which was not against him and the kind of "allahu akbar" which did not humiliate him.

so, the issue is not the issue of islam and islamic obligations. today, some countries carry the name of islam and they observe islamic obligations more or less, but their oil, their supplies and their vital resources are in the hands of arrogance. and the enemies do not show any opposition to such countries. on the contrary, they have friendly relations with them.

recently, i read something interesting somewhere. an american expert has said, "reconciliation between iran and america is possible, but it is not possible between the islamic republic and america". he is right. not only is reconciliation with the kind of iran that is led by the pahlavi family - which makes everything available to the americans - possible, but it is also necessary. it is even necessary to do something beyond reconciliation for this kind of iran. the issue is the issue of the islamic republic. the islamic republic means independence, freedom, commitment to islamic faith, movement on the path of islam, refusal to give in to the enemies' impositions and invitation to the unity of the islamic ummah.

this is the exact opposite of what they want. of course, they are unfriendly towards this kind of iran. well, this was the main issue that i wanted to discuss: we should not forget about self-confidence, faith and action. we should not forget about resistance against laziness, carelessness, idleness and exhaustion. these are the lessons of the month of ramadan.

i would like to offer some pieces of advice. one piece of advice is addressed to all officials. taking a look at the political conditions of the world and the region shows us that we are at a sensitive point. you should know that today, there is a historical turn in the real sense of the word. if you are not strong, you will be bullied not only by america and the west but also by a creature named saddam. if you are not strong, you will be bullied and you will suffer from their impositions. you should be strong.

what are the elements of strength? how can we understand and accept that we are strong? these are the elements of strength: high morale, hopefulness, hard work and diligence, identifying economic, cultural and security rifts - you should identify and see these rifts - cooperation between different organizations in charge of affairs and cooperation between these organizations and the people. this is one piece of advice which is addressed to everyone.

the second piece of advice is that you should work as hard as you can and as long as you have opportunities. opportunities are limited. all of us are individuals who are moving towards death. we have limited time. we should work as hard as we can and as long as we are alive. you should not say, "they do not allow us to do things". this "they do not allow us" is not an acceptable statement. many people used to say, "they do not allow us". now too, some people say this. what does "they do not allow us" mean? you have certain capabilities and resources in the majlis, in the administration, in the judiciary branch, in the armed forces and in the different sectors which are affiliated with the administration. you should benefit from these resources and work as hard as you can. you should not even allow one single moment to be wasted.

the third piece of advice is that you should coordinate your moves with the principles of the revolution. you should avoid creating uproar and you should attend to solving the problems of the people. the fourth piece of advice is that you should consider departmental convergence and convergence with other branches to be important.

i always advise the honorable officials in charge of the three branches of government to hold meetings with one another. many issues are resolved in these joint meetings such as meetings between the administration and the majlis, meetings between the judiciary branch and the administration and meetings between the judiciary branch and the majlis. these meetings and these exchanges of opinion lead to convergence. another issue is the issue of jihadi mana ent. this piece of advice is related to everyone.

i would like to offer a piece of advice to the administration and the executive branch in particular. first, everyone should know that i support the administration, as i supported all previous administrations. i trust the high-ranking executive officials. all the administrations that held office after the revolution have been elected by the people and since i have been entrusted with the task of leadership, i have supported all these administrations.

all administrations have certain strong points and certain weak points. there is no administration that says, "i have only strong points and i do not have any weak point". and there is no one who says, "all its activities are negative". this is not the case. all administrations have a combination of strong and weak points.

of course, compared to previous administrations, it is better to make criticisms in a well-informed way. it is not appropriate to make criticisms in public. the criticisms that we level at the administration should be fair, respectful and sympathetic. criticism should not mean catching someone red-handed and creating obstacles for them.

second, i would like to say to executive officials that they should take the economy of resistance seriously. well, the honorable president said that he will do this. other officials too have said this more or less, but it there should be action: "and among those who rely on things other than action". it should not be the case that we say, "we will do this", but we act slowly. the focus of the economy of resistance is on increasing domestic production and strengthening the domestic economy. this leads to economic progress. economic progress is achieved with production. it is achieved by activating the domestic capacities of the country. it is not achieved with anything else.

an important piece of advice on the issue of the economy of resistance is addressed to banks. banks should play their roles. they should coordinate their activities with the policies on the economy of resistance and with the administration's plans in this area. they can play their roles - positive roles. of course, they can play a negative role as well.

i would like to offer a very important piece of advice to the industrial sector. the officials in charge of this sector should make efforts. they should increase their efforts and they should identify the capacities. there are many capacities in the country and they should activate them.

as for the agricultural sector, agriculture has a vital significance. it is necessary for the administration and governmental policies to adopt a supportive outlook towards the agricultural sector. this supportive outlook exists all over the world. the agricultural sector is supported by governments. therefore, the existing problems in the area of agriculture should be removed. the problems of farmers and stockbreeders should be resolved. sometimes, we receive certain complaints in this regard. one becomes upset and sad about the problems that they have.

the third piece of advice for the administration: the administration's slogan is moderation. moderation is a very good slogan. we too stress moderation. extremism is condemned by us and it is bad. the piece of advice that i would like to offer is that you should take care not to let certain people sideline religious orientations with the slogan of moderation. some people are doing this and i see it on the political scene of the country. some people are trying to sideline those religious orientations that are prepared to face danger sooner than everyone else. they are doing this with the slogan of moderation and avoidance of extremism. it is these religious orientations that support administrations - in the real sense of the word - during problems.

islam is the manifestation of moderation: "and those who are with him are strong against unbelievers, but comp ionate amongst each other" [the holy quran, 48: 29]. this is moderation. "fight the unbelievers who gird you about" [the holy quran, 9: 123]. this is moderation. enjoining to do good and forbiudding evil is moderation as well. moderation is comprised of such things. the meaning of moderation is not that we prevent religious individuals, orientations and groups from doing things that they are responsible for.

another piece of advice is addressed to political orientations and the press. i have a piece of advice for the brothers and officials in charge of political organizations and the press. you should be careful. a tumultuous environment is not to the a ntage of the country. some individuals should not get on the people's nerves. one witnesses that these people do such things. psychological security is important for the people. they should not reinforce the environment of quarrels and differences. they should not repeat the enemies' statements either.

i read many newspapers every day, as i read many other things. sometimes, there are certain statements and headlines in newspapers that are perfect for such and such an american newspaper. surprisingly, such statements exist in american and non-american newspapers as well and these newspapers are sent for us. you should be careful. such statements and headlines are not appropriate.

a sensitive issue that exists in the present time is the nuclear issue. the statements that the honorable president made today were very good and correct. the other side has offered us two options: death or fever. it wants to force us into accepting the latter. for example, on the issue of enrichment, their goal is to make the islamic republic isfied with 10,000 swus. but they have begun from 500, 1000. approximately, 10,000 swus are the product of 10,000 centrifuges - the ones that we already have. this is their goal. officials tell us that we need about 190,000 swus. it is possible that we will not need this number of swus this year and in two, five years from now, but this is the definite need of the country. and the needs of the country should be met.

the statements that the americans make on this issue are untruthfull. a country needs nuclear energy. it has managed to achieve this science and technology on its own, with its own efforts and follow-up, without stealing it from others and without colluding with other people. now, they are persisting that we should not have it. well, why? what are the reasons behind this "we should not".

they say that they are afraid of a nuclear bomb. first, non-proliferation has its own ways and this is alright. second, if someone is supposed to be concerned about the issue of nuclear weapons, that someone is not america. america itself has several thousand nuclear warheads and nuclear bombs and it has used them. well, what is it to you? who are you to be concerned whether a country will have access to a nuclear weapon or not? however, we can give guarantees to those organizations that are in charge of such affairs. of course, these guarantees have already been given. that is to say, it is clear that we are not after nuclear weapons. perhaps, they themselves know this as well. so, the essence of what they are saying is untruthfull.

of course, we believe in our negotiating team. we are sure that they will not be isfied with transgression against the rights and dignity of the country and the people. we are sure that they will not allow this to happen. the issue of enrichment is an important issue. moreover, the issue of research and development should definitely receive attention. another issue is preserving the organizations and sites that the enemy cannot destroy. they place emphasis on fordo because it is not accessible to them. they say, "you should not have a site that we cannot destroy and harm". is this not ridiculous?

the last issue is the issue of the region and iraq which is, in fact, a fitna. by allah's favor, the religious people of iraq will manage to extinguish and destroy this fitna. by allah's favor, regional nations will move towards growth and material and spiritual transcendence on a daily basis.

dear god, by the blessedness of muhammad (s.w.a.) and his household (a.s.), make what we said and heard serve you and your path. accept from us what we said and heard. dear god, help us succeed in making efforts, showing diligence and doing sincere work.

dear god, by the blessedness of muhammad (s.w.a.) and his household (a.s.), bestow on us the requirements for isfying you. do not deprive us of your mercy and forgiveness in this auspicious month. ociate the pure souls of martyrs and the immaculate soul of our magnanimous imam (r.a.) with your saints.

dear god, by the blessedness of muhammad (s.w.a.) and his household (a.s.), make us be among your thankful and patient servants.

greetings be upon you and allah's mercy and blessings

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how to play ping pong
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how to play ping pong (table tennis)

three parts:playing the gamedeveloping the skillsgetting seriouscommunity q&a

table tennis, also known as ping-pong, is an exciting game that can be played by two or four players. even recreational players can relatively quickly become highly skilled; ping pong at the professional level is truly a sight to behold. this article presents the basic rules of ping-pong along with tips for how to win.


part 1

playing the game

  1. image titled play ping pong (table tennis) step 1
    find someone to play with. you probably want to begin by playing someone who is at about your skill level or a little better, and preferably someone who isn't aggressively competitive. this way, you can have fun learning how to play. you can play one-on-one, or you can play with two teams of two, which is known as doubles. and you want someone who has regulation ping pong balls, paddles, and a table if you don't have access to any!
    • if your hand-eye coordination is more on par with a three-legged, blind dog, you might want to start practicing against a wall and getting familiar with how the ball and paddle work together. it's best on a table against the wall, for the record.
    • you want to play or practice with balls that are orange or white and 40 mm in size. the table should be 2.74 meters (9.0 ft) long, 1.525 meters (5.0 ft) wide, and 0.76 meters (2.5 ft) high.[1] ping pong paddles don't have a regulation size, actually. small paddles are hard to use successfully and bigger paddles weigh too much and are cumbersome. but they must be made of wood and rubber and competition paddles must have two colors.[2]
  2. image titled play ping pong (table tennis) step 2
    know how to grip the paddle. there are two commonly-used styles of gripping the paddle: the pen grip (penhold) and the shakehand grip. regardless of how you grip the paddle, it's important to hold it loosely to allow your wrist to move freely. if your fist is clenched around the handle, most of your force for returns will come from your arm, not your wrist, and you won't be as accurate. neither grip is rocket science:
    • with the pen grip, you essentially hold your paddle just as you would hold a pen. with the shakehand grip, you place your hand on the paddle's handle as though you are shaking hands with it, and then w your fingers loosely around it. the main thing here is to do what feels most natural for you.
  3. image titled play ping pong (table tennis) step 3
    decide who serves first. according to the official international table tennis federation (ittf) rules, the right to choose whether to serve first is determined "by lot" (i.e. flipping a coin or drawing straws, etc.), with the winner choosing either whether to serve first or which side he or she wants. if the winner chooses whether to serve or to receive, the opposing player or team gets to choose which side of the table they will play on, and vice versa.
    • in most recreational ping-pong games, however, the serve is determined by a quick rally, typically with each player spelling out one letter of the word p-i-n-g for each hit they make. after the word p-i-n-g is spelled out, the person to win the rally serves first or chooses which side of the table they wish to play on.
  4. image titled play ping pong (table tennis) step 4
    serve the ball. the ball should be tossed out of your free hand vertically a minimum of 16 cm (6 in), and then hit with the paddle so that it first hits your side of the table once and then goes over the net and hits your opponent's side.
    • if you're playing singles, the server can serve to any point on the opponent's side of the table, and the opponent should then return it. if playing doubles, the serve is rotated between you and your partner, starting with the person on the right, and the ball must bounce first in the right half of your side of the table and then must be delivered cross-court to your opponent's side.
    • the serve switches sides every two points. after two points have been awarded, your opponent -- or in doubles, the person on the opposing team who is cross-court from the server -- then gets to serve. after two more points are awarded, the original server (or in doubles, his partner) then serves.
    • if the ball hits the net on an otherwise a legal serve, the serve is a "let," and the serve is repeated with no points scored. after 2 consecutive lets the player opposite of the server receives the point.
    • on game point the person that is losing shall be the server.
  5. image titled play ping pong (table tennis) step 5
    return the ball. after a serve or return, the ball may be returned over or around the net to any point on the opponent's side of the table. the ball must be returned after it bounces once on your side, but before it bounces twice or hits the floor or any object off the table.
    • if the ball hits the net on a return, but proceeds to go over the net and hit your opponent's side, the ball is still in play, and your opponent must return it.
  6. image titled play ping pong (table tennis) step 6
    score points. a point is awarded for each rally that is not a let, and either opponent can score a point regardless of who served. here's the gist of it:
    • if your serve goes into the net, goes off the table without hitting the opponent's side, or (in doubles) hits the wrong half of the opponent's side, the receiving opponent or team scores a point.
      image titled play ping pong (table tennis) step 6bullet1
    • if you do not make a legal return (as described above -- the ball goes into the net or doesn't hit your opponent's side of the table) a point is awarded to your opponent.
    • if you receive a legal serve or return and hit the ball more than once with your paddle or touch the ball with your body, a point is awarded to your opponent. note that if your opponent's serve or return doesn't hit your side of the table, you still get the point even if the ball hits you or you catch it after it p es the end of the table.
    • if you touch the table with your free hand or move the table, your opponent scores a point.
  7. image titled play ping pong (table tennis) step 7
    win the game. many people like to play to 21 or 15 (alternating server every 5 points), which is fine for recreational play. the official rules, however, state play is to 11 points (alternating server every 2 points). in order to win, one must be ahead by two points. if the players or teams are tied at 10-10 or 20-20, for example, the normal order of service proceeds, but the serve alternates sides after every points instead of after every two points.
  8. image titled play ping pong (table tennis) step 8
    play again. in sanctioned competition, matches are won by the player or team who wins two out of three games. the players switch sides after each game, and they also switch sides in the third game (if a third game is necessary) when one player or team scores five points.
    • the team or player serving first also changes each game. generally, things stay as even as possible. no player should have an a ntage over the other.

part 2

developing the skills

  1. image titled play ping pong (table tennis) step 9
    practice consistently. you can become a pretty good ping-pong player quickly with consistent practice. the most important things to practice initially are keeping your eye on the ball, getting a feel for the correct timing, and keeping the ball low.
    • from the very first time you pick up a paddle, you should consciously make an effort to follow the ball with your eyes, from the moment it is served to when it hits your paddle, and so on.
    • your timing will become better with practice -- you just need to get used to it -- but it helps if you listen to the ball as well as watch it closely.
    • keeping the ball low -- without hitting it into the net -- is probably the hardest skill for beginners to master. it's also one of the most essential, because a high ball can easily be smashed down by your opponent. try to keep your paddle as horizontal as possible and use your wrist to impart energy to the ball and to aim it. generally, the faster the ball is moving, the easier it is to keep it low.
  2. image titled play ping pong (table tennis) step 10
    develop a strong backhand and forehand. you must be able to hit the ball from either side of your body if you want to become good at table tennis, and it's generally not practical to switch hands, so get comfortable with both your forehand and backhand s s.
  3. image titled play ping pong (table tennis) step 11
    learn to put spin on the ball. this is done by flicking the wrist side-to-side or up-and-down right as the ball is hit. to counter-spin, put spin of your own on the ball. if you have some downtime, practice this against a wall, experimenting with what works for you.
    • think of chopping the ball -- undercutting the bottom side as it comes to you on its descent. this will spin the ball, slow it down, and throw it on a new trajectory. experiment doing this with your forehand and backhand strike.
  4. image titled play ping pong (table tennis) step 12
    smash balls that your opponent hits high. smashing (also called slamming or spiking) the ball entails hitting it with force so that it goes fast enough to, hopefully, be unreturnable. a slam is a powerful weapon, but it can be difficult at first to use it accurately, and you may find that your slams initially go into the net or well off the other side of the table. don't be afraid to keep trying them, though. you'll eventually get it.
    • this is similar to volleyball. once you slam, smash, or spike the ball, it's virtually impossible for your opponent to keep the ball in play. this will be one of your most used skills when you cultivate it -- and the most frustrating for your opponent.
  5. image titled play ping pong (table tennis) step 13
    develop a killer serve. a fast serve or a serve with plenty of spin on it can become the key to your game as you face better players. if you give your opponent an easy serve, you'll be lucky to get a paddle on his return. an easy serve gives him time to wind up and blast you with a slam that you won't even see coming.
    • speed is definitely important as you move up the ranks, but you have to maintain aim and precision. as you get better and better, you'll be able to predict where the ball will go and how it will behave with each strike.
  6. image titled play ping pong (table tennis) step 14
    outmaneuver your opponent. as you face better competition, you can't just expect your opponent to make mistakes, even if you're hitting the ball hard. you've got to force errors by taking control of the game and making your opponent move around the table a lot. if you can hit one s off the right side and then quickly hit another s to the left side you might be able to prevent your opponent from getting the ball. tricks, such as giving the appearance of a slam and then dunking the ball, or getting into a right-left pattern and then hitting two or three consecutive s s to the right, can also put your opponent off-balance and in position for a slam.

part 3

getting serious

  1. image titled play ping pong (table tennis) step 15
    do it like the pros do. professional players generally stand a little farther back from the table, and as you begin to get into faster rallies, you may find this is a good technique as well. the ball is coming so fast and so hard, standing farther back is the only way to continue the rally. and if your opponent favors a side, you should favor the same side as well.
    • in addition to stance, they have different equipment sometimes, too. there are a wide variety of ping-pong paddles available, and while the cheap ones at your local sporting discount store are just fine for beginners, as you get more a nced you may want to get your own custom paddle.
  2. image titled play ping pong (table tennis) step 16
    pick your strategy. once you've been playing for a bit, you'll automatically notice what your strengths and weaknesses are. then, you'll pick a strategy that plays up your strengths and plays down your weaknesses. here's the four common styles of players:
    • control players. just like their name says, they like to have control at all times and thus rarely take risks. they don't smash all too often and keep it traditional.
    • defensive players. this type of player tries to make their opponent make mistakes as opposed to focusing on their own game.
    • offensive players. this player is generally pretty aggressive, focusing on topspin and consistency. they can place the ball very well and clearly understand spin.
    • power players. no fooling here, power players rely mainly on speed to trip their opponents up.
  3. image titled play ping pong (table tennis) step 17
    know who you're playing. as you play your opponent, you'll be able to get a read on what kind of player they are. they'll generally prefer a certain type of stroke and always come back to a default way of play. here are some things to look for:
    • the counter driver stroke is when solid contact is made with the ball (little to no spin) at the top of the bounce. a player who favors this is best defeated by a mid-table s -- where they have to quick decide between their forehand and their backhand.
    • the chop stroke is when the underside of the ball is cut during its descent. the amount of spin can vary. to combat this, work the middle and above all, be patient. alternating your s s will keep them from becoming comfortable.
    • blockers are defensive players. they don't like attacking, so force them to. vary between short and long s s, and switch up your style. don't use all your power so they have to.
    • the "loop" is a s that starts in your legs with your shoulders dropped, ending up in a strike that forces the ball slightly upward and giving it underspin. if you run into this player, be aggressive. get them playing defense, which is generally not their forte.
    • players who grip the paddle in the penholding position generally have very strong forehand strokes and weaker backhand strokes. however, knowing this, they usually have very good footwork. you'll have to force their backhand out quite wide and keep it varied so they don't know to stay on the edge of the table.
  4. image titled play ping pong (table tennis) step 18
    have a few varied tactics under your belt. regardless of who you're playing, it's a good idea to have a few ideas brewing in that cranium of yours. the element of surprise is incredibly important in this game. latch onto it and a win will be yours.
    • be sure to vary your spin and strokes. good players will be able to read you like a book and know exactly what you're going to do next. they see how you like to hit the ball, where you like to hit the ball, and how you handle different set-ups. to avoid this, vary up your style. vary your spin, the height you give the ball, and the speed you use in your strokes. keep 'em on their toes.
    • be able to place the ball outside of your opponent's "power zone." if you're facing an opponent with a "shakehand" grip, their power zone is within arm's reach of their forehand and near their body on their backhand. playing in the middle and out wide (purposefully) can zero in on your opponent's weaknesses. but don't take this guide's word for it -- look for weak spots yourself!
  5. image titled play ping pong (table tennis) step 19
    do some background work. ping pong is taken very seriously in some circles. if you're looking for a bit of inspiration, look to online videos -- tutorials, tournaments, or otherwise. maybe your next stop will be the olympics!
    • ping pong is a game that requires hours of practice. look for clubs or leagues in your area, or find a group of interested friends that are looking to get competitive. since it requires very little initial skill, it's usually not hard to find people willing to play.
    • if you do take this seriously, you'll play your best when you're energized and alert. because of this, always get plenty of sleep and eat well! you need all your senses to be at 100%.

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secrets to fluent english( moallemiran )
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7 - secret #1 - listening

by maureen bouey

“minds are like parachutes. they only function when they are open.” sir james dewar, scientist (1877-1925)

congratulations on taking this step towards being a more fluent english speaker. many esl students wonder if it is possible to learn to speak english fluently, like a native speaker. the answer is: yes!

is it easy? no. but it is possible.

we believe that you signed up to take this course, because you are a person who is ready and willing to learn. are we right? you will reach your goals with english if you are:

a) committed to working as hard as you can, and

b) open to new ideas and concepts.

if you faithfully practice what we suggest, you will begin to notice an improvement in your english.

ok, are you ready?

we have a lot of ground to cover... so let’s get started!

secret #1: if you want to speak english fluently, you first must:

listen, listen, listen,

and then…

listen some more!

this is the first thing you do when learning a new language – and it is essential to good speaking ability.

are you surprised? well, it’s really true; the more you listen, the sooner you will be a fluent english speaker. lots of listening will also lead to a better (more “natural”) accent.

many students have said to us, “i don’t understand; how can listening help me become a better speaker?”

well, how did you learn to speak your own first language? when you were a baby, did your parents sit down with you and begin to explain the basics of grammar in your native language? did they try to teach you to read or write when you were still crawling around on the floor?

of course they didn’t! they just talked to you, and to each other, and to lots of other people.

and what did you do? you listened.

sometimes you listened p ively, and sometimes you listened with conscious effort, paying attention to the sounds, rhythms and patterns of speech that were all around you, and trying to understand.

the important thing is, you were immersed in your language – in other words it was all around you. you were like a fish swimming in water.

for a couple of years, you continued to listen. then, eventually, (probably somewhere around the age of 2) you started to speak. everyone got very excited of course, including you - but remember - by that time, you had been listening for a very long time!

first you listened; then you spoke. “obviously,” you say? yes, but it’s a very important relationship. let me tell you a story.

once upon a time, there was a quite extraordinary japanese man who was a contemporary of albert einstein’s. (as it happens, they were also good friends.)

in the 1930’s, this remarkable man discovered what he called “the mother tongue” method of learning. in his book nurtured by love, shinichi suzuki explains how he e to understand how people learn language. it suddenly occurred to him one day that “all japanese children can speak japanese!”(1) of course this seemed obvious to everyone, and some people looked at him oddly when he announced this. but what he really meant was that human beings have a natural ability and a “talent” to learn a complicated and difficult language – just by listening to it!

this insight showed him an important link between how we ‘receive’ information, and how we ‘produce’ it. he was a violin teacher, and he began to use this method of language learning to teach young children (3 and 4 years old!) the violin. first, he let them listen to a particular piece of for several weeks. then, after a while, they were able to play the piece themselves – without knowing how to read yet.

this is the first thing you do when learning a new language – and it is essential to good speaking ability.

are you surprised? well, it’s really true; the more you listen, the sooner you will be a fluent english speaker. lots of listening will also lead to a better (more “natural”) accent.

many students have said to us, “i don’t understand; how can listening help me become a better speaker?”

well, how did you learn to speak your own first language? when you were a baby, did your parents sit down with you and begin to explain the basics of grammar in your native language? did they try to teach you to read or write when you were still crawling around on the floor?

of course they didn’t! they just talked to you, and to each other, and to lots of other people.

and what did you do? you listened.

sometimes you listened p ively, and sometimes you listened with conscious effort, paying attention to the sounds, rhythms and patterns of speech that were all around you, and trying to understand.

the important thing is, you were immersed in your language – in other words it was all around you. you were like a fish swimming in water.

for a couple of years, you continued to listen. then, eventually, (probably somewhere around the age of 2) you started to speak. everyone got very excited of course, including you - but remember - by that time, you had been listening for a very long time!

first you listened; then you spoke. “obviously,” you say? yes, but it’s a very important relationship. let me tell you a story.

once upon a time, there was a quite extraordinary japanese man who was a contemporary of albert einstein’s. (as it happens, they were also good friends.)

in the 1930’s, this remarkable man discovered what he called “the mother tongue” method of learning. in his book nurtured by love, shinichi suzuki explains how he e to understand how people learn language. it suddenly occurred to him one day that “all japanese children can speak japanese!”(1) of course this seemed obvious to everyone, and some people looked at him oddly when he announced this. but what he really meant was that human beings have a natural ability and a “talent” to learn a complicated and difficult language – just by listening to it!

this insight showed him an important link between how we ‘receive’ information, and how we ‘produce’ it. he was a violin teacher, and he began to use this method of language learning to teach young children (3 and 4 years old!) the violin. first, he let them listen to a particular piece of for several weeks. then, after a while, they were able to play the piece themselves – without knowing how to read yet.

this method of teaching be e known as “the suzuki method” and is now used world-wide.

it makes sense, right? first we listen, then we speak, then we read, and then we write. but we listen first; it’s the natural order.

“anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new.” albert einstein

your speaking ability (both fluency and pronunciation) will improve if you will listen, listen, listen. make no mistake – you can improve your english this way no matter what level of english you are at right now: whether you are an absolute beginner or at a much higher level.

“how much listening does it take to make a difference in your speaking?” that’s a very good question! the answer is, “it depends.” we are all so different; we have varied backgrounds, experiences, talents, and abilities, some people will need to do more listening and some people need to do less to achieve the same results.

the simple and true answer is this: “the more the better.” and even more importantly: “the more often, and the more consistent, the better.”

so, there we have it! that’s the first secret - being a good listener will help make you a better speaker. and the great thing about listening is you can practice it just about anywhere! if you have an ipod, you can carry your listening practice with you on the bus, train, subway, car or plane.

of course, it’s true that those of you who are spending some time in an english-speaking country will have many more opportunities to overhear english. but wherever you are, try to expose yourself to a variety of different voices – just like when you were a baby learning your first language. the more you do this, the better! here is a list of some suggestions for you to try. we know you’ll find more!

  • listen to english tv stations or programs. try closing your eyes sometimes. this will challenge your to “hear” more – especially to hear the rhythm and intonation in natural speech.
  • watch english videos (it’s much better to not have subtitles!).
  • listen to english radio – you can do this anywhere in the world ( /cbc/voice of america, etc.).
  • listen to songs – practice singing along!
  • listen to recordings of books.
  • as you are walking down the street, listen for english.
  • listen to conver ions in coffee shops, on the bus, at parties…
  • when you hear a few english words, repeat them to yourself. repeat them again and again. can you understand what was said?”
  • the internet. this is a great source – there are literally hundreds of helpful sites for you to listen and practice. here are just a couple to start with: http://www.esl-lab.com/ http://home.gwu.edu/~meloni/eslstudyhall/shlistening.htm http://iteslj.org/links/esl/listening/

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m ari - gone away

its on my mind to sit around and think about it

میخوام یه گوشه بشینم و راجع به این فکر کنم

you know i like you so im gonna sing about it

میدونی که دوست دارم و میخوام راجع به این آواز بخونم

you put my love inside you and you dream about it

تو عشقم رو درون خودت گذاشتی و در فکرشی

and now i need your love and i wont do without it

ولی حالا من به عشق تو نیاز دارم و بدون اون دیگه ادامه نمیدم

day and night sittin by the damn phone

روز و شب کنار این تلفن لعنتی میشینم

tired like you trying to bring your man home

خسته ام درست مثل اینکه سعی کنی. . .

and when i hear you crying i cant't call

و وقتی شروع به گریه می کنی، نمی تونم تحمل کنم

when all you need from me is just to stay close

وقتی در اون موقع تنها چیزی که از من میخوای اینه که کنارت بمونم!

goooone away, i know you

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم. .

gooooone away i know you're gone and i dont wanna live another day

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم و دیگه نمیخوام حتی یه روزم زنده باشم
goooone away i know you

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم. . .
goooone away how could you

تو از پیشم رفتی، چطور تونستی. . .
gooooone away i know you're gooooone and i dont wanna live another day

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم و دیگه نمیخوام حتی یه روزم زنده باشم

i tell you just to pray for me and move on

بهت میگم، برو، ولی برام دعا کن

you tell me what you feel for me is too strong

و تو به من میگی احساست نسبت به من خیلی قوی هست

and you've been cryin up for me for so long

و تو برای من خیلی گریه کردی

and even though its right i'm feeling so wrong

و اگرچه این درسته ولی من احساس خوبی نسبت بهش ندارم

and now you got me acting like i didn't know you

و حالا جوری با من برخورد می کنی که انگار اصلا تورو نمیشناسم

and i can't be around u so i can't control you

نمیتونم پیشت باشم، پس هیچ کنترلی روی تو ندارم

but i can only tell you what i wanna show you

ولی فقط میتونم بهت بگم چیزی رو که میخوام بهت نشون بدم

im your lover but you can find someone better for you

من عاشقتم ولی تو میتونی یکی بهتر از من رو پیدا کنی

missed you waking up in the morning

وقتی صبح زود تو خیابون راه میرم، دلم برات تنگ میشه

if i could see your face i'd apoligize

اگه میتونستم(فقط یک بار دیگه ببینمت) از تو عذر خواهی می

no matter how bad i want it

اصلا مهم نیست که چقدر تشنه این کارم

i know that i'll be with you in another life

ولی میدونم که اون دنیا با تو خواهم بود

missed you waking up in the morning

وقتی صبح زود تو خیابون راه میرم، دلم برات تنگ میشه

if i could see your face i'd apoligize

اگه میتونستم(فقط یک بار دیگه ببینمت) از تو عذر خواهی می

no matter how bad i want it

اصلا مهم نیست که چقدر تشنه این کارم

i know that i'll be with you in another life

ولی میدونم که اون دنیا با تو خواهم بود

goooone away, i know you

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم. .
goooone away, i know you

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم. . .
gooooone away i know you're gone and i dont wanna live another day

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم و دیگه نمیخوام حتی یه روزم زنده باشم
goooone away i know you

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم. . .
goooone away how could you

تو از پیشم رفتی، چطور تونستی. . .
gooooone away i know you're gooooone and i dont wanna live another day

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم و دیگه نمیخوام حتی یه روزم زنده باشم

i heard you're with somebody that treats you better

شنیدم که با دیگه ای هستی، ی که بهتر از من با تو رفتار می کنه

and even though before you with me forever

و اگر چه قبل از اینکه برای همیشه پیشم باشی

and now im seeing that we'll never be together

و حالا میبینم که دیگه هیچ وقت با هم نخواهیم بود

and i now i seen it coming from the damn matter

و میدونم این چیزیه که سرم میاد

and now im sitting lonely in this empty house

و حالا تو این خونه تنها نشستم

and all i got is memories to think about

و تنها چیزی که برام مونده خاطراتت هست که بهشون فکر کنم

and even though im broken im make it out

و اگرچه ش تم، ولی میخوام از این قضیه سر در بیارم!

and your loving is something that ima deal without

و عشقت چیزیه که نمیتونم ازش دل م

missed you waking up in the morning

وقتی صبح زود تو خیابون راه میرم، دلم برات تنگ میشه

if i could see your face i'd apoligize

اگه میتونستم(فقط یک بار دیگه ببینمت) از تو عذر خواهی می

no matter how bad i want it

اصلا مهم نیست که چقدر تشنه این کارم

(you know i want it)

(میدونی که میخوامش)

i know that i'll be with you in another life

ولی میدونم که اون دنیا با تو خواهم بود

(coz you are my everything)

(چون تو همه چیز من هستی)

missed you waking up in the morning

وقتی صبح زود تو خیابون راه میرم، دلم برات تنگ میشه

(i miss your love baby)

(دلم برای عشقت تنگ شده)

if i can see your face i'll apoligize

اگه میتونستم(فقط یک بار دیگه ببینمت) از تو عذر خواهی می

( i miss your touch lady)

(بانوی من دلم برای نوازشات تنگ شده)

no matter how bad i want it

اصلا مهم نیست که چقدر تشنه این کارم

i know that i'll be with you in another life

ولی میدونم که اون دنیا با تو خواهم بود

(i wanna cry)

(میخوام گریه کنم)

goooone away, i know you

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم. .
goooone away, i know you

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم. . .
gooooone away i know you're gone and i dont wanna live another day

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم و دیگه نمیخوام حتی یه روزم زنده باشم
goooone away i know you

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم. . .
goooone away how could you

تو از پیشم رفتی، چطور تونستی. . .
gooooone away i know you're gooooone and i dont wanna live another day

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم و دیگه نمیخوام حتی یه روزم زنده باشم

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m ari - gone away

its on my mind to sit around and think about it

میخوام یه گوشه بشینم و راجع به این فکر کنم

you know i like you so im gonna sing about it

میدونی که دوست دارم و میخوام راجع به این آواز بخونم

you put my love inside you and you dream about it

تو عشقم رو درون خودت گذاشتی و در فکرشی

and now i need your love and i wont do without it

ولی حالا من به عشق تو نیاز دارم و بدون اون دیگه ادامه نمیدم

day and night sittin by the damn phone

روز و شب کنار این تلفن لعنتی میشینم

tired like you trying to bring your man home

خسته ام درست مثل اینکه سعی کنی. . .

and when i hear you crying i cant't call

و وقتی شروع به گریه می کنی، نمی تونم تحمل کنم

when all you need from me is just to stay close

وقتی در اون موقع تنها چیزی که از من میخوای اینه که کنارت بمونم!

goooone away, i know you

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم. .

gooooone away i know you're gone and i dont wanna live another day

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم و دیگه نمیخوام حتی یه روزم زنده باشم
goooone away i know you

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم. . .
goooone away how could you

تو از پیشم رفتی، چطور تونستی. . .
gooooone away i know you're gooooone and i dont wanna live another day

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم و دیگه نمیخوام حتی یه روزم زنده باشم

i tell you just to pray for me and move on

بهت میگم، برو، ولی برام دعا کن

you tell me what you feel for me is too strong

و تو به من میگی احساست نسبت به من خیلی قوی هست

and you've been cryin up for me for so long

و تو برای من خیلی گریه کردی

and even though its right i'm feeling so wrong

و اگرچه این درسته ولی من احساس خوبی نسبت بهش ندارم

and now you got me acting like i didn't know you

و حالا جوری با من برخورد می کنی که انگار اصلا تورو نمیشناسم

and i can't be around u so i can't control you

نمیتونم پیشت باشم، پس هیچ کنترلی روی تو ندارم

but i can only tell you what i wanna show you

ولی فقط میتونم بهت بگم چیزی رو که میخوام بهت نشون بدم

im your lover but you can find someone better for you

من عاشقتم ولی تو میتونی یکی بهتر از من رو پیدا کنی

missed you waking up in the morning

وقتی صبح زود تو خیابون راه میرم، دلم برات تنگ میشه

if i could see your face i'd apoligize

اگه میتونستم(فقط یک بار دیگه ببینمت) از تو عذر خواهی می

no matter how bad i want it

اصلا مهم نیست که چقدر تشنه این کارم

i know that i'll be with you in another life

ولی میدونم که اون دنیا با تو خواهم بود

missed you waking up in the morning

وقتی صبح زود تو خیابون راه میرم، دلم برات تنگ میشه

if i could see your face i'd apoligize

اگه میتونستم(فقط یک بار دیگه ببینمت) از تو عذر خواهی می

no matter how bad i want it

اصلا مهم نیست که چقدر تشنه این کارم

i know that i'll be with you in another life

ولی میدونم که اون دنیا با تو خواهم بود

goooone away, i know you

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم. .
goooone away, i know you

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم. . .
gooooone away i know you're gone and i dont wanna live another day

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم و دیگه نمیخوام حتی یه روزم زنده باشم
goooone away i know you

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم. . .
goooone away how could you

تو از پیشم رفتی، چطور تونستی. . .
gooooone away i know you're gooooone and i dont wanna live another day

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم و دیگه نمیخوام حتی یه روزم زنده باشم

i heard you're with somebody that treats you better

شنیدم که با دیگه ای هستی، ی که بهتر از من با تو رفتار می کنه

and even though before you with me forever

و اگر چه قبل از اینکه برای همیشه پیشم باشی

and now im seeing that we'll never be together

و حالا میبینم که دیگه هیچ وقت با هم نخواهیم بود

and i now i seen it coming from the damn matter

و میدونم این چیزیه که سرم میاد

and now im sitting lonely in this empty house

و حالا تو این خونه تنها نشستم

and all i got is memories to think about

و تنها چیزی که برام مونده خاطراتت هست که بهشون فکر کنم

and even though im broken im make it out

و اگرچه ش تم، ولی میخوام از این قضیه سر در بیارم!

and your loving is something that ima deal without

و عشقت چیزیه که نمیتونم ازش دل م

missed you waking up in the morning

وقتی صبح زود تو خیابون راه میرم، دلم برات تنگ میشه

if i could see your face i'd apoligize

اگه میتونستم(فقط یک بار دیگه ببینمت) از تو عذر خواهی می

no matter how bad i want it

اصلا مهم نیست که چقدر تشنه این کارم

(you know i want it)

(میدونی که میخوامش)

i know that i'll be with you in another life

ولی میدونم که اون دنیا با تو خواهم بود

(coz you are my everything)

(چون تو همه چیز من هستی)

missed you waking up in the morning

وقتی صبح زود تو خیابون راه میرم، دلم برات تنگ میشه

(i miss your love baby)

(دلم برای عشقت تنگ شده)

if i can see your face i'll apoligize

اگه میتونستم(فقط یک بار دیگه ببینمت) از تو عذر خواهی می

( i miss your touch lady)

(بانوی من دلم برای نوازشات تنگ شده)

no matter how bad i want it

اصلا مهم نیست که چقدر تشنه این کارم

i know that i'll be with you in another life

ولی میدونم که اون دنیا با تو خواهم بود

(i wanna cry)

(میخوام گریه کنم)

goooone away, i know you

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم. .
goooone away, i know you

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم. . .
gooooone away i know you're gone and i dont wanna live another day

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم و دیگه نمیخوام حتی یه روزم زنده باشم
goooone away i know you

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم. . .
goooone away how could you

تو از پیشم رفتی، چطور تونستی. . .
gooooone away i know you're gooooone and i dont wanna live another day

تو از پیشم رفتی، میدونم و دیگه نمیخوام حتی یه روزم زنده باشم

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how to school web design
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school web design offers come quite a distance within the last couple of years. within the faraway earlier that was not too, anyone needed seriously to invest tens and thousands of bucks keep maintaining and to construct an expert searching site. today, you have the choice of creating oneself to an internet site, utilizing a pre- or employing a school web design that is professional.

of the several, the best option would be to develop oneself to a site. you can invest tens and thousands of bucks to get a site that is professionally-designed but still not needs it meet your needs. additionally, till that individual can be obtained each time you wish to create an adjust to your website, regardless of how little, you'll be determined by another person to do this and certainly will need certainly to delay. it may be months before your online custom can be obtained to create any modifications to your site because you won't function as the just customer. utilizing a theme is quick and simple, however, you are restricted to its built-in functions. in the event that you style your website oneself, you could have wherever you would like it precisely what you would like. you may make any modifications, big or regardless of how little when you need.

to be able to safeguard your intellectual property, as well as the items and also your site that you simply are suffering from, you might want to join up the trademark. it'll be challenging to impose your privileges if you don't really enroll your trademark through your site and items are branded the moment anyone produces these.

the cost regarding a copyrighting item or your site differs. presently, there's an enrollment charge due towards the inch register copyrights" in addition to the charge billed from the support that you simply decide to manage the paperwork. (the support that you simply select may contain all the costs in one single bundle cost.)

there are many options regarding enrolling a school web design name available. purchase enrollment and the very best choice would be to select a domain name. or even more, each year varies from under $10 to $50. the a ntages are often not worth the cost as the greater charge provides you with more choices.

several providers that are hosting provide free domain registration, often in the event that you purchase at least 12 months of school web design hosting ahead of time. you choose to alter hosting providers in the event that you select this method, make sure that you can buy the domain name in the case.

you most likely do not require a domain name while you may use if you should be creating a site regarding individual use.

nevertheless, in case your school web design is just a company site, sign-up and you'll absolutely need certainly to select a site label as utilizing a free domain name appears really unprofessional. something that appears unprofessional must certainly be prevented because you need certainly to acquire the confidence of one's guests to be able to change these into clients.

to be able to possess a school web design, you'll need certainly to donate to a support that is hosting. you'll not need to utilize a hosting support to get a company site as this can appear really unprofessional for your leads whilst free hosting can be obtained. again, it'll be very difficult to get your possibility is confidence to be unprofessional when they see anyone. there must be zero reasons behind one to make use of a hosting support while you will find inexpensive website hosting today.

functionality may be the most significant element in the website's achievement. a poor style may price an internet site as much as 40% of replicate visitors while the quantity of replicate appointments can boost by that identical 40%.

roughly 8% of online users possess some type mainly visible, of impairment. these customers are restricted within the quantity of websites they're with the capacity of browsing because many sites aren't created using convenience in your mind.

there are lots of choices for the "do-it-oneself" school web design. you are able to free site builders, utilize online site builders, make use of a text editor such as for instance notepad, an html publisher, or perhaps a word-processor (not suggested) which enables you to conserve by having an.html expansion. you may also make use of a readymade theme wherever you simply need certainly to include your hyperlinks and pictures in addition to your ready internet duplicate as well as your site is made.

you will find two kinds of site contractors: html (hyper-text markup words) and wysiwyg (that which you observe is that which you obtain) publishers. html publishers need while wysiwyg publishers need little if any code understanding you to discover several html-codes.

to ensure that you are in a position to fine-tune your online websites and alter any functions you do not like nevertheless, regardless of just how much you rely on you must discover several fundamental html rules. i would recommend that you simply signal your site manually and make use of a text-editor such as for instance notepad right from the start. you'll possess manage over each tiny, small depth of one's site in the event that you signal manually. you will find that code your sites manually is simpler than battling using the application to really get your site as you need to show just when you discover the fundamental html labels.

among the simplest choices for newbie’s is just a wysiwyg (that which you observe is that which you obtain) publisher that will be much like a word plan that is processing and it is super easy to make use of. nevertheless, these publishers should be named not very, although that which you observe is nearly that which you obtain publishers as numerous occasions these kinds of publishers may show your signal nearly, the manner in which you desire. additionally, they don't produce flash rules and effective html which mean you could need to alter and or remove a few of the code.

utilizing an html publisher is most likely second-best while you'll only have to discover modifying and several fundamental html rules the signal is simple. remember that html publishers frequently create "filthy signal", additional code that's not necessarily needed seriously to show you’re online web page properly. you'll need certainly to remove these additional rules to reduce the full time it requires for the website to fill. you will need to understand what codes could be securely erased which, obviously, implies that you'll have to know anything about html rules. additionally, html publishers create or don't identify most rules which means you could need to personally include rules for several functions that you simply want to your site. the html publisher that is very best is dreamweaver although it's expensive.

you'll try to learn if you are using a text-editor such as for instance notepad html code. because you'll need certainly to really create the html labels for the webpages this is.

it's not suggested because it provides additional figures which might create your own line site show improperly that you simply make use of a word-processing plan such as for instance msword. (should you choose to make use of a word-processing plan, you have to utilize one which enables you to conserve in.html or.htm exists.)

you'll wish to make use of the identical theme for each web page of one's school website design to make sure uniformity during your site. you are able to produce perhaps a text-editor such as for instance notepad or a theme utilizing possibly an html publisher or you should use a pre-constructed theme that you simply saved or get bought free of charge.

additionally accessible are online site contractors that are often contained in a bundle. the bundle frequently contains hosting, the website contractor, and other functions to get one regular charge.

here are a few benefits to utilizing an online site creator:

one. one organization provides everything;

two. the website contractor is generally a wysiwyg editor; zero abilities that are unique have to make use of the editor.

nevertheless, online site contractors aren't suggested for factors that are all:

one. that you don't possess direct access towards the signal;

two. the themes are restricted in quantity;

three. when the sponsor falls, you are able to completely shed your computer data (when the website wasn't precisely supported);

four. in case your website gets hijacked, you will shed your files all.

general, many people discover that the drawbacks of utilizing an online site contractor significantly outnumber the benefits. the directions supplied by the support that is hosting are often sufficient.

whichever technique you choose, creating and creating a website is of developing an effective website only a little section. among other activities, you'll need certainly to choose the content for the website, pick the suitable keywords for the information, and decide when it's constructed in the manner in which you may market your site. the will have to tackle several studies and most importantly, persistence will be needed by you. the easiest component would be one's web pages' real building.

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نکات listening آیلتس - free ielts lesson – academic listening test
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free ielts lesson – academic listening test

the ielts academic listening test is one area where teachers cannot help students as much as they can in other areas. the skill of listening is one that is developed by practice and there is not much a teacher can say to improve a student’s ability at it. what we can do is to give you some hints for doing the test and also show you the type of question that you will come up against when you do the test. after that, as much practice as possible is the way to improve. this practice can be doing actual ielts practice tests or by doing any form of listening in english.

the ielts academic listening test is approximately 40 minutes in length and there are four sections each with a separate listening p age. in each section there are 10 questions making 40 in all. sections 1 and 2 are based on social survival in an english speaking country and sections 3 and 4 are based on a more educational and training orientation. the actual tape lasts for about 30 minutes and then you have 10 minutes at the end of the listening in order to transfer your answers to the answer paper.

section 1 here you will listen to a conver ion between 2 people. the conver ion is divided into 2 parts. you have to answer 10 questions based on what you hear. at the start of section 1 you will have an example read out to you and then explained. this is then repeated when the listening starts properly.

section 2 here you will hear a monologue though it may include a second speaker asking questions in order to stimulate the monologue. the monologue is divided into 2 parts. you have to answer 10 questions based on what you hear.

section 3 here you will listen to a conver ion between 2, 3 or 4 people. the conver ion is divided into 2 parts. you have to answer 10 questions based on what you hear.

section 4 here you will hear a monologue though it may include a second speaker asking questions in order to stimulate the monologue. the monologue is divided into 2 parts. you have to answer 10 questions based on what you hear.

the main problem that candidates have with the ielts academic listening test is that the listening tape is only played once. therefore you have to be quite quick and very alert in order to pick up the answers, write them down and be ready for the next answer. another area where students have problems is that they are used to listening to a live speaker in front of them when they can look at the lips and the body movements. ielts candidates listen to a tape and this is not a natural skill. as i said above, you have to get as much practice with ielts practice tests at this skill as possible in order to maximise your chances of getting a good band.


there are 40 questions in the ielts academic listening test and 1 mark is awarded for each correct answer. there are no half marks. your final mark out of 40 is then converted to a band from 1 – 9 using a converting table and this band is then averaged with the other 3 parts of the test to give your final ielts band. band scores for the listening test and the final band are given as a whole band or a half band. the converting table used to change your mark out of 40 to the band out of 9 changes with every test. however, below you can see a rough guide that you can use to ess your practice. there is no guarantee that you will perform the same in the real test itself as the test converters vary with each test, but it can be a guide to your progress with the ielts practice tests that you use.

ielts academic listening test marks, bands and results

rough guide converter

score band



ielts academic listening test question types

in the ielts academic listening test the same types of question come up every time so it will help you to know what these types are. they are as follows:

multiple choice

short answer

sentence completion

notes/summary/diagram/flow chart/table completion

labeling a diagram with numbered parts

cl ification

matching lists/phrases

these question types can all be found in ielts practice tests including the ones in ielts help now ielts practice tests question papers. as usual, practice is the key. listening to tapes and doing the practice questions is the best possible preparation you can have.

practice for the ielts academic listening test

there are different types of practice that you can do to improve your listening skills for the ielts exam. the best, as i’ve said before, is to practice on specific ielts practice tests. after that though there are other things. listening to the radio is excellent as it is the same skill as the ielts listening test – listening to a voice without the speaker(s) being present. listening to the tv is good too but you can see the speaker. you could try turning your back to the tv as this will make it more realistic. listening to the news on tv and radio is probably the best practice you could do with these two media. you can also see english speaking films at the cinema or at home on tv or video. all these things will develop your listening skills. in the end though, using good quality ielts practice tests is the best strategy.

ielts academic listening test strategies

there isn’t much you can do but there some things. first of all, you get time to read the questions at the start of each section and mid-way in each section. use this time (usually 20 seconds) wisely. you should know in a nce all the questions before you hear the tape. at the end of the sections you also get some time to check your answers. use this time to check through and then turn ahead to read the next questions in a nce.

when you read the questions you can usually predict some of the types of answer that will come. for example, in section 1, if you can see that the test is asking for a telephone number, then you know you’ll be listening out for numbers and the word telephone. in the later sections this becomes more complicated but the same technique can be used. think about this when you are practising so you can develop this skill.

tips and ideas about the ielts academic listening test

as in all ielts tests, the questions get harder as it goes on. you will see from your practice that the types of listening and questions that you encounter in section 1 are more difficult in section 2 and so on. this does not mean that by section 4 they are impossible but they are more demanding linguistically.

beware of some questions which require a number (i.e.: a telephone number) or some letters (i.e.: a postcode) as sometimes what you think is the answer will be read out only for the speaker to correct him or her self and then say the correct answer.

an important tip is to answer all the questions as you hear them; don’t wait until later. sometimes people in these tests hear the correct answer but decide to remember the answer and write it down later so they can wait for the next answer. this i feel is a mistake. firstly, people will very often forget this answer and secondly, if you follow this method, you will have to remember up to 5 or 6 answers in a row before you can write them down. then you’ll forget even more.

as i said above, at the end of the test you have 10 minutes extra to transfer your answers from the question paper to the answer paper. some people put their answers directly onto the answer paper. i feel it’s better to write the answers on the question paper and use the 10 minutes given at the end for the transfer. writing the answers on the question paper allows you to keep your concentration on the questions and, if you make a mistake, it’s not so difficult to correct.

one area that students don’t like is that, in the listening test, good grammar and spelling are important. the grammar part is not so important as you can’t make many grammar errors in 3 words (the maximum you use in the listening test) but, if you spell something wrong, it will be marked as wrong. people think, quite rightly in my opinion, that the listening should test whether you understand what you heard and not how you spell something but these are the rules. so, be careful about your spelling!

if the question asks for no more than 3 words, use no more than 3 words. writing 4 words is wrong. you won’t be asked to do it in 3 words or less unless it is possible so don’t worry; it can always be done.

don’t panic if you miss an answer. if it has really gone, then it is history. worrying and panicking is only going to make you miss another one. one miss is probably not going to destroy your mark so calm down and listen for the next one. sometimes you think you have missed it but you are mistaken. if you are calm and keep listening, maybe the answer will come or even be repeated.

never leave a question unanswered; especially if it is only an a,b,c,d question or something similar. guess if you really don’t know. there are no marks taken away for wrong answers or even stupid answers. so, have a go! logic, general knowledge or just luck might give you the right answer!

anyway, work hard and good luck with the ielts academic listening test! i hope that this tutorial has helped you. below are links to the other free ielts academic tutorials. we strongly recommend that you practice for the tests with good ielts practice tests. of course, we would like you to use ours as we believe ours are excellent and the cheapest on the market, but any good ielts practice tests will do.

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five fundamentals for new managers
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posting date: february 06, 2014

by: wayne madden

if you’re managing others for the first time, it’s natural to feel a bit of anxiety about your new role. to help you start off on the right foot, here are five mana ent fundamentals that will put you on the path to managerial success.

1. forget the word “boss.” terms like boss and supervisor were appropriate during the industrial revolution when there were clear distinctions between the “white-collar” elite and the “blue-collar” workers they supervised. today, those words simply aren’t an accurate portrayal of this new role you are taking on, and they could have a negative effect on you.

instead, use terms like these: “chief-collaborator,” “team-leader,” “obstacle-remover,” “advisor,” and “the-buck-stops-here-person.” sure, they are mostly made-up terms that may seem silly at first. and, certainly, no one is going to address you using any of them. (your team should just call you by your name). however, i believe that keeping these types of terms in mind will give you the right perspective. your role as a manager is not to boss people around or just to supervise their work. your role is to ensure that you and your team members work effectively as individuals and a team to accomplish or exceed your individual and team goals with the least amount of resistance, the maximum use of effort, time, and talent, and the appropriate amount of recognition, praise, and compen ion.

keeping my made-up terms in mind, you can think of your role in ways that are more accurate for today’s workplace:
  • you collaborate with team members, engaging them to create ideas or solve problems, but you are surely the “chief” collaborator as you seek consensus while remaining accountable for making final decisions.
  • you are a team leader in that you must lead by example. like the coxswain of a boat, you coordinate and weave together the actions of the team for maximum effect.
  • you work to remove any obstacles (e.g., interdepartment issues, unexpected obstacles with customers, system or application inefficiencies or gaps, gaps in talent).
  • you serve as an advisor to those who work for you, giving perspective on strengths and weaknesses, advising on how to improve skills and excel, and advising on how they can best engage successfully with the team and the organization.
  • you decide early on to be accountable for you and your team and realize that the buck does and must stop with you (and realize that in the world of “mana ent,” you will be held accountable). throwing your team members under the bus won’t cut it. you are accountable.

2. be honest
this one is really important. you should be honest with those who work for you and with you and expect the same in return. if you sacrifice your integrity as a manager, you will certainly fail in the first step toward true leadership, which is to gain and share mutual trust and respect.

ralph waldo emerson said, “nothing astonishes men so much as common sense and plain dealing.” you will get a very positive reaction from others when you “deal plainly,” meaning, when you are transparent, open, and honest in the way you deal with people. here are some ways to accomplish this:

  • know yourself. identify your strengths, limitations, weaknesses, opportunities for growth, etc., and simply be honest about those when managing situations and people.
  • be truthful. tell the truth, but be tactful when discussing something that might be painful or perhaps surprise or offend someone.
  • operate with integrity and clarity. speak and act in such a way that you are seen as consistently clear about your words and actions, and reasons for them both.
  • honor others. start with the presumption that everyone is of value and worthy of civility and respect. i cannot tell you how many times i have seen managers derail their effectiveness and potential by simply dishonoring others through gossip, disrespectful words, or other means when they thought only of trying to make themselves look good.

3. show comp ion
comp ion is a very powerful mana ent tool. try to “walk in others’ shoes” and see things from a different perspective. take the time to ask someone to expand on what is going on in their head or heart that may be influencing their responses or behavior, then acknowledge their feelings and thoughts. are they feeling overwhelmed by work because of a lack of knowledge or training or because they are stretched too thin? do they feel unde preciated? are they lacking perspective? are they just stressed in the moment and freaking out?

put comp ion into action by doing the following:

  • listen well and empathize. try to get beyond the person’s first wave of emotion by asking probing questions to find out what is really going on. think before you react. seek to understand, then ask them to listen to your perspective, advice, or decision.
  • be genuinely caring. if you go to work only caring about yourself, it is going to be hard to connect with others and hard to be an effective manager.
  • share some of yourself. there will be times when you can best help someone by sharing something about yourself—your thoughts, desires, actions, failures, or successes. your experience may be the example someone needs to deal with a challenge, so humbly share a bit of yourself as appropriate.
  • admit your own mistakes. by showing a willingness to admit your own mistakes and shortcomings, you can help your team overcome feelings of vulnerability or fear. they see that you are human, like them, and that you have experienced similar situations.

4. set clear expectations
if you want your team to deliver what you expect you must clearly outline both the results you are looking for and how you will measure their progress. there is nothing more frustrating for employees than finding out that what they are doing is not what was expected, or hearing at their annual review that you have had unspoken issues with their performance. so, set expectations for behavior and results, and communicate any ongoing concerns or praise through regular employee coaching sessions.

here are a few tips for setting expectations:

  • do what you say you’re going to do. saying no to giving istance is much better than saying yes and then failing to deliver, leaving someone in the lurch.
  • model follow through by your own actions
  • be clear about expected outcomes. when discussing an ignment or task with someone you manage, clearly state what you expect and ask the person to state any questions or concerns up front. address those questions or concerns clearly and honestly.
  • avoid last-minute “curve balls.” if expectations change or if you have concerns about progress or performance, communicate that quickly and give team members an opportunity to adapt.
  • consistently demonstrate that you honor true effort. your direct reports will not always achieve stated goals or deliver exactly as expected. if you know that they gave their all, honor that effort as you then examine what obstacles may have prevented the expected results.
  • be generous with praise. you simply cannot give enough recognition to people who are doing a good job.

5. keep it positive
there is no more dangerous path for a manager than the road to negativity. joining in on negative commentary regarding the company, another manager, a worker, a department, etc., will render you ineffective and will erode your team’s confidence in you by subtly eating away the foundation of mutual trust and respect. in addition, by joining in on negativity regarding the organization, its leaders, or its systems, you model and promote bad behaviors and attitudes.

you want your team to know you are on their side. however, there are ways you can do this without indulging in negativity. you can acknowledge their concerns and say that you understand why they might have a given view. you can ask them what solution they would like. you can then attempt to address their concerns with the right people and report back to your team. these actions build confidence, trust, and respect, and demonstrate true leadership versus just being “one of the gang.” be a champion for your team by resolving problems in a positive manner. give support to your organization’s leadership by taking any specific concerns you have directly to your manager, instead of discussing them with your direct reports.

summary becoming a first-time manager is very exciting and presents you with an opportunity to move up in the company, gain recognition, and directly influence results and success. however, this new role also brings new accountability and, possibly, some new fears. remember, every manager and leader was new to the role at some point. my last suggestion to you is to find a mentor in your own organization who is regarded as a “good” manager and buy him or her lunch or a cup of coffee in exchange for their open ears and sound advice.

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ترجمه مطبوعاتی، متن ششم
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12 steps to building the ideal lifestyle

1. define the ideal lifestyle

for a start, ask yourself those two questions: “what do i want my life to be like?” and “who do i want to be in it?”. answer them in the best and most honest way possible, because this will be your definition of what you want in life and who you want to become, and will eventually become your reality after some time.

an important thing you don’t want to miss is accepting the idea that you need to become someone else in order to live another kind of lifestyle. many people thing what could they improve in the outer world and tend to forget that many inner changes will happen too that are often more crucial. so be aware of that and embrace the qualities you need to build to become that person.

2. eliminate the unnecessary

without doing this, you can’t go any further. because there are many things in your life right now that are preventing you from moving on. they may be people, thoughts, events, habits and so on. what you need to do is to eliminate them because they don’t have a place in your ideal lifestyle.

i don’t want to repeat myself (i’ve already written about it in a previous post), so here are the things that hold you back.

3. find what works best for you

now that you have eliminated the unnecessary, you can make another step in your personal development. and this is the time to try and fail as much as possible. what i mean is, you need to find what works best for you. and the best way is to try as many different things as you can and preferably fail many times. because there is no better teacher than experience and once you fail at something, you will know whether or not it’s for you and if it’s worth working on it.

experiment with everything.you will eventually find our which is the best sport for you, the foods that give you energy and boost your metabolism, the best time during the day for personal projects or working, the habits you need to establish, how you want to look, talk and behave and so on. you may decide that waking up at 5 a.m. is just not your things and although it’s connected with productivity and most successful people do it, you’re just more productive around lunch, or in the evening. so listen to your instincts in this case and do what’s best for you.

test different sleep patterns, working hours, behavior, motivation strategies and so on. find your thing and stick to it.

4. build a few keystone habits

a keystone habit is a habit that provokes a chain of other activities that are good for you.

getting up early for me is connected to a morning ritual with a healthy breakfast, a quick workout and a positive start of the day. this usually includes reading affirmations out loud and writing something. going to the gym every day helps me stay on track. it’s followed by alternating and cold showers and staying motivated for the rest of the day. the earlier you build such habits, the better. once you make them stick], everything else will improve too. so work on them now and concentrate on other things later.

here are the best habits you can start implementing now:

  • working out;

  • meditating;

  • eating healthy;

  • getting up early;

  • planning your day from the night before;

they are proven to work wonders and it’s very important to stick to them no matter what. just make them lifelong habits and do the certain thing even if you’re on a vacation, even after you’ve had a bad day, even when everything seems pointless.

5. find you p ion

this can happen by listening to your inner voice, focusing on the things you enjoy doing, and trying new things.

the point is to not only find it, but also embrace it, get better in this things and make it an essential part of your daily life.

that will brings you such happiness, contentedness and purpose that you’ll never doubt it’s your thing.

تا انتهای این پاراگراف ترجمه کنید.

6. make it your job

here things get a little harder as you’ll need to work on your p ion as you’ve probably never worked before in your life. but the difference this time is that you’ll be doing something you love, so you can’t really call it working.

if you want to become a writer, write every single day, whenever you can. try to improve your writing at the same time and find ways to promote your work.

if you are a gym freak, master your performance in the gym. shape your body. learn everything in this niche and get a certificate. become a personal trainer and help others achieve the body you want. this way you’ll communicate only with people willing to improve themselves and will spend most of your days in the gym. maybe open one of your own one day.

i gave two totally random examples because i wanted to show you how absolutely everything in this world can be mastered and turned into something prosperous. once you find what your p ion is, work hard on it, dedicate time, energy and effort, believe in it every single day, you’ll manage to make it your job.

and this will be a dream job. one that perfectly suits an ideal lifestyle.

7. decide what time you want to spend working

arrange things in such a way that you’ll be able to work every second week, a few hours each day, or 4 days in a week. it could be anything.

but this, of course, will be after you’ve worked hard enough and long enough (a year or so) and have turned what you love into a business.

8. travel often

traveling is one of the best things you can do in life. it’s important to make it something you’ll do at least once or twice a year. preferably every 2-3 months. most people usually travel to get out of reality and forget about their problems. but you’ve build such a lifestyle that has a great reality and you don’t want escape from it. traveling is just because you don’t want to get stuck, to miss out on the beautiful things the world has to offer. you will refind yourself too while doing it, learn a lot about other cultures and see the beauty of life.

this way your life will never be sedentary and you’ll never get bored.

9. have hobbies

find out other things you enjoy doing and dedicate time to them every now and then.

10. be always on the go

never miss an opportunity to learn something new. no matter who you are now and what your income is, you always have what to learn.

don’t neglect your spiritual and mental world. meditate, read good books and find inspiration.

11. always be open for new things

try to do something new and something you fear a few times a month.

it may be approaching strangers, bungee jumping, public speaking, dancing, visiting new countries, trying new sports, etc.

each of them will be an amazing experience and will make your life even more exciting.

12. give and be grateful

giving is the best investment and can make you way more contented than buying new stuff. so be able to give as much as you can, be it advice, help, encoura ent, money, stuff you don’t use and need. volunteer or give for charity. also never forget to be grateful. each step of this journey should go along with appreciation. everything you have, even when it’s not more, is amazing and a big reason to feel deeply grateful. express that feeling everyday towards the things, people, events and stuff in your life.

you see, building the ideal lifestyle may take some time, but it’s not impossible. actually anyone can have it. they just need a burning desire to achieve all that, willingness to sacrifice, patience and a strong belief.

eventually, they’ll understand it’s all worth it. and enjoying the journey is one of the things that make the ideal lifestyle such a sweet experience.

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guitar envy – what it is and why we mustn’t catch it
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guitar envy - what it is and why we mustn't catch it



  • guitar envy - what it is and why we mustn't catch it

    i am sure we have all at one time or another suffered from this illness. thankfully, there is a cure for it. but if left untreated it can linger for a long time and seriously hamper a person’s ability to play the guitar.

    so, what is it and more importantly how do you avoid it!

    first, let’s look at what guitar envy is. well, it is an infection that attacks the ego and emotional nervous system. it causes a loss of direction and discipline, and makes us start questioning our own abilities and doubt those around us that we turn to for guidance and learning, i.e. our teacher.

    now, please, don’t confuse guitar envy with inspiration and a drive. these two are completely different and exist on the separate ends of the learning spectrum.

    so, where do we catch this infection. well, the most common place is down at your local store or now even through the internet on youtube.

    what we must avoid is the guitarist plugged into the biggest rig with lots of foot pedals and playing the most expensive guitar in the store. he, and i say he because females (no offense, lots of great female guitarists out there) don’t tend to infect people the same, they have other ways of beguiling us. no, this is sadly a male thing.

    next thing you hear is fast neo cl ical or joe riani licks followed by strong eye contact from the player as though he is laying down a challenge reminiscent of the final scenes from the crossroads movie. you start to sweat and the walls of the store close in around you. you look at the new strat on the wall that you were about to try, and suddenly you think what if i when i plug it in and play. you worry that people in the store will start to laugh and smirk and maybe even ask you to stop playing as you are putting them off purchasing a set of guitar picks they e in to buy.

    it’s at this terrifying moment that you are at your most vulnerable, what you feel like doing is going home, locking the door to your bedroom, getting your book on 25 cool lick by yngwie malmsteen and keep playing until you can play one as fast as you can. you ignore your mates, your wife or friend and stop taking calls from your guitar teacher worried that you have missed your lessons. you are annoyed with him because he didn’t teach you how to play a fast cool lick from the start. this, i am afraid, is the main diagnosis of guitar envy.

    you might even go back to the store to listen or even chat with the guy and even ask him who his teacher is. the usual reply is that he doesn’t need one, but if you want he will show you some cool licks and some tricks that he learnt. the other usual comments will be that he doesn’t play in a band as he can’t find a band that likes the stuff he likes or they just want to play the usual songs everyone else is playing.

    so you return to your room and keep working on your lick. after weeks of practicing you are finally ready. of course, you will need the big rig and a huge array of pedals as described on the rig guide video. finally, you pick up the strat you first looked at weeks ago and now you are ready to go. you blast into your lick trying to play even quicker than you did in your bedroom. as the dust settles and noise fades in the distance you look around the store. to your amazement no one seems even remotely interested in what you played. if anything they look happier now you stopped. you think, what could have gone wrong, why is no one wanting to cheer and say cool lick mate. or even better ask you to join their band that’s playing down the road tonight opening for guns ‘n’ roses.

    you walk out the store feeling dejected and down, you go back to room and practice the riff even more, determined to play even faster. you are totally fixated on showing those people in the store you can play the guitar because you can play that lick just as good if not better than the other geezer.

    it’s at this point hopefully you will find help, be it from a friend or family member. who will tell you that the lick is boring them to death and that you sounded better before you started playing that annoying lick, and why don’t you go back to playing your old songs and go back to taking lessons.

    feeling downright unhappy you pop down your store and your guitar friend is back. you know as you walk through the door it’s him as he is playing the same lick that he played when you first saw him all these weeks before. in desperation you ask him what else he can play. the usual reply back is he only plays these licks, doesn’t like to play anything else as they .

    at this point you either finally wake up, or you become that guys bff.

    if it’s the later, then you are on your own. however, if you finally start to wake up you will realize the illness and start on the road to recovery.

    let’s look at the symptoms, and cure.

    first, playing the guitar is not about how fast you are or how cool the lick sounds in the store.

    being a teacher i have worked out of many stores over the years and i would always walk into the sales area during my break time. i would see familiar faces during busy times of the week. they would play their guitar lick, then check out the response from the clientele. at first being genially impressed i used to come up and compliment them on the skills. but then after being caught up in a casual conver ion with them enough times, asking a few question like “cool scale run isn’t that a harmonic minor run or phrygian dominant lick” i discovered through the responses i got back that they didn’t have a clue what i was talking about. i could mention that the lick sounds better if you change key by dropping down to e but would only get a vague look and even a slight look of contempt.

    what is very clear is that they learned their lick from a video or online source, could play it note perfect in certain cases but if they had to step outside that box they would be lost.

    my point is this. don’t get caught up in guitar envy. the times for playing the cool licks will eventually come but as a ian it is more important to know and understand what you are playing and how you can use it ally. a good teacher won’t show you certain quick fire licks just to impress people. they will show you technique, accuracy, and information that you can build from, so you can grow as a guitarist. in a sense focus on the long game, take your time and set goals that are realistic and achievable.

    so the next time you venture into your store, pick up that “strat”, plug it in and just play what you know and feel comfortable with. if it’s the first few bars of “smoke on the water” or “stairway to heaven” well, congratulations, and take a pat on the back. keep practicing, keep learning and stay focused on your playing.

    eventually you might get the gig for the band that is opening for guns ‘n’ roses.


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کلاس ترجمه متون حقوقی- شنبه 20-16 - دانشکده خبر
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five signs you’re in the wrong job

you’re not quite content at work, nevertheless you shuttle to and fro your job every business day. you know that nothing in life is perfect, so you do your best to placate the sneaking suspicion that something’s off -- that you’re in the wrong job. is your job an ominous presence you should exorcise from your life? you certainly don’t need to be m. night shyamalan to see the signs.

sign no. 1: you’re a loner at work
you’re not a social pariah, yet you have no friends at work. you’re not clicking with anyone in your office. you’re unable to forge a connection with your coworkers beyond exchanging the most rudimentary pleasantries. you go in, you do your job and you leave.
what’s keeping you from bonding? are you too different in terms of age, culture or style? be honest. is the kitten appliqué on your colleague’s sweatshirt keeping you two from hitting it off? shallow as it sounds, maybe you need to be in a work environment with colleagues who match up with you a little better. working without your peeps is long, dry and alienating. your productivity depends on friends -- and so does your long-term happiness.

sign no. 2: you’re ashamed of your job
here’s a sure sign you’re in the wrong job. you can’t bring yourself to tell people what you do. think how much your shame will impede your ability to be effective in your job and how many networking opportunities you’ll miss if you hide behind euphemistic statements like “i’m in property mana ent” when, in fact, you run an adult movie theater.
whether you manufacture or toilet paper, take pride in how well you do your job. if you aren’t proud of your work you’ll never be able to derive isfaction from it.

sign no. 3: your workload overwhelms you
it’s normal to feel a little frazzled now and again, especially amid pressure-cooker deadlines and quarter-end quotas. but it’s not a good sign if you routinely carry on like a decapitated chicken. you’re in the wrong job if you have more work than you’re capable of doing in the allotted time.
it’s also not a good sign if you’re so overwhelmed that you experience frequent bouts of anxiety. you’re agitated. you’re emotional. you have mood swings. one minute you’re on your daily commute laughing at something you heard on sports radio and the next minute you're sobbing inconsolably because somebody cut you off on the road.

sign no. 4: you’re stagnating at work
you’re underutilizing your skills to the point of atrophy. this is not quite the same as being overqualified. you can still be in the right job even if it’s beneath your level of expertise. but it’s a bad sign if you’re losing the stuff that makes you stand out professionally. unless you use and develop most skills regularly, you’ll lose them and fall behind.
what to do? renew your membership to a trade ociation, keep current with required training or work a minimum number of hours in your specialization. you’re in the wrong job if you can’t or don’t have time to do these things.

sign no. 5: there’s no growth and development in your job
somewhere along the way you landed a job, and the company mistook you for a mere functionary. or maybe you mistook yourself for a mere functionary. your job contains zero element of discovery. in reality, you’re a student of life and have plenty left to learn. it’s your responsibility to continue your education. you’re in the wrong job if you’re not exposed to learning opportunities or aren’t taking a ntage of them.
opportunities don’t hide under rocks. they’re all around you -- at industry events, weekend seminars, webinars. most companies have budget to send their staff for professional development and training when it’s relevant to the job. find out what your employer’s policy is.
if you can’t access company funding, take a ntage of your fellow colleagues and clients. if you’re new to the job, learn from the tenured people. if you’re a veteran, learn from the newbie with the fresh perspective. the key is to keep an open mind and recognize the chances you’re given to grow and develop.
if you recognize yourself a little too much in these menacing signs, then use them as a wake-up call. you owe it to yourself to look around for something worthy of your time and energy.

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متن مربوط به درس ترجمه متون رسمی - فرهنگ و هنر کد b- یکشنبه 19-17
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five signs you’re in the wrong job

you’re not quite content at work, nevertheless you shuttle to and fro your job every business day. you know that nothing in life is perfect, so you do your best to placate the sneaking suspicion that something’s off -- that you’re in the wrong job. is your job an ominous presence you should exorcise from your life? you certainly don’t need to be m. night shyamalan to see the signs.

sign no. 1: you’re a loner at work
you’re not a social pariah, yet you have no friends at work. you’re not clicking with anyone in your office. you’re unable to forge a connection with your coworkers beyond exchanging the most rudimentary pleasantries. you go in, you do your job and you leave.
what’s keeping you from bonding? are you too different in terms of age, culture or style? be honest. is the kitten appliqué on your colleague’s sweatshirt keeping you two from hitting it off? shallow as it sounds, maybe you need to be in a work environment with colleagues who match up with you a little better. working without your peeps is long, dry and alienating. your productivity depends on friends -- and so does your long-term happiness.

sign no. 2: you’re ashamed of your job
here’s a sure sign you’re in the wrong job. you can’t bring yourself to tell people what you do. think how much your shame will impede your ability to be effective in your job and how many networking opportunities you’ll miss if you hide behind euphemistic statements like “i’m in property mana ent” when, in fact, you run an adult movie theater.
whether you manufacture or toilet paper, take pride in how well you do your job. if you aren’t proud of your work you’ll never be able to derive isfaction from it.

sign no. 3: your workload overwhelms you
it’s normal to feel a little frazzled now and again, especially amid pressure-cooker deadlines and quarter-end quotas. but it’s not a good sign if you routinely carry on like a decapitated chicken. you’re in the wrong job if you have more work than you’re capable of doing in the allotted time.
it’s also not a good sign if you’re so overwhelmed that you experience frequent bouts of anxiety. you’re agitated. you’re emotional. you have mood swings. one minute you’re on your daily commute laughing at something you heard on sports radio and the next minute you're sobbing inconsolably because somebody cut you off on the road.

sign no. 4: you’re stagnating at work
you’re underutilizing your skills to the point of atrophy. this is not quite the same as being overqualified. you can still be in the right job even if it’s beneath your level of expertise. but it’s a bad sign if you’re losing the stuff that makes you stand out professionally. unless you use and develop most skills regularly, you’ll lose them and fall behind.
what to do? renew your membership to a trade ociation, keep current with required training or work a minimum number of hours in your specialization. you’re in the wrong job if you can’t or don’t have time to do these things.

sign no. 5: there’s no growth and development in your job
somewhere along the way you landed a job, and the company mistook you for a mere functionary. or maybe you mistook yourself for a mere functionary. your job contains zero element of discovery. in reality, you’re a student of life and have plenty left to learn. it’s your responsibility to continue your education. you’re in the wrong job if you’re not exposed to learning opportunities or aren’t taking a ntage of them.
opportunities don’t hide under rocks. they’re all around you -- at industry events, weekend seminars, webinars. most companies have budget to send their staff for professional development and training when it’s relevant to the job. find out what your employer’s policy is.
if you can’t access company funding, take a ntage of your fellow colleagues and clients. if you’re new to the job, learn from the tenured people. if you’re a veteran, learn from the newbie with the fresh perspective. the key is to keep an open mind and recognize the chances you’re given to grow and develop.
if you recognize yourself a little too much in these menacing signs, then use them as a wake-up call. you owe it to yourself to look around for something worthy of your time and energy.

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how you can help save the planet
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plant a notion
"going green" doesn't have to be a difficult task. simple things can make a difference.the contents of this list might not be new, but they bear repeating. sometimes it takes a few reminders for things take root

1. change your light
if every household in the united state replaced one regular lightbulb with one of those new compact fluorescent bulbs, the pollution reduction would be equivalent to removing one million cars from the road.

don't like the color of light? use these bulbs for closets, laundry rooms and other places where it won't irk you as much.

2. turn off computers at night
by turning off your computer instead of leaving it in sleep mode, you can save 40 watt-hours per day. that adds up to 4 cents a day, or $14 per year. if you don't want to wait for your computer to start up, set it to turn on automatically a few minutes before you get to work, or boot up while you're pouring your morning cup 'o joe.

 3. don't rinse
skip rinsing dishes before using your dishwasher and save up to 20 gallons of water each load. plus, you're saving time and the energy used to heat the additional water.

4. do not pre-heat the oven
unless you are making bread or pastries of some sort, don't pre-heat the oven. just turn it on when you put the dish in. also, when checking on your food, look through the oven window instead of opening the door.

5. recycle gl
recycled gl reduces related air pollution by 20 percent and related water pollution by 50 percent. if it isn't recycled it can take a million years to decompose.

6. diaper with a conscience
by the time a child is toilet trained, a parent will change between 5,000 and 8,000 diapers, adding up to approximately 3.5 million tons of waste in u.s. landfills each year. whether you choose cloth or a more environmentally-friendly disposable, you're making a choice that has a much gentler impact on our planet.

7. hang dry
get a clothesline or rack to dry your clothes by the air. your wardrobe will maintain color and fit, and you'll save money.your favorite t-shirt will last longer too.

8. go vegetarian once a week
one less meat-based meal a week helps the planet and your diet. for example: it requires 2,500 gallons of water to produce one pound of beef. you will also also save some trees. for each hamburger that originated from animals raised on rainforest land, approximately 55 square feet of forest have been destroyed.

9. wash in cold or warm
if all the households in the u.s. switched from - cycle to warm-cold, we could save the energy comparable to 100,000 barrels of oil a day.only launder when you have a full load.

10. use one less paper napkin
during an average year, an american uses approximately 2,200 napkins—around six each day. if everyone in the u.s. used one less napkin a day, more than a billion pounds of napkins could be saved from landfills each year.

11. use both sides of paper
american businesses throw away 21 million tons of paper every year, equal to 175 pounds per office worker. for a quick and easy way to halve this, set your printer's default option to print double-sided (duplex printing). and when you're finished with your documents, don't forget to take them to the recycling bin.

12. recycle newspaper
there are 63 million newspapers printed each day in the u.s. of these, 44 million, or about 69%, of them will be thrown away. recycling just the sunday papers would save more than half a million trees every week.

13. w creatively
you can reuse gift bags, bows and event paper, but you can also make something unique by using old maps, cloth or even newspaper. flip a paper grocery bag inside out and give your child stamps or markers to create their own w ping paper that's environmentally friendly and extra special for the recipient.

14. rethink bottled water
nearly 90% of plastic water bottles are not recycled, instead taking thousands of years to decompose. buy a reusable container and fill it with tap water, a great choice for the environment, your wallet, and possibly your health. the epa's standards for tap water are more stringent than the fda's standards for bottled water.

15. ban bathtime!
have a no-bath week, and take showers instead. baths require almost twice as much water. not only will you reduce water consumption, but the energy costs ociated with heating the water.

16. brush without running
you've heard this one before, but maybe you still do it. you'll conserve up to five gallons per day if you stop. daily savings in the u.s. alone could add up to 1.5 billion gallons--more water than folks use in the big apple.

17. shower with your partner
sneak in a shower with your loved one to start the day with some zest that doesn't come in a bar. not only have you made a wise choice for the environment, but you may notice some other added...um...benefits.

18. take a shorter shower
every two minutes you save on your shower can conserve more than ten gallons of water. if everyone in the country saved just one gallon from their daily shower, over the course of the year it would equal twice the amount of freshwater withdrawn from the great lakes every day.

19. plant a tree
it's good for the air, the land, can shade your house and save on cooling (plant on the west side of your home), and they can also improve the value of your property.make it meaningful for the whole family and plant a tree every year for each member.

20. use your cruise control
you paid for those extra ons in your car, so put them to work! when using cruise control your vehicle could get up to 15% better mileage. considering today's gasoline prices, this is a boon not only for the environment but your budget as well.

21. second-hand doesn't mean second-best
consider buying items from a second-hand store. toys, bicycles, roller blades, and other age and size-specific items are quickly outgrown. second hand stores often sell these items in excellent condition since they are used for such a short period of time, and will generally buy them back when you no longer need them.

22. buy local
consider the amount of pollution created to get your food from the farm to your table. whenever possible, buy from local farmers or farmers' markets, supporting your local economy and reducing the amount of greenhouse gas created when products are flown or trucked in.

23. adjust your thermostat
adjust your thermostat one degree higher in the summer and one degree cooler in the winter. each degree celsius less will save about 10% on your energy use! in addition, invest in a programmable thermostat which allows you to regulate temperature based on the times you are at home or away.

24. invest in your own coffee cup
if you start every morning with a steamy cup, a quick tabulation can show you that the waste is piling up. invest in a reusable cup, which not only cuts down on waste, but keeps your beverage for a much longer time. most coffee shops will happily fill your own cup, and many even offer you a discount in exchange!

25. batch errands
feel like you spend your whole week trying to catch up with the errands? take a few moments once a week to make a list of all the errands that need to get done, and see if you can batch them into one trip. not only will you be saving gasoline, but you might find yourself with much better time-mana ent skills.

26. turn off lights
always turn off incandescent bulbs when you leave a room. fluorescent bulbs are more affected by the number of times it is switched on and off, so turn them off when you leave a room for 15 minutes or more. you'll save energy on the bulb itself, but also on cooling costs, as lights contribute heat to a room.

27. greener lawn care
if you must water your lawn, do it early in the morning before any moisture is lost to evaporation. have a few weeds? spot treat them with vinegar. not sure if you should rake? normal clippings act as a natural fertilizer, let them be. if you've waited too long, rake by hand — it's excellent exercise.

28. picnic with a marker
some time in between the artichoke dip and the coleslaw, you lost track of your cup, and now there are a sea of matching cups on the table, one of which might be yours. the next time you picnic, set out permanent marker next to disposable dinnerware so guests can mark their cup and everyone will only use one.

29. recycle old cell phones
the average cell phone lasts around 18 months, which means 130 million phones will be retired each year. if they go into landfills, the phones and their batteries introduce toxic substances into our environment. there are plenty of reputable programs where you can recycle your phone, many which benefit noble causes.

30. maintain your vehicle
not only are you extending the life of your vehicle, but you are creating less pollution and saving gas. a properly maintained vehicle, clean air filters, and inflated tires can greatly improve your vehicle's performance. and it might not hurt to clean out the trunk—all that extra weight could be costing you at the pump.

31. recycle unwanted wire hangers
wire hangers are generally made of steel, which is often not accepted by some recycling programs. so what do you do with them? most dry cleaners will accept them back to reuse or recycle. (cue joan crawford.)

32. recycle aluminum and gl
twenty recycled aluminium cans can be made with the energy it takes to manufacture one brand new one.every ton of gl recycled saves the equivalent of nine gallons of fuel oil needed to make gl from virgin materials.

33. telecommute
see if you can work out an arran ent with your employer that you work from home for some portion of the week. not only will you save money and gasoline, and you get to work in your pajamas!

34. keep your fireplace damper closed
keeping the damper open (when you're not using your fireplace) is like keeping a 48-inch window wide open during the winter; it allows warm air to go right up the chimney. this can add up to hundreds of dollars each winter in energy loss.

35. cut down on junk mail
feel like you need to lose a few pounds? it might be your junk mail that's weighing you down. the average american receives 40 pounds of junk mail each year, destroying 100 millions trees. there are many services that can help reduce the clutter in your mailbox, saving trees and the precious space on your countertops.

36. choose matches over lighters
most lighters are made out of plastic and filled with butane fuel, both petroleum products. since most lighters are considered "disposable," over 1.5 billion end up in landfills each year. when choosing matches, pick cardboard over wood. wood matches come from trees, whereas most cardboard matches are made from recycled paper.

37. let your fingers do the walking—online
consider if you really need a paper phone book. if not, call to stop phone book delivery and use an online directory instead. some estimate that telephone books make up almost ten percent of waste at dump sites. and if you still receive the book, don't forget to recycle your old volumes.

38. give it away
before you throw something away, think about if someone else might need it. either donate to a charitable organization or post it on a web site designed to connect people and things, such as freecycle.org.

39. go to a car wash
professional car washes are often more efficient with water consumption. if everyone in the u.s. who washes their car themselves took just one visit to the car wash we could save nearly 8.7 billion gallons of water.

40. plastic bags
each year the u.s. uses 84 billion plastic bags, a significant portion of the 500 billion used worldwide. they are not biodegradable, and are making their way into our oceans, and subsequently, the food chain. stronger, reusable bags are an inexpensive and readily available option.

41. fly with an e-ticket
the cost of processing a paper ticket is approximately $10, while processing an e-ticket costs only $1. in the near future, e-tickets will be the only option, saving the airline industry $3 billion a year. in addition to financial savings, the sheer amount of paper eliminated by this process is commendable.

42. your software
most software comes on a compact disc, and more than thirty billion compact discs of all types are sold annually. that's a huge amount of waste, not to mention the ociated packaging. another bonus to ing your software is that it's often available for at a later date when you upgrade to a new computer or are attempting to recover from a crash.

43. stop your answering machine
answering machines use energy 24 hours a day, seven days a week. and when they break, they're just one more thing that goes into the landfill. if all answering machines in u.s. homes were eventually replaced by voice mail services, the annual energy savings would total nearly two billion kilowatt-hours.

44. skip the coffee stirrer
each year, americans throw away 138 billion straws and stirrers. but skipping the stirrer doesn't mean drinking your coffee black. simply put your sugar and cream in first, and then pour in the coffee, and it should be well mixed.determined to stir? break off a piece of pasta from the cupboard. you can nibble after using it, compost, or throw away with less guilt.


45. find a better way to break the ice
when a big winter storm heads our way, most of us use some sort of ice melter to treat steps and sidewalks. while this makes the sidewalks safer for people, it may pose a hazard for pets who might ingest these products. rock salt and salt-based ice-melting products can cause health problems as well as contaminate wells and drinking water. look for a pet-safe deicer, readily available in many stores.

46. use cotton swabs with a paperboard spindle
some brands of cotton swabs have a paperboard spindle while others are made of plastic. if 10% of u.s. households switched to a paperboard spindle, the petroleum energy saved per year would be equivalent to over 150,000 gallons of gasoline.

47. pay bills online
by some estimates, if all households in the u.s. paid their bills online and received electronic statements instead of paper, we'd save 18.5 million trees every year, 2.2 billion tons of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, and 1.7 billion pounds of solid waste.

48. stop paper bank statements
some banks will pay you a dollar or donate money on your behalf when you cancel the monthly paper statements you get in the mail. if every household took a ntage of online bank statements, the money saved could send more than seventeen thousand recent high school graduates to a public university for a year.

49. use rechargable batteries
each year 15 billion batteries produced and sold and most of them are disposable alkaline batteries. only a fraction of those are recycled. buy a charger and a few sets of rechargeable batteries. although it requires an upfront investment, it is one that should pay off in no time. and on christmas morning when all the stores are closed? you'll be fully stocked.

50. share!
take what you've learned, and p the knowledge on to others. if every person you know could take one small step toward being greener, the collective effort could be phenomenal. 

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credit to : www. thewallanalysis. com
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hey you

[david gilmour]
hey you, out there in the cold
getting lonely, getting old, can you feel me?
hey you, standing in the aisles
with itchy feet and fading smiles, can you feel me?
hey you, don't help them to bury the light
don't give in without a fight.
hey you, out there on your own
sitting naked by the phone, would you touch me?
hey you, with you ear against the wall
waiting for someone to call out, would you touch me?
hey you, would you help me to carry the stone?
open your heart, i'm coming home.
[roger waters]
but it was only fantasy.
the wall was too high, as you can see.
no matter how he tried, he could not break free.
and the worms ate into his brain.
hey you, out there on the road
always doing what you're told, can you help me?
hey you, out there beyond the wall,
breaking bottles in the hall, can you help me?
hey you, don't tell me there's no hope at all.
together we stand, divided we fall.

song in a sentence:

immediately after finishing his wall, pink begins to wonder (too little, too late) whether he’s made the right decision in completely isolating himself from the world.


l ike “another brick in the wall, part 2” and “comfortably numb,” “hey you” is played so much on cl ic rock radio stations across the globe that its context within the album is often a secondary point if not altogether forgotten. for some, the song is a perfect introduction to the album’s second half, rehashing the larger themes at play in the first half. others argue that, great song though it is, it’s more than a little out of place on the album both narratively and thematically, and that the movie got it right in excising it completely. but more on this in a minute.

the story recommences with the well-known delicate riff played on a reverb-laden twelve-string guitar, the haunting echoes of a singular guitar riff mirroring the expansive void of pink’s inner world after the completion of his wall. while “in the flesh?” announced pink’s birth into life (and into the album) with thundering drums and wailing guitars, our hero’s (or anti-hero’s) delivery into his new, dis ociated world is heralded with far less fanfare. a fretless b finally joins the lone guitar before giving way to pink’s solitary voice, at long last alone behind his wall. paralleling his sudden realization of his expansive surroundings, the rarely shifts out of its subdued tone, only breaking free once in the middle at the onslaught of another of gilmour’s fiery guitar solos before falling back to the same searching riff of the twelve-string guitar.


while haunting in and of themselves, most of the lyrics are fairly straightforward, possibly accounting for the song’s popularity even among non-pink floyd fans. in his 1979 interview promoting the album, roger waters stated that narratively and lyrically speaking, pink is “behind the wall a.) symbolically, and b.) he’s locked in a el room, with a broken window that looks onto the freeway.” t ped behind a colossal structure made from the pain and repressed emotions of his life, pink seemingly searches in desperation for anything that will help him reconnect with the world he’s just left behind, be it a way out or simply a person on the other side willing to listen. accordingly, most of the song’s lyrics reflect this search. although apparently taking a step in the right direction psychologically in turning to the outside world for help (even if it is too late), pink still projects a certain nihilism onto the very world and people whose help he seeks. in the first line he asks for support from “lonely” people who are living in a “cold” world, a state ironically paralleling his own. next he addresses those who are slowly heyyou2realizing the reality of life behind their “fading smiles,” (coupled with the “aisles,” this is a possible reference to his own concert-goers eager for the show), a line that is reminiscent of the cynical life-lessons of “in the flesh?” and “the thin ice.” a few lines down pink cries out to one “sitting naked by the phone” and one with “your ear against the wall.” again, both lines are implicative of pink’s personal predi ent, recalling his earlier attempts to phone his adulterous wife and, even now, ostensibly sitting with his own ear to the wall “waiting for someone to call out” and rescue him. even in his attempts to reach out, pink unwittingly reverts back to his former egotism by projecting himself onto the world around him. furthermore, his cries for someone to “feel” and “touch” him are all the more paradoxical considering that these are the very things pink was unable to do in his life. he built his wall out of the fear of feeling something, out of his paranoia of being emotionally touched and leaving himself vulnerable. such hypocrisy further delineates pink as more an anti-christ figure. while literary christ figures tend to exemplify the golden rule of doing “unto others as you would have others do unto you,” pink pleads for others to do unto him what he has hitherto been unwilling to do for others. yet the irony is lost on him as he continues to cast himself in a quasi-messianic role, asking those who are listening to not “help them to bury the light,” a phrase that takes on christ-like significance when read in conjunction with certain new testament p ages either comparing jesus to the light of the world (john 8:12) or teaching followers not to hide one’s light under a bushel (matthew 5:14-15). even if not a direct religious allusion, light is certainly a literary one used in much the same sense as it is in the above mentioned chapter and verse from the book of matthew, acting as a metaphor for truth throughout most of the world’s literature. while pink never specifically mentions what truth he is refering to in “the light” (the light of individuality? the light of human connectedness?), it’s hard to believe that he would know what truth / light truly looks like after being being blinded by his own misery and self-proclaimed martyrdom for so long. a slightly more optimistic view of these verses might strip away some of the irony and posit that in the shadow of his wall pink has quickly realized the error of his ways. likewise, depending on one’s view of our protagonist, pink’s request for someone to help him carry heyyou4″the stone” (a popular symbol of overwhelming burdens since the ancient greek myth of sisyphus) could be argued as either heartfelt or hypocritically narrow-sighted.


just before launching into the guitar solo, pink asks for the unnamed listener (his wife? the world outside his el room? us?) to “open your heart, i’m coming home,” once again asking those outside the wall to do what he never could. later in “the trial,” pink’s mother accuses him of leaving her, while his wife accuses him of shutting her out of his life by going “your own way.” yet at the moment he feels the most danger of being consumed by his own creation, pink longs for someone to open their heart to him, he longs for “home,” ignorant to that which has been in front of him all along. as earlier, one can interpret the lyric both ways, either in terms of sincere remorse and insular egotism. one might further interpret this last line before the guitar solo in a literal fashion, with pink longing to return to either the watchful care of his mother in his childhood home or to return back home to his wife. another reading might view “home” by a more metaphorical light, thinking that pink wishes to regress back to his childhood, back to where it all began, so that he might start over and see where things went wrong. such a reading is based largely on the idea that one can only progress by learning from the past. for pink to progress, he must first regress and comprehend the people, the events, and most importantly the decisions that have lead to his current entombment behind his wall.

in response to his desire to return to his origins, the guitar solo ignites, recalling previous solos reflecting pink’s emotional outbursts in his search for self. like the solo in “another brick in the wall part 2” or “mother,” the lead guitar in “hey you” ally conveys pink’s frenzied realizations of his separation from the world. yet equally important is the rhythm guitar in the background revisiting the al theme begun in “in the flesh?” and repeated throughout many songs on the album. just as the guitar solo reflects pink’s ongoing search for self, the rhythm guitar might be said to mirror his attempts to rediscover his origins by literally returning to the al theme that conveyed his life’s beginning, the album’s start. on the flipside, the three-note rhythm – present in some form or another during the creation of many of his bricks – might represent the wall itself, hemming in that frantically searching guitar solo.


the tone of the song shifts when roger waters enters acting in the guise of…well, it’s hard to say for sure. some might say that the lyrics of the bridge represent an omniscient narrator, or life itself, or something akin to a greek chorus, or maybe just another of the voices in pink’s heyyou5head. whatever the character may be, waters’ bridge summarizes the song – and to some extent the story – thus far, cynically commenting how pink’s hope that someone on the other side of his “too high” wall could help him was “only fantasy.” the wall was fulfilling its role by keeping the outside out and the inside in, and as a result “the worms ate into his brain.” though already mentioned in the movie analysis for “another brick in the wall part 3,” “hey you” marks the worms’ lyrical introduction into the album. roger waters stated it best in his 1979 interview when he said, “[the worms] were my symbolic representation of decay.” isolation leads to a sort of metaphorical death (“goodbye cruel world”) which in turn leads to decay on nearly all levels, be they physical, mental, spiritual, or emotional. in many ways the symbol of the worms is inseperable from that of the more expansive wall, with decay corrupting everything the bricks encomp . aurally representing the teeming m of metaphoric worms feeding on pink’s decaying self, an incessant buzzing is superimposed over the haunting guitar riff leading into the third verse.

though the listener is now aware that pink’s cries are “only fantasy,” pink himself is apparently unconscious of such, and continues to beg for someone to not only “touch” or “feel me” as he did in the first two verses, but now “help me.” what’s interesting here is that after his stint as the voice of life / omniscient narrator / what-have-you, waters switches roles and finishes the song as pink. throughout the album, gilmour and waters have traded singing duties, though in almost every other song aside from “hey you,” their vocals represent different characters or points of view. take “mother,” for instance, in which waters sang in the guise of pink, and gilmour in the role of mother (or at least mother as imagined by pink). or later, in “comfortably numb,” when waters acts as the doctor, and gilmour as pink. here, however, both lead singers embody the same character, not counting waters’ bridge lyrics. the reason for this is a bit unclear, though one could suggest that all the character voices thus far have been distilled through pink’s imaginings anyway, and so “hey you” is just a further clarification that the entirety of the album, though seemingly multi-voiced, is filtered through the point of view of one character. or perhaps the switch has more to do with vocal style than anything else, with gilmour’s mellifluous tone best suited for pink’s initial plaintive heyyou7pleas, and waters’ more caustic delivery more in line with the character’s growing frenzy when help doesn’t arrive on the other side of his wall.


as if fighting his usual nihilistic urges, pink goes on to plead for the unspecified “you” to not tell him “there’s no hope at all,” though judging by the frenzy in his voice, he knows that this is exactly the case. continuing to pile irony on top of irony, pink concludes – as if trying to win points with some cosmic judge – that “together we stand, divided we fall,” when, if anything, pink has lived most of his life in the belief that together we fall and alone we stand…it’s the very basis of his wall. almost to reiterate the hollowness of his final maxim, “we fall” is echoed over the last chords of the song, reverberating, as it were, through the void that pink created out of his desire to stand alone. and yet there is a bit of genuine light in pink’s final statement, the repetition of which can be interpreted as foreshadowing the eventual fate of the wall itself. while the “we” most readily applies to humanity in general, one could also apply the sentiment to the bricks themselves – divided they (the bricks) fall when together we (humanity) stand. essentially, pink has stumbled upon the solution to his problem, that key to tearing down his wall, though its utterance at this moment is arguably more an attempt to fool himself (or life or god or fate) of something that he won’t fully realize until the end of the album.

it was mentioned in the first parag h that some wall fans (myself included) are somewhat dis isfied with the placement and/or inclusion of “hey you” on the album. early tracklisting for the album found “hey you” following “comfortably numb,” with the second half of the album beginning with “is there anybody out there?” waters later recalled how producer bob ezrin didn’t feel right about the original pacing of the third side. “i thought about it,” waters said, “and in a couple of minutes i realized that ‘hey you’ could heyyou9conceptually go anywhere, and it would make a much better side if we put it at the front of the side, and sandwiched the middle theatrical scene – with the guy in the el room – between an attempt to re-establish contact with the outside world, which is what ‘hey you’ is” (waters, 1979 interview). the idea of “sandwiching” the theatrical scenes is certainly understandable, and ally “hey you” flows seamlessly with “is there anybody out there?” yet despite waters’ ertions to the contrary, many aren’t convinced that the song conceptually fits where it was ultimately placed. going from the pink in “goodbye cruel world,” who is resolute in his need for isolation, to the pink in “hey you”, who is suddenly hyper-aware of the error of his ways, is a bit too much of a conceptual leap for some. there has been no growth, no personal experience that would warrant such a sudden shift in his personality. yet the narrative dissonance is further complicated with the succeeding “is there anybody out there?” a tune which presents a pink more in line with that of “goodbye cruel world” than “hey you.” although he does ask if there is “anybody out there,” his asking is still guarded and rife with paranoia, a far cry from the genuine / ironic pleading of “hey you.” simply put, pink goes from vehement indifference (“another brick 3” / “goodbye cruel world”) to some sort of self-realization (“hey you”) back to indifference (“is there anybody out there” and to some extent, “nobody home), all in the space of three or four songs. that’s quite a bit of character seesawing. so while there’s no doubt that “hey you” works quite well ally in its current position, many would argue that the overall narrative suffers from this emotionally disjointed back-and-forth, and that the song works much better, narratively speaking, in its original position after “comfortably numb.” (not to mention that the reference to people “standing in the aisles” would make more sense when grouped in the context of the album’s second rock concert, that now depicted in “in the flesh” through “waiting for the worms.”)




sidestepping this issue altogether, the movie sequence for “hey you” was completely cut from the final print of the film. thankfully, the sequence is included on the dvd extras for the wall, allowing us a chance to see just why the song was deleted in the first place. for the most part, the majority of the video sequences s for each song a nce the story in some degree, whether they further the actual narrative, provide a surreal counterpoint, or simply add depth to pink’s splintering psyche. the footage for “hey you,” however, accomplishes little if any of these, and at times is so heavy-handed that it feels as if it was heyyou11lifted from some first year film student’s abstract movie project.

the sequence begins with a close up of the bricks in pink’s wall before panning back to show pink, nearly in the nude, clawing for a way out. shift, then, to a slow pan over the blank faces of pink’s concert-goers, each one alike in their vacant expressions. though we never see pink on stage, the implication is that he’s singing his pleas to the audience, to those “standing in the aisles” as mentioned above. next, a panoramic s of a row of empty infirmary beds such as those seen in world war ii movies, followed by a long s of two empty chairs set against a white wall. pink fades into one chair, motionless, and after a short time, his nude wife fades into the other before turning to look at her motionless husband. the chairs, set at opposite sides of the wall, mirror the distance between pink and the rest of the world, most notably his wife. earlier sequences have already intimated pink’s misogynist view of women, and the wife’s nude (ie, adulterous, promiscuous, etc.) appearance in “hey you” is no exception. she fades out of the chair as pink sings “i’m coming home,” a line that is followed with a quick shift to a car exploding. from there, a multitude of rioting scenes accompany the guitar solo, alternating between a crowd of mostly skinheads tipping over cars and throwing molitov tails, to police adorned in full riot gear – nearly all s s that are used to convey pink’s internal emotional war at various points throughout the movie.


as the narrative voice sings about pink’s wall being too high, the scene shifts to a hand (presumably pink’s) clawing at the inside of some entombing container, followed by a close up of seething maggots corresponding with the metaphorical worms eating into pink’s brain. in a possible visual allusion to the 1971 anti-war film johnny got his gun, we find pink lying on one of the aforementioned hospital beds with electrodes attached to his head. just as it appeared in the montage for “another brick in the wall, part 3,” a sequence that used much of the footage seen here, an image of pink’s wife screaming is superimposed over s before giving way to a close up of a fire started in the previously depicted riots. a barricade of marching policemen (again, a s heyyou12used in “another brick, part 3”) is silhouetted against a raging fire, as another line of rioters throw flaming debris and form protective walls of mattresses and desks, calling to mind the impromptu bonfire from “another brick in the wall, part 2.” like the wall itself, the imagined riots in pink’s mind have grown from simple fantasy of childhood anarchy to nearly full-fledged war. finally, the s of marching policemen changes back to the beginning s of pink against his wall searching for a way out.

being that the song essentially finishes where it starts, and all of the footage in between is either extraneous or put to better use in other songs like “another brick in the wall, part 3,” it seems that cutting “hey you” from the film was the obvious choice. relatively nothing is added to the narrative flow or to the viewer’s perceptions of pink. “goodbye cruel world” showed pink in this same symbolic posture against his wall, as does the beginning of “is there anybody out there?” while the s s of the riot spark thoughts about pink’s dic omous sides and his own internal conflict (his rebellious “one of my turns”-side warring against the more rational pink that finally steps forward in “the trial”), these scenes are made redundant by the very fact heyyou10that they were used to make the exact same points in previous song sequences. likewise, the somewhat important worm symbolism – something that will become more central later in the album – was already introduced in basically the same way earlier in the film. so while the song itself is a veritable cl ic, many fans feel that the same cannot be said for the footage, especially when viewed in context with the rest of the film. which is perhaps why it was cut in the first place, allowing for a more harmonious bridge between pink’s entombment in “goodbye cruel world” and his slow realization of the effects of such absolute disconnection in “is there anybody out there?”

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