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united states national security strategy and coercive diplomacy in u.s-iran relations

alireza mozafari

university of tehran, faculty of world studies

abstract

national security strategy (nss) is one of the grand strategies in the united states, which officially is determined regarding national security and is published by administrations. this article tries to ess these nsss from the first after the september eleventh 2001, which was published in 2002 to the last one, 2010 of obama’s administration and their effects on u.s.-iran relations. we want to understand the nss consists of what attitudes, and which of these attitudes can affect relationships with countries such as iran. we have found that strategic concerns have always dominated the relationship of these two countries, and this continues to be so today. therefore studying the u.s-iran relations without studying u.s strategies is not meaningful. this study based on alexander theory of “coercive diplomacy” (alexander l. george, 1991) found that bush and obama’s administrations kept the threat of military force, as an option on the table to achieve their goals in their deals and diplomacies toward iran. this study offers a qualitative content analysis of national security strategys and extracts the main principles of the nsss and then esses the items, which cover iran-u.s. relations. this study shows that coercive diplomacy has a significant role in the u.s.-iran relation and the signs of this diplomacy can be seen in the nsss of the united states.

key words: national security strategy, iran, coercive diplomacy, u.s.-iran relations.

introduction

strategy gives a country the capacity to make a model, gives a way to concentrate sources and capabilities of a country to reach the general goals, and causes to actualize the thoughts and ideas to physical power as well. so as robert osgood defines that strategy must now be understood as nothing less than the overall plan for utilizing the capacity for armed coercion - in conjunction with economic, diplomatic, and psychological instruments of power - to support foreign policy most effectively by overt, covert and tacit means (baylis, 2007). strategy in a short brief is an overall plan of a country.

threats can be essed and prioritized based upon considerations such as urgency, impact, magnitude, mitigation options, and intention. opportunities can be essed and prioritized based upon considerations such as knowledge, expertise, and probability of success, resources, long-term sustainability, proportionality, and intention. based on this approach, national security can be considered as any situation, condition, or entity that has the potential to enhance or degrade the viability and vitality of the nation. the national security system would be responsible for and measured by:

• the viability and vitality of the nation,

• peaceful and positive development throughout the countries of every region, and

• ccooperation and collaboration around the globe. (sheila, 2013)

nearing the end of cold war, a new strategic environment was appearing and the bipolar system was disappearing. in this regard persian gulf war is one of the first evolutions which by its end u.s. by declaring the ‘’new world order” tried to dominate the world.

the united states of america as a superpower, which affects iran security and strategy, should be studied by its grand strategies. in this regard essing the national security strategy of u.s. as the most important and grand strategy of u.s., can lead us to understand the foreign policy of this country. i believe that studying the nss should be one of the most important aspects of u.s. relations with other regional powers such as iran.

this article tries to study and ess the u.s. national security strategy (nss) from 2002 to 2010. there are plenty of studies about u.s. strategies, but precisely our goal of this study is to clarify the items in the nss and its mandates about iran directly or indirectly. i believe that the u.s-iran relation is affected by the nss and u.s. policies, which is mentioned in nss. in this regard, i look forward to find the items in every published nss that refers to iran and the areas which is regarded to iran. in addition, i would like to understand the correlation of the u.s. strategies and the relations between u.s. and iran and the way they behaved in some cases as some examples. therefore, this article should be of interest to specialist of foreign relation and strategy& policy makers of these two countries and the readers who analyze the current and future condition of iran-u.s. relation.

in this article, these questions are answered:

what is the role of the national security strategy to ign u.s. security strategy?

how national security strategy’s cover iran-u.s. relations?

have the u.s. presidents approach in the nsss been according to coercive diplomacy?

the united states national security strategy (nss)

the national security strategy (nss) is a document prepared periodically by the executive branch of the government of the united states for congress, which outlines the major national security concerns of the united states and how the administration plans to deal with them. the legal foundation for the document is spelled out in the goldwater-nichols act. the document is purposely general in content (contrast with the national military strategy, (nms) and its implementation relies on elaborating guidance provided in supporting documents.

regarding goldwater-nichols act as the founder of the nss a perception of this act and its context is necessary. the stated intent of the goldwater-nichols legislation is broadly accepted as valid for effective political discourse on issues affecting the nation's security; the congress and the executive need a common understanding of the strategic environment and the administration's intent as a starting point for future dialogue. that said, however, it is understood that in the adversarial environment that prevails, this report can only provide a beginning point for the dialogue necessary to reach such a "common" understanding(snider 1995). in the first page of this act it had been mentioned that the purpose of this act is: “to reorganize the department of defense and strengthen civilian authority in the department of defense, to improve the military advice provided to the president, the national security council, and the secretary of defense, to place clear responsibility on the commanders of the unified and specified combatant commands for the accomplishment of missions igned to those commands and ensure that the authority of those commanders is fully commensurate with that responsibility, to increase attention to the formulation of strategy and to contingency planning, to provide for more efficient use of defense resources, to improve joint officer mana ent policies, otherwise to enhance the effectiveness of military operations and improve the mana ent and administration of the department of defense, and for other purposes” (goldwater-nichols,1986).

however nss is a document which offers the m ive strategy and general goals of u.s. regarding national security (dau, 2009), nss can be shown as the strategic thought o iven president and gives researchers and policy makers reliable sources and indicates. that is why we see new visions in presidency paigns.

the requirement of producing this report (nss) along with the budget request leads to an iterative, interagency process involving high-level meetings that helps to resolve internal differences in foreign policy agendas. however, “this report was not to be a neutral planning document, as many academics and even some in uniform think it to be’’(snider 1995, p.5). rather it was intended to serve five primary purposes.

1) communicate the executive’s strategic vision to congress, and thus legitimize its requests for resources. 2) communicate the executive’s strategic vision to foreign constituencies, especially administration not on the u.s.’s summit agenda. 3) communicate with select domestic audiences, such as political supporters seeking presidential recognition of their issues, and those who hope to see a coherent and farsighted strategy they could support. 4) create internal consensus on foreign and defense policy within the executive branch. 5) contribute to the overall agenda of the president, both in terms of substance and messaging (snider, 1995).

some believe that the nss can be considered as a grand strategy for the united states, however many believe that a grand strategy should be considered for a long term. many critics concede u.s. had a grand strategy during the cold war but claim that it have not had one since (sheila, 2013). nonetheless, the nss consists of some elements o rand strategy of the united states. since the fall of the soviet union, a five-pillar grand strategy has been clearly discernible.

pillar i

the velvet covered iron fist: the “iron fist” built a military stronger than what is needed for near-term threats to dissuade a would-be hostile rival from achieving peer status.

pillar 2

make the world more like the united states politically by promoting the spread of democracy.

pillar 3

make the world more like the united states economically by promoting the spread of markets and globalization.

pillar 4

focus on weapons of m destruction (wmd) proliferation to rogue states as the top tier national security threat.

pillar 5 (added by george w. bush)

focus on terrorist networks of global reach inspired by militant islamist ideologies as another top tier national security threat, i.e., equal to wmd in the hands of rogue states.

the national security strategy reports prepared by each administration, as well as the central policy efforts each administration pursued reveals a broad 20-year pattern of continuity. all post-cold war presidents championed the first four pillars. the last two presidents (bush and obama) adopted the last two pillars. the major grand strategic moves of the period derive from one or more of these pillars: e.g., the outreach to india derives from pillar 1, the invasion of iraq derives from pillars 4 and 5, and so on.

obama paigned as if he was going to make a grand strategic innovation by adding a 6th pillar: elevating climate change to be equal to wmd and terrorism. but he chose to do health care instead (sheila, 2013).

many believe that the nss is not the real united states national security strategy and some believe that it is not the real for the real world and may the acts of the administration is not coincided with it, however the national security strategy is the closest published document that represents a comprehensive discussion of where the country is going and what it wants to accomplish. “published by the white house from time to time, it is neither sufficiently long term nor a true strategy that links resources with objectives over time. it represents, at best, a list of aspirational goals by an administration” (polk, 2013). there could be some reason for this, but one of them is that the complex systems of the world need to have their characteristics identified, discussed, and used as a framework for the development of strategy. “probably the most important characteristic is that complex systems cannot be controlled—at best, they can be influenced. the systems can only be influenced if understood intimately” (sheila, 2013).

coercive diplomacy

the concept of coercive diplomacy has been a topic of discussion for the past sixty years. several authors have made the claim that coercive diplomacy is the greatest tactic to be used in a conflict, and that it is the method of choice for gaining certain capabilities and needs. although it may seem that it has a defined definition, it is evident that there is much more to the idea than a single defined sentence.

coercive diplomacy attempts to get a target- a state, region, or a nonstate actor- to change its behavior through the threat to use force of through the actual use of limited force (art, 2009).

in the early 1990’s alexander george explained through research and his books that this idea known as “coercive diplomacy” could be used to help promote peace with a few strategic guidelines behind it. george explained that there were four basic principles to understanding the concept. these included “the demand, the means used for creating a sense of urgency, the threatened punishment for noncompliance, and the possible use of incentives” (alexander, 1991). he explains, “the adversary's perception of the coercing power's motivation and commitment, and the adversary's essment of the credibility and potency of its threat, play the most significant role in determining the success or failure of a coercive strategy” (alexander, 1991).

methodology

many current studies use qualitative content analysis, which addresses some of the weaknesses of the quantitative approach.

qualitative content analysis has been defined as:

• “a research method for the subjective interpretation of the content of text data through the systematic cl ification process of coding and identifying themes or patterns” (hsieh & shannon, 2005, p.1278),

• “an approach of empirical, methodological controlled analysis of texts within their context of communication, following content analytic rules and step by step models, without rash quantification” (mayring, 2000, p.2), and

• “any qualitative data reduction and sense-making effort that takes a volume of qualitative material and attempts to identify core consistencies and meanings” (patton, 2002, p.453).

these three definitions illustrate that qualitative content analysis emphasizes an integrated view of speech/texts and their specific contexts. it allows researchers to understand social reality in a subjective but scientific manner (weber, 1990).

we have chosen the qualitative content analysis to study the nss as a formal document which has a key role among strategies of the united states. this method as an inductive tool, give us a way to examine of topics and themes, as well as the inferences drawn from them, in the data. furthermore the samples to be investigated are selected purposefully which can inform the research questions being investigated. nonetheless we hope that this method will pay attention unique themes that illustrate the range of the answers to the questions of our article.

introduction to iran and u.s. relations

however, it was not always so. amb ador exchanges began in the mid 00s and during the second world war; ties were cemented as iran collaborated with the allies allowing the transportation of war material through iran to the beleaguered russians in the caucasus region.

as the cold war developed, u.s. iranian ties depended; the u.s. sought further iranian cooperation in containing communism in asia while on iran received military and economic support and enjoyed western technological istance in exploiting its oil wealth. at this time, cultural, military, economic, and political relations ran deep. yet, it was precisely in this context that us-iranian relations grew then ultimately withered.

the u.s. and iran severed official diplomatic relations following the 1979 islamic revolution in iran and currently have no official relations. their emb ies were closed after iranian students stormed the us emb y in tehran and held american diplomats hostage in november 1979 and the u.s. chose the compromise and oppression against iran (houghton, 2001). since then suspicion and hostility have characterized relations between the two nations (bahgat, 2009). in this period the carter doctrine can be essed as the first signs of coercive diplomacy toward iran (carter, 1980).

there was the u.s. position during the iran-iraq war, which worsened the relations. when the war broke out, the u.s. formally at least adopted a position of neutrality and did not supply arms to either side. america hoped the two sides would wear out and exhaust each other, and this was according to dual containment. in november 1984 u.s. and iraq reestablished their official relation which was severed from 1967 (joyner, 1990) and once iran looked as if it might actually win the war and bring saddam down, the u.s. began to support saddam, not only diplomatically, but with intelligence. the u.s. also remained silent when saddam used chemical weapons against iranian troops.

there has been the problem on the iranian side of the u.s. attempt to sanction, isolate and demonize iran and to view iran as pursuing policies in lebanon, on the arab-israeli conflict, and elsewhere, hostile to american interests.

it’s not as if during these years there was no u.s. attempt to reach out to the iranians or vice versa. the first president bush, in his inaugural address, referring to u.s. hostages held in lebanon, and addressing iran used the phrase “good will breeds good will.” the iranians did then help secure the release of these remaining u.s. hostages, but no good will e in reciprocation. early in the clinton administration, the president of iran offered a u.s. company, conoco, a large oil deal, but clinton prevented the deal from going through. president clinton himself, especially in his second term, attempted on a number of occasions to reach out to the iranians without success (bakhash, 2009).

there the legacy of the hostilities of the past on both sides continued. there are concrete issues dividing the two countries. in any iran-u.s. prochement, iran would want to see an end to u.s. sanctions against iran, and an end to america’s attempts to isolate iran and deny it technology, trade, and credits. the u.s. would expect iran to change its posture on israel, to stop attempting to be a spoiler in the palestinian-israeli peace process (the western kind of peace process), and to end its support for groups like hezbollah in lebanon and hamas in the gaza strip hostile to israel. also, for the u.s. there’s the issue of iran’s nuclear program which because of that threatened iran in many occasions even by a military operations other than war (and this could lead the united blanchettestates even to a

in addition, some forms of iranian foreign policy behavior to which the u.s. particularly takes exception have become very entrenched. iran’s hostility to israel has become a pillar of its foreign policy; its investment in hezbollah in lebanon is a long-standing policy. iran and the u.s. are now competitors for influence in the persian gulf and the middle east. iran may be a small and weak country compared to the u.s., but it does have its visions of grandeur. it sees itself as the great power of the persian gulf region. it believes the u.s. must make space for it at the table in deciding the future of iraq or afghanistan. one can see how much at odds the iranian position is from america’s.

national security strategy in george w. bush administration

by the event of 11th of september 2001 announcing aggressive positions in foreign policy of the united states intensified and revealed in the national security strategy of u.s. in the new international environment, the united states tried to show its superiority which it was a complex of culture, economy and military power. u.s. preparation to use military power against terrorism phenomena be e the main reason of tensions in the international community, in other words fighting against terrorism be e a seasoning for the united states to fulfill its goals and interests. in january 2002, speaking to a joint session of congress, bush outlined what quickly be e known as the bush doctrine:

we will shut down terrorist ps, disrupt terrorist plans and bring terrorists to justice. and … we must prevent the terrorists and regimes who seek chemical, biological, or nuclear weapons from threatening the united states and the world…

yet time is not on our side. i will not wait on events while dangers gather. i will not stand by as peril draws closer and closer. the united states of america will to permit the world’s most dangerous regimes to threaten us with the world’s most destructive weapons (lieber 2007, p.43)

also describing some countries such as iran in the spectrum of “axis of evil”, indifferent to international and united nations commitments and efforts to p the “preventive” to reach the “preemptive” by using force is the principles in the national security strategy of bush administration.

national security strategy of 2002

the cover letter president bush submitted along with the national security strategy identifies its main objectives: "we will defend the peace by fighting terrorists and tyrants[1]. we will preserve the peace by building good relations among the great powers. we will extend the peace by encouraging free and open societies on every continent" (nss, 2002, p. preface). curiously, the strategy is not organized around these themes, but this three-pronged approach captures the thrust of its recommendations.

defending the peace. according to nss 2002 the first duty of government is to provide for the common defense. this, the bush strategy maintains, requires defeating america's enemies—which it identifies as a mix of terrorists, tyrants, and technology. bush mentions that september 11 established beyond doubt that shadowy networks of individuals can bring great chaos and suffering to u.s. shores. he believes that tyrants brutalize their own people, display no regard for international law, are determined to acquire weapons of m destruction, sponsor terrorism around the globe, and reject basic human values and hate the united states. the diffusion of modern technology makes these terrorists and tyrants ever more dangerous. it could give them a catastrophic power to strike great nations, enabling them to blackmail u.s., or to harm u.s., or to harm its friends (nss, 2002).

bush writes that the events of september 11, 2001, fundamentally changed the context for relations between the united states and other main centers of global power, and opened vast new opportunities to work with russia and china. even with this historic change, the united states faces some new regional power which it calls them threats. “the nature and motivations of these new adversaries, their determination to obtain destructive powers, and the greater likelihood that they will use weapons of m destruction against us, make today's security environment more complex and dangerous” (nss 2002, p.13).

to defeat terrorists and tyrants, the strategy emphasizes prevention, preemption, defense, and consequence mana ent. prevention requires greater efforts to deny countries and terrorists access to the technologies of m destruction, including through enhanced diplomacy, arms control, multilateral export controls and threat reduction istance (nss, 2002). but the strategy is silent on which arms and export control regimes it would strengthen and how it would do so.

such preventive strategies are not enough, however. according to the strategy, military preemption is also necessary. the nss mentions that given the goals of rogue states and terrorists, the united states can no longer rely solely on a reactive posture as we have seen in the past. the inability to deter a potential attacker, the immediacy of today's threats, and the magnitude of potential harm could be caused by u.s. adversaries. moreover, the united states believes that the nature of this threats means that the old standard in international law that states can legally order preemptive military action only when faced with an imminent danger of attack must be construed more broadly. the united states looks for having the right to anticipatory action to defend ourselves, even if uncertainty remains as to the time and place of the enemy's attack (nss, 2002).

preserving the peace. as the nss mentions although the threat facing america has grown more grave, the strategy sees a new opportunity to make the world safer and better. "today the world's great powers find ourselves on the same side—united by common dangers of terrorist violence and chaos" (nss 2002, p. preface) president bush argues that the international community has the best chance since the rise of the nation-state in the seventeenth century to build a world where great powers compete in peace instead of continually prepare for war (nss, 2002). the key to realizing this opportunity, the strategy argues, lies in integrating russia and china into the west.

extending the peace. the strategy contends that extending freedom, democracy, and free enterprise to every corner of the globe is a strategic and a moral imperative and the poverty that grips much of the world offends american values.

national security strategy of 2006

george w. bush has issued his second nss with four years delay, however according to the goldwater-nicholas act the president should publish the nss annually. this nss was published in march 2006 and bush at the overview of it mentions, “yet a new totalitarian ideology now threatens, an ideology grounded not in secular philosophy but in the perversion of a proud religion. its content may be different from the ideologies of the last century, but its means are similar: intolerance, murder, terror, enslavement, and repression. like those who e before us, we must lay the foundations and build the institutions that our country needs to meet the challenges we face” (nss, 2006). the most serious binding of this nss the same as the previous one is “enduring security for the american people”. but the boldest specific of this national security strategy is the name of iran and muslims.

the chapters that come in the national security strategy of 2006 will focus on several essential tasks, but every article begins with a short brief of nss 2002 regarding the article:

1- champion aspirations for human dignity; the nss speaks about the spread of democracy and freedom around the world which supported by the united states. bush declares, “to protect our nation and honor our values, the united states seeks to extend freedom across the globe by leading an international effort to end tyranny and to promote effective democracy” (nss 2006, p.3). in this regard, to end tyranny and promoting effective democracy, bush suggest employing the full array of political, economic, diplomatic, and other tools at u.s. disposal, including:

• speaking out against abuses of human rights.

  • • supporting publicly democratic reformers in repressive nations.
  • • using foreign istance to support the development of free and fair elections, rule of law, civil society, human rights, women’s rights, free media, and religious freedom.
  • • tailoring istance and training of military forces to support civilian control of the military and military respect for human rights in a democratic society.
  • • applying sanctions that designed to target those who rule oppressive regimes while sparing the people.
  • • encouraging other nations not to support oppressive regimes.
  • • partnering with other democratic nations to promote freedom, democracy, and human rights in specific countries and regions.
  • • strengthening and building new initiatives such as the broader middle east and north africa initiative’s foundation for the future, the community of democracies, and the united nations democracy fund.
  • • forming creative partnerships with nongovernmental organizations and other civil society voices to support and reinforce their work.
  • • working with existing international institutions.
  • • supporting condemnation in multilateral institutions of egregious violations of human rights and freedoms;
  • • encouraging foreign direct investment in and foreign istance to countries where there is a commitment to the rule of law, fighting corruption, and democratic accountability; and
  • • concluding free trade agreements (ftas) that encourage countries to enhance the rule of law, fight corruption, and further democratic accountability.

2- strengthen alliances to defeat global terrorism and work to prevent attacks against us and our friends. bush writes that to wage this battle of ideas effectively, we must be clear-eyed about what does and does not give rise to terrorism:

  • • terrorism is not the inevitable by-product of poverty.
  • • terrorism is not simply a result of hostility to u.s. policy in iraq.
  • • terrorism is not simply a result of israeli-palestinian issues.
  • • terrorism is not simply a response to our efforts to prevent terror attacks (nss, 2006)

then he writes the foundation of the terrorism and gives resolution for every of this foundations and finally find the conclusion, “democracy is the opposite of terrorist tyranny, which is why the terrorists denounce it and are willing to kill the innocent to stop it. democracy is based on empowerment, while the terrorists’ ideology is based on enslavement. democracies expand the freedom of their citizens, while the terrorists seek to impose a single set of narrow beliefs. democracy sees individuals as equal in worth and dignity, having an inherent potential to create and to govern themselves. the terrorists see individuals as objects to be exploited, and then to be ruled and oppressed” (nss 2006, p.11).

he continues that the a nce of freedom and human dignity through democracy is the long-term solution to the transnational terrorism of today.

3- work with others to defuse regional conflicts. according to the nss regional conflicts can arise from a wide variety of causes, including poor governance, external aggression, competing claims, internal revolt, tribal rivalries, and ethnic or religious hatreds. if left unaddressed, however, these different causes lead to the same ends: failed states, humanitarian disasters, and ungoverned areas that can become safe havens for terrorists. bush writes that the administration’s strategy for addressing regional conflicts includes three levels of enga ent: conflict prevention and resolution; conflict intervention; and post-conflict stabilization and reconstruction.

4- prevent our enemies from threatening us, our allies, and our friends with weapons of m destruction. bush at first mentions the measures that the united states have adopted to prevent threats and then continues that some challenges have remained:

  • • iran has violated its non-proliferation treaty safeguards obligations and refuses to provide objective guarantees that its nuclear program is solely for peaceful purposes.
  • • the dprk continues to destabilize its region and defy the international community, now boasting a small nuclear arsenal and an illicit nuclear program in violation of its international obligations.
  • • terrorists, including those ociated with the al-qaida network, continue to pursue wmd.
  • • some of the world’s supply of weapons-grade fissile material – the necessary ingredient for making nuclear weapons – is not properly protected.
  • • a nces in biotechnology provide greater opportunities for state and non-state actors to obtain dangerous pathogens and equipment.

at the end of this chapter bush writes that “we have no doubt that the world is a better place for the removal of this dangerous and unpredictable tyrant, and we have no doubt that the world is better off if tyrants know that they pursue weapons of m destruction at their own peril” (nss 2006, p.24).

5- ignite a new era of global economic growth through free markets and free trade. nss 2006 explains that the united states helped the world by opening a free market and following it which caused liberty and prosperity for many people.

6- expand the circle of development by opening societies and building the infrastructure of democracy. this document claims that the united states has improved the lives of millions of people and transformed the practice of development by adopting more effective policies and programs:

  • • a ncing development and reinforcing reform
  • • turning the tide against aids and other infectious diseases.
  • • promoting debt sustainability and a path toward private capital markets.
  • • addressing urgent needs and investing in people.
  • • unleashing the power of the private sector.
  • • fighting corruption and promoting transparency. (nss, 2006)

bush believe that improving the way we use foreign istance will make it more effective in strengthening responsible governments, responding to suffering, and improving people’s lives.

7- develop agendas for cooperative action with the other main centers of global power. bush claims that the united states has enjoyed unprecedented levels of cooperation on many of its highest national security priorities, but insists that “the struggle against militant islamic radicalism is the great ideological conflict of the early years of the 21st century and finds the great powers all on the same side – opposing the terrorists. this circumstance differs profoundly from the ideological struggles of the 20th century, which saw the great powers divided by ideology as well as by national interest” (nss 2006, p.36).

8- transform america’s national security institutions to meet the challenges and opportunities of the 21st century. george w. bush in this document mentions that in the last four years, u.s. has made substantial progress in transforming key national security institutions.

  • • the establishment of the department of homeland security.
  • • in 2004, the intelligence community launched its most significant reorganization since the 1947 national security act. the centerpiece is a new position, the director of national intelligence.
  • • the department of defense has completed the 2006 quadrennial defense review, which details how the department will continue to adapt and build to meet new challenges (nss, 2006).

9- engage the opportunities and confront the challenges of globalization. this document mentions that globalization has brought opportunities and much of the world’s prosperity and improved living standards in recent years derive from the expansion of global trade, investment, information, and technology. nss adds that the united states has been a leader in promoting these developments, and we believe they have improved significantly the quality of life of the american people and people the world over.

covering u.s. - iran relations

national security strategy 2002 does not mention the name of iran directly. but when it speaks about terrorism, the countries supporting terrorism, expansion of m destruction weapons and threat of terrorism access to these weapons, the nss indirectly calls iran. the main reason is iran’s measures against eleventh of september attack which contained, condemning clearly the terrorism actions in the united states and condolence to u.s. people, emphasizing un as the axis of any actions against terrorism, condemning alqaideh actions, supporting european union intermediation in afghanistan affairs, emphasizing the common position of islamic countries, and eventually stressing civilizations dialogs instead. moreover, iran had a main role in the collapse of taliban and the presidency of hamid karzai, and helped the international forces with the united states leadership in the rebuilding of afghanistan (zandi, 2010).

nonetheless, these situations caused that the nss 2002 does not directly name iran but george bush latter in his speeches mentioned iran as one of the “axis of evil” many times when calling iraq, north korea, who looking for m destruction weapons to beat the united states’ interests and support terrorism.

in the second document of nss (2006), feeling no need for iran’s help in afghanistan and iraq, bush administration names iran numerously names iran with north korea, syria, cuba, belarus, zimbabwe, berms as the dictatorship countries “people living in nations such as the democratic people’s republic of korea (dprk), iran, syria, cuba, belarus, burma, and zimbabwe know firsthand the meaning of tyranny; it is the bleak reality they endure every day” (nss 2006, p.3). bush mentions iran and syria as the support for terrorism, “some states, such as syria and iran, continue to harbor terrorists at home and sponsor terrorist activity abroad” (nss 2006, p. 9). this nss added that, “iran has violated its non-proliferation treaty safeguards obligations and refuses to provide objective guarantees that its nuclear program is solely for peaceful purposes” (nss 2006, p. 19). it finally with mentioning the “no greater challenge from a single country than from iran” (nss 2006, p.20) brings the coercive diplomacy to the highest level, as we have not seen the tone before, “for almost 20 years, the iranian regime hid many of its key nuclear efforts from the international community. yet the regime continues to claim that it does not seek to develop nuclear weapons. the iranian regime’s true intentions are clearly revealed by the regime’s refusal to negotiate in good faith; its refusal to come into compliance with its international obligations by providing the iaea access to nuclear sites and resolving troubling questions; and the aggressive statements of its president calling for israel to “be wiped off the face of the earth.” the united states has joined with our eu partners and russia to pressure iran to meet its international obligations and provide objective guarantees that its nuclear program is only for peaceful purposes. this diplomatic effort must succeed if confrontation is to be avoided.

as important as are these nuclear issues, the united states has broader concerns regarding iran. the iranian regime sponsors terrorism; threatens israel; seeks to thwart middle east peace; disrupts democracy in iraq; and denies the aspirations of its people for freedom. the nuclear issue and our other concerns can ultimately be resolved only if the iranian regime makes the strategic decision to change these policies, open up its political system, and afford freedom to its people. this is the ultimate goal of u.s. policy. in the interim, we will continue to take all necessary measures to protect our national and economic security against the adverse effects of their bad conduct. the problems lie with the illicit behavior and dangerous ambition of the iranian regime, not the legitimate aspirations and interests of the iranian people. our strategy is to block the threats posed by the regime while expanding our enga ent and outreach to the people the regime is oppressing” (nss 2006, p.20-21).

national security strategy in barak obama’s administration

while unites states during the bush administration faced many economic, military and political problems and a $1.4 trillion deficit (mckinnon, 2010), choosing obama with the rate of 62/6 percent participation (robbins, 2008) and the slogan of “change” as the first black president was a failure to the new conservatives.

the nss 2010 can be briefed in the first chapter, “shape an international order capable of overcoming the challenges of the 21st century” (nss 2010) with u.s. leadership.

obama then describes the world is it is, and with mentioning the opportunities and the threats, he suggest that the way to overcome the international problems and threats in 21 century is “building at home, shaping abroad” by the fundamental connection between “national security, our national competitiveness, resilience, and moral example” (nss 2010 p2). therefore, obama’s national security strategy has four main principles to explain his “building at home, shaping abroad”:

  • renewed and expanded alliances;
  • strength abroad through strength at home, with an emphasis on education, clean energy, technology, and innovation;
  • support for international development and a revitalized diplomatic corps;
  • promotion of democracy and human rights (la franchi,2010)

according to these document three major threats is facing u.s. national security: economic crisis, arms control and nuclear proliferation and terrorism (berger 2010). it is important to mention that for the first time in a nss the internal terrorism is considered.

in this document it is stated that the “effort is a commitment to renew our economy, which serves as the wellspring of american power” and military operation after using diplomacy and as the last option will be in action. therefore, unites states even emphasizing leadership of the world highlights the diplomacy and expansive cooperation of its allies (nss, 2010, p3).

one of the key points of this document is obama’s confirmation that “what takes place within our borders will determine our strength and influence beyond them” (nss, 2010, p2). he to explain this policy mentions, “the investments that we have made in recovery are a part of a broader effort that will contribute to our strength: by providing a quality education for our children; enhancing science and innovation; transforming our energy economy to power new jobs and industries; lowering the cost of health care for our people and businesses; and reducing the federal deficit”(nss, 2010).

another main factor of this document is that it does not speaks about the victory of united states leadership, as bush and clinton do, but it emphasis observing “the world as it is”. it seems that the idealism of bush to change the world is replaced by a kind of realism that pays attention to the united states limitations.

covering u.s. - iran relations

one of the regions of the world more than any other in the period of new conservative of the previous administration was blamed by united states was middle east. bush administration with the pretext of eleventh of september attacks occupied afghanistan and iraq. the nss 2002 does not mention any profound anonymity toward iran, but it seems that bush administration needed iran’s accompanying to invade afghanistan and iraq. however, in the second nss of bush, 2006, iran was the mentioned as the prime challenge, “we may face no greater challenge from a single country than from iran” (nss 2006, p.20)

by the obama’s slogan of “change”, people of region, even iranian people expected a change in the strategy and actions of united states. many of iranians who were worry about u.s. possible attack to iran during bush and neoconservatives administration felt that choosing a black man as the president can thwart the threat and a change in u.s. policy will happen. nonetheless, the events showed that the animosity of u.s. toward iran is a fundamental policy of united states, and by the change of democrat or republican presidents, it will not change.

the name of iran in obama’s nss has been mentioned for fourteen times, one time more than russia. therefore, at the first glance we can understand that the iran case in obama’s foreign affairs has taken a bold attention. however, obama in the contrary of bush do not speaks in animosity but brings the name of iran with north korea and terrorism as the one that iran support in the region. “the united states will pursue the denuclearization of the korean peninsula and work to prevent iran from developing a nuclear weapon. this is not about singling out nations—it is about the responsibilities of all nations and the success of the nonproliferation regime. both nations face a clear choice. if north korea eliminates its nuclear weapons program, and iran meets its international obligations on its nuclear program, they will be able to proceed on a path to greater political and economic integration with the international community” (nss 2010, p. 23). obama speaks about direct and unconditional talks to iran and says that it is the time for pressure on iran; therefore, he chooses the “carrot and stick policy”. he writes, “obama supports tough, direct diplomacy with iran without preconditions. now is the time to pressure iran directly to change their troubling behavior. obama would offer the iranian regime a choice. if iran abandons its nuclear program and support for terrorism, we will offer incentives like membership in the world trade organization, economic investments, and a move toward normal diplomatic relations. if iran continues its troubling behavior, we will step up our economic pressure and political isolation. seeking this kind of comprehensive settlement with iran is our best way to make progress”(obama, 2008) . obama in his nss continues with obligation and coercive means, “if they ignore their international obligations, we will pursue multiple means to increase their isolation and bring them into compliance with international nonproliferation norms” (nss 2010, p.24). obama mentions that one of the top national security priorities of united states is the weapon of m destruction, which iran and north korea are looking for it (nss 2010, p. 4). he emphasis that actions and coercive actions will be done through international organizations such as un and international atomic energy agency (iaea), “we are strengthening the nuclear non-proliferation treaty (npt) as the foundation of nonproliferation, while working through the npt to hold nations like iran and north korea accountable for their failure to meet international obligations” (nss 2010, p. 4).

iran as the regional power in middle east has been accused by united states to support militias in the region after islamic revolution 1979. there are some elements of the obama’s strategies in the middle east, which directly or indirectly concerns to iran. u.s.-israel relations, as the u.s. friend and ally in the region, arab-israel conflicts, iraq security and unity, and afghanistan problems are some issues that iran can affect the united states strategy in the region. obama the same as his predecessor accuses iran to endanger region security and supporting terrorism. he accentuates continuation of sanctions and do not refuse the military option against iran. he writes, “for decades, the islamic republic of iran has endangered the security of the region and the united states and failed to live up to its international responsibilities. in addition to its illicit nuclear program, it continues to support terrorism, undermine peace between israelis and palestinians, and deny its people their universal rights. many years of refusing to engage iran failed to reverse these trends; on the contrary, iran’s behavior be e more threatening. enga ent is something we pursue without illusion. it can offer iran a pathway to a better future, provided iran’s leaders are prepared to take it. however, that better pathway can only be achieved if iran’s leaders change course, act to restore the confidence of the international community, and fulfill their obligations. the united states seeks a future in which iran meets its international responsibilities, takes its rightful place in the community of nations, and enjoys the political and economic opportunities that its people deserve. yet if the iranian government continues to refuse to live up to its international obligations, it will face greater isolation” (nss 2010, p.26).

this document under the “safeguarding the global commons” headline points about the importance of straits, seas and space and implies the iran’s threat to close hormoz strait, “we must work together to ensure the constant flow of commerce, facilitate safe and secure air travel, and prevent disruptions to critical communications. we must also safeguard the sea, air, and space domains from those who would deny access or use them for hostile purposes. this includes keeping strategic straits and vital sea-lanes open, improving the early detection of emerging maritime threats, denying adversaries hostile use of the air domain, and ensuring the responsible use of space. as one key effort in the sea domain, for example, we will pursue ratification of the united nations convention on the law of the sea” (nss 2010, p.50).

nonetheless, the new thing in obama’s speech in the first month of his presidency was ideas about direct talk to iran and using the “islamic republic of iran” instead of iran and his persu ion on iran’s right to have nuclear energy. obama in his electoral speech had said about unconditional talk to iran, which was adapted to his “change” policy. he even in many times had criticized the republican policy to threaten iran by military action. obama believed in usage of diplomacy to solve iran nuclear issue and meanwhile he talked about economical and polictical pressure on iran (obama, 2008). in the other side, neoconservative critics describe power of soft strategy of obama to iran as incomperehensive. in their point of view, iran’s cooperation after eleventh of septembre was the result of it’s worry of a possible attack to iran after invasion to afghanistan and iraq (holmes, 2010).

conclusion

the terrorism of 9/11 dramatically altered the sense of lack of grand strategy in the united states that pervailed during the 1990s and provided the impetus for a new grand strategy, and after publlishing the nss 2002 and 2006 by bush administration dedicates the new grand strategy for u.s.

analysing the national security strategy of the united states of america in 2002, 2006, and 2010 reveals that a coercive diplomacy in u.s.-iran relations has been applying by u.s. but iran is a large power with enormous natural resources critical to the global energy supply. moreover, the government of iran tended to maintain cooperation with the west. since the islamic revolution, u.s. administrartions focused on providing more intelligence and information on iran. the united states kept the threat of military force on the table, however it kept diplomacy in the forefront.

the preemptive use of force in the face of imminent attach makes strategic sense in u.s. administration after 2001 and is supported by international law and the just wari tradition (lieber, 2007). therefore the nss of bush administration in 2002 and 2006 advocated the preemptive use of military force against terrorists or state sponsors of terrorism that attempt to gain or use weapons of m destructions. according to the document, “as a matter of common sense and self-defense, america will act against such emerging threats before they are fully formed” (nss 2002, p. preface). this principle expressed by the nss is highly controversial, however, as it broadens the meaning of preemption to encomp military action “even if uncertainty remains as to the time and place of the enemy’s attach”. critics argue that this attempt to include preventive military action under the category of preemtion has no legal or practical basis, and thus see the bush doctrine as a worrisome break from tradition.

the nss 2002 and 2006 cited u.s. unparalleled position of power in the world and held that a fundamental goal of grand strategy should be to maintain american primacy by discouraging the rise of any challengers: “today, the united states enjoys a position of unparalleled military strength and great economic and political influence. in keeping with our heritage and principles, we do not use our strength to press for unilateral a ntage. we seek instead to create a balance of power that favors human freedom” (nss 2002, p. preface). the strategy does not declare deterrence to be dead. in erting that the united states "must build and maintain our defenses beyond challenge," it flatly states the u.s. military must be able to "deter threats against u.s. interests, allies, and friends." if anything, the strategy actually broadens the role of deterrence in u.s. national security policy. the purpose of a strong military is not just to deter the adversary on the battlefield but also "to dissuade potential adversaries from pursuing a military buildup in hopes of surp ing, or equaling, the power of the united states" (nss 2002, p.30).

bush strategy envisions a narrower role for preemption. it discusses preemption in the specific context of defeating terrorists and rogue states. it never suggests preemption has a role to play with respect to a rising china or any residual threat posed by russia.

the strategy's argument for preempting rogue states is more debatable. it rests on the disputed claim that "deterrence based upon the threat of retaliation is less likely to work against leaders of rogue states more willing to take risks." this conclusion is based more on conjecture than hard evidence. iraq and north korea, the only two rogue states that the nss 2002 mentions by name, have both shown they understand deterrence. but later with the nss 2006 it adds iran, the third member of the "axis of evil," not just a rogue state but a tyrant.

instead of the doctrine of the preemptive attack and the unilateral action of bush, the son, obama’s national security strategy generally emphasizes on the precautionary actions, multilateralism, specially international diplomacy, and alliances (look at the following table, article 15). this theme was clear in one of the obama’s speech before publishing his nss when he has said that america would reach out to other countries as “an equal partner” rather than as the “exceptional” nation that many before him had embraced; that any world order that elevates one nation or group of people over another will inevitably fail; and that u.s. problems must be dealt with through partnership and progress must be shared (holmes, 2010).

by qualitative analysis of the content of the nss 2002, 2006 and 2010 we have found some main themes which regards to iran and the policies which is chosen to deal with iran in u.s. administrations of george w. bush and barak obama. according to these findings, coercive diplomacy is used by u.s. administrations to oppress iran in some aspects of its nuclear power program, supporting some armed groups in the region of middle east, its human rights case, intervening in the israel-palestine peace process, and change of its policies and fundamentals in the region and toward the west. as we have told before, u.s. determination to fight in afghanistan and iraq and the help which it need from iran as the country which has a key role in the region and also the policy of khatami’s government before and after the eleventh of september, the nss 2002 never mentions iran directly. but in nss 2006 which coincides with the change of policy of the two countries against each other, the name of iran takes a bold attention and sixteen times is repeated. iran also gets a main role in the foreign policy of obama’s as a case that can bring success and fame for him, therefore the nss 2010 mentions 14 times the name of iran (the table, article 1).

by looking at the table below we can see that the tone of president bush in the nss 2006 gets a harsh one and the coercive diplomacy comes to its high level but obama’s tone to address iran is more gently and even for the first time mention the name of “islamic republic of iran”. nss 2006 names countries such as iran as a tyrant and blames it for looking for the weapons of m destruction in five times (in nss 2010, one time indirectly), blames iran for harboring terrorism and supporting them for five times (in nss 2010, two times), aggressive behavior and dangerous ambitions for five times (in nss 2010, three times), neglecting human rights for three times (in nss 2010, one time) and addressing iran as the country which threatens the peace and security of the united states ( in nss 2010 it is mentioned indirectly) (the table, article 2-7), however the nss 2010 when talks about the iran’s threat to its neighbors, israel and the peace process of israel-palestine it even get a harsher tone than the previous nss (the table, article 8-10).

while both bush and obama insist on pressure on iran to meet international obligations, bush threats iran to use any measure even force and follows to engage with the peoples and internal opponents of iran, but obama choose its policy based on indirectly threat of use of force and enga ent with the government of iran (the table, article 11- 14).

table: the themes of nss 2002, 2006 and 2010 regarding iran.

themes nss

nss 2002

nss 2006

nss 2010

1

adressing iran & iranian

0

16 times

14 times

2

using tyranny of ryrann words to name

countries such as iran

˟

ö

ˣ

3

adressing iran as the counry which threatens

peace and u.s. security

indirectly

directly

indirectly

4

blaming iran for looking for the weapons of

m destruction

indirectly

5 times

indirectly

5

blaming iran for harbouring and supporting

terrorism home and abroud

indirectly

4 times

2 times


مشاهده متن کامل ...

the kiss
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

by anton chekhov


at eight o'clock on the evening of the twentieth of may all the six batteries of the n---- reserve artillery brigade halted for the night in the village of myestetchki on their way to p. when the general commotion was at its height, while some officers were busily occupied around the guns, while others, gathered together in the square near the church enclosure, were listening to the quartermasters, a man in civilian dress, riding a strange horse, e into sight round the church. the little dun-coloured horse with a good neck and a short tail e, moving not straight forward, but as it were sideways, with a sort of dance step, as though it were being lashed about the legs. when he reached the officers the man on the horse took off his hat and said:

"his excellency lieutenant-general von rabbek invites the gentlemen to drink tea with him this minute. . . ."

 


by anton chekhov


at eight o'clock on the evening of the twentieth of may all the six batteries of the n---- reserve artillery brigade halted for the night in the village of myestetchki on their way to p. when the general commotion was at its height, while some officers were busily occupied around the guns, while others, gathered together in the square near the church enclosure, were listening to the quartermasters, a man in civilian dress, riding a strange horse, e into sight round the church. the little dun-coloured horse with a good neck and a short tail e, moving not straight forward, but as it were sideways, with a sort of dance step, as though it were being lashed about the legs. when he reached the officers the man on the horse took off his hat and said:

"his excellency lieutenant-general von rabbek invites the gentlemen to drink tea with him this minute. . . ."

the horse turned, danced, and retired sideways; the messenger raised his hat once more, and in an instant disappeared with his strange horse behind the church.

"what the devil does it mean?" grumbled some of the officers, dispersing to their quarters. "one is sleepy, and here this von rabbek with his tea! we know what tea means."

the officers of all the six batteries remembered vividly an incident of the previous year, when during manoeuvres they, together with the officers of a cossack regiment, were in the same way invited to tea by a count who had an estate in the neighbourhood and was a retired army officer: the hospitable and genial count made much of them, fed them, and gave them drink, refused to let them go to their quarters in the village and made them stay the night. all that, of course, was very nice -- nothing better could be desired, but the worst of it was, the old army officer was so carried away by the pleasure of the young men's company that till sunrise he was telling the officers anecdotes of his glorious past, taking them over the house, showing them expensive pictures, old engravings, rare guns, reading them autog h letters from great people, while the weary and exhausted officers looked and listened, longing for their beds and yawning in their sleeves; when at last their host let them go, it was too late for sleep.

might not this von rabbek be just such another? whether he were or not, there was no help for it. the officers changed their uniforms, brushed themselves, and went all together in search of the gentleman's house. in the square by the church they were told they could get to his excellency's by the lower path -- going down behind the church to the river, going along the bank to the garden, and there an avenue would taken them to the house; or by the upper way -- straight from the church by the road which, half a mile from the village, led right up to his excellency's granaries. the officers decided to go by the upper way.

"what von rabbek is it?" they wondered on the way. "surely not the one who was in command of the n---- cavalry division at plevna?"

"no, that was not von rabbek, but simply rabbe and no 'von.' "

"what lovely weather!"

at the first of the granaries the road divided in two: one branch went straight on and vanished in the evening darkness, the other led to the owner's house on the right. the officers turned to the right and began to speak more softly. . . . on both sides of the road stretched stone granaries with red roofs, heavy and sullen-looking, very much like barracks of a district town. ahead of them gleamed the windows of the manor-house.

"a good omen, gentlemen," said one of the officers. "our setter is the foremost of all; no doubt he scents game ahead of us! . . ."

lieutenant lobytko, who was walking in front, a tall and stalwart fellow, though entirely without moustache (he was over five-and-twenty, yet for some reason there was no sign of hair on his round, well-fed face), renowned in the brigade for his peculiar faculty for divining the presence of women at a distance, turned round and said:

"yes, there must be women here; i feel that by instinct."

on the threshold the officers were met by von rabbek himself, a comely-looking man of sixty in civilian dress. shaking hands with his guests, he said that he was very glad and happy to see them, but begged them earnestly for god's sake to excuse him for not asking them to stay the night; two sisters with their children, some brothers, and some neighbours, had come on a visit to him, so that he had not one spare room left.

the general shook hands with every one, made his apologies, and smiled, but it was evident by his face that he was by no means so delighted as their last year's count, and that he had invited the officers simply because, in his opinion, it was a social obligation to do so. and the officers themselves, as they walked up the softly carpeted stairs, as they listened to him, felt that they had been invited to this house simply because it would have been awkward not to invite them; and at the sight of the footmen, who hastened to light the lamps in the entrance below and in the anteroom above, they began to feel as though they had brought uneasiness and discomfort into the house with them. in a house in which two sisters and their children, brothers, and neighbours were gathered together, probably on account of some family festivity, or event, how could the presence of nineteen unknown officers possibly be welcome?

at the entrance to the drawing-room the officers were met by a tall, graceful old lady with black eyebrows and a long face, very much like the empress eugnie. smiling graciously and majestically, she said she was glad and happy to see her guests, and apologized that her husband and she were on this occasion unable to invite messieurs les officiers to stay the night. from her beautiful majestic smile, which instantly vanished from her face every time she turned away from her guests, it was evident that she had seen numbers of officers in her day, that she was in no humour for them now, and if she invited them to her house and apologized for not doing more, it was only because her breeding and position in society required it of her.

when the officers went into the big dining-room, there were about a dozen people, men and ladies, young and old, sitting at tea at the end of a long table. a group of men was dimly visible behind their chairs, w ped in a haze of cigar smoke; and in the midst of them stood a lanky young man with red whiskers, talking loudly, with a lisp, in english. through a door beyond the group could be seen a light room with pale blue furniture.

"gentlemen, there are so many of you that it is impossible to introduce you all!" said the general in a loud voice, trying to sound very cheerful. "make each other's acquaintance, gentlemen, without any ceremony!"

the officers -- some with very serious and even stern faces, others with forced smiles, and all feeling extremely awkward -- somehow made their bows and down to tea.

the most ill at ease of them all was ryabovitch -- a little officer in spectacles, with sloping shoulders, and whiskers like a lynx's. while some of his comrades umed a serious expression, while others wore forced smiles, his face, his lynx-like whiskers, and spectacles seemed to say: "i am the shyest, most modest, and most undistinguished officer in the whole brigade!" at first, on going into the room and sitting down to the table, he could not fix his attention on any one face or object. the faces, the dresses, the cut-gl decanters of brandy, the steam from the gl es, the moulded cornices -- all blended in one general impression that inspired in ryabovitch alarm and a desire to hide his head. like a lecturer making his first appearance before the public, he saw everything that was before his eyes, but apparently only had a dim understanding of it (among physiologists this condition, when the subject sees but does not understand, is called psychical blindness). after a little while, growing accustomed to his surroundings, ryabovitch saw clearly and began to observe. as a shy man, unused to society, what struck him first was that in which he had always been deficient -- namely, the extraordinary boldness of his new acquaintances. von rabbek, his wife, two elderly ladies, a young lady in a lilac dress, and the young man with the red whiskers, who was, it appeared, a younger son of von rabbek, very cleverly, as though they had rehearsed it beforehand, took seats between the officers, and at once got up a heated discussion in which the visitors could not help taking part. the lilac young lady ly erted that the artillery had a much better time than the cavalry and the infantry, while von rabbek and the elderly ladies maintained the opposite. a brisk interchange of talk followed. ryabovitch watched the lilac young lady who argued so ly about what was unfamiliar and utterly uninteresting to her, and watched artificial smiles come and go on her face.

von rabbek and his family skilfully drew the officers into the discussion, and meanwhile kept a sharp lookout over their gl es and mouths, to see whether all of them were drinking, whether all had enough sugar, why some one was not eating cakes or not drinking brandy. and the longer ryabovitch watched and listened, the more he was attracted by this insincere but splendidly disciplined family.

after tea the officers went into the drawing-room. lieutenant lobytko's instinct had not deceived him. there were a great number of s and young married ladies. the "setter" lieutenant was soon standing by a very young, fair in a black dress, and, bending down to her jauntily, as though leaning on an unseen sword, smiled and shrugged his shoulders coquettishly. he probably talked very interesting nonsense, for the fair looked at his well-fed face condescendingly and asked indifferently, "really?" and from that uninterested "really?" the setter, had he been intelligent, might have concluded that she would never call him to heel.

the piano struck up; the melancholy strains of a valse floated out of the wide open windows, and every one, for some reason, remembered that it was spring, a may evening. every one was conscious of the fragrance of roses, of lilac, and of the young leaves of the poplar. ryabovitch, in whom the brandy he had drunk made itself felt, under the influence of the stole a glance towards the window, smiled, and began watching the movements of the women, and it seemed to him that the smell of roses, of poplars, and lilac e not from the garden, but from the ladies' faces and dresses.

von rabbek's son invited a scraggy-looking young lady to dance, and waltzed round the room twice with her. lobytko, gliding over the parquet floor, flew up to the lilac young lady and whirled her away. dancing began. . . . ryabovitch stood near the door among those who were not dancing and looked on. he had never once danced in his whole life, and he had never once in his life put his arm round the waist of a respectable woman. he was highly delighted that a man should in the sight of all take a he did not know round the waist and offer her his shoulder to put her hand on, but he could not imagine himself in the position of such a man. there were times when he envied the boldness and swagger of his companions and was inwardly wretched; the consciousness that he was timid, that he was round-shouldered and uninteresting, that he had a long waist and lynx-like whiskers, had deeply mortified him, but with years he had grown used to this feeling, and now, looking at his comrades dancing or loudly talking, he no longer envied them, but only felt touched and mournful.

when the quadrille began, young von rabbek e up to those who were not dancing and invited two officers to have a game at billiards. the officers accepted and went with him out of the drawing-room. ryabovitch, having nothing to do and wishing to take part in the general movement, slouched after them. from the big drawing-room they went into the little drawing-room, then into a narrow corridor with a gl roof, and thence into a room in which on their entrance three sleepy-looking footmen jumped up quickly from the sofa. at last, after p ing through a long succession of rooms, young von rabbek and the officers e into a small room where there was a billiard-table. they began to play.

ryabovitch, who had never played any game but cards, stood near the billiard-table and looked indifferently at the players, while they in un oned coats, with cues in their hands, stepped about, made puns, and kept shouting out unintelligible words.

the players took no notice of him, and only now and then one of them, shoving him with his elbow or accidentally touching him with the end of his cue, would turn round and say "pardon!" before the first game was over he was weary of it, and began to feel he was not wanted and in the way. . . . he felt disposed to return to the drawing-room, and he went out.

on his way back he met with a little adventure. when he had gone half-way he noticed he had taken a wrong turning. he distinctly remembered that he ought to meet three sleepy footmen on his way, but he had p ed five or six rooms, and those sleepy figures seemed to have vanished into the earth. noticing his mistake, he walked back a little way and turned to the right; he found himself in a little dark room which he had not seen on his way to the billiard-room. after standing there a little while, he resolutely opened the first door that met his eyes and walked into an absolutely dark room. straight in front could be seen the crack in the doorway through which there was a gleam of vivid light; from the other side of the door e the muffled sound of a melancholy mazurka. here, too, as in the drawing-room, the windows were wide open and there was a smell of poplars, lilac and roses. . . .

ryabovitch stood still in hesitation. . . . at that moment, to his surprise, he heard hurried footsteps and the rustling of a dress, a breathless feminine voice whispered "at last!" and two soft, fragrant, unmistakably feminine arms were clasped about his neck; a warm cheek was pressed to his cheek, and simultaneously there was the sound of a kiss. but at once the bestower of the kiss uttered a faint shriek and skipped back from him, as it seemed to ryabovitch, with aversion. he, too, almost shrieked and rushed towards the gleam of light at the door. . . .

when he went back into the drawing-room his heart was beating and his hands were trembling so noticeably that he made haste to hide them behind his back. at first he was tormented by shame and dread that the whole drawing-room knew that he had just been kissed and embraced by a woman. he shrank into himself and looked uneasily about him, but as he be e convinced that people were dancing and talking as calmly as ever, he gave himself up entirely to the new sen ion which he had never experienced before in his life. something strange was happening to him. . . . his neck, round which soft, fragrant arms had so lately been clasped, seemed to him to be anointed with oil; on his left cheek near his moustache where the unknown had kissed him there was a faint chilly tingling sen ion as from peppermint drops, and the more he rubbed the place the more distinct was the chilly sen ion; all over, from head to foot, he was full of a strange new feeling which grew stronger and stronger. . . . he wanted to dance, to talk, to run into the garden, to laugh aloud. . . . he quite forgot that he was round-shouldered and uninteresting, that he had lynx-like whiskers and an "undistinguished appearance" (that was how his appearance had been described by some ladies whose conver ion he had accidentally overheard). when von rabbek's wife happened to p by him, he gave her such a broad and friendly smile that she stood still and looked at him inquiringly.

"i like your house immensely!" he said, setting his spectacles straight.

the general's wife smiled and said that the house had belonged to her father; then she asked whether his parents were living, whether he had long been in the army, why he was so thin, and so on. . . . after receiving answers to her questions, she went on, and after his conver ion with her his smiles were more friendly than ever, and he thought he was surrounded by splendid people. . . .

at supper ryabovitch ate mechanically everything offered him, drank, and without listening to anything, tried to understand what had just happened to him. . . . the adventure was of a mysterious and romantic character, but it was not difficult to explain it. no doubt some or young married lady had arranged a tryst with some one in the dark room; had waited a long time, and being nervous and excited had taken ryabovitch for her hero; this was the more probable as ryabovitch had stood still hesitating in the dark room, so that he, too, had seemed like a person expecting something. . . . this was how ryabovitch explained to himself the kiss he had received.

"and who is she?" he wondered, looking round at the women's faces. "she must be young, for elderly ladies don't give rendezvous. that she was a lady, one could tell by the rustle of her dress, her perfume, her voice. . . ."

his eyes rested on the lilac young lady, and he thought her very attractive; she had beautiful shoulders and arms, a clever face, and a delightful voice. ryabovitch, looking at her, hoped that she and no one else was his unknown. . . . but she laughed somehow artificially and wrinkled up her long nose, which seemed to him to make her look old. then he turned his eyes upon the fair in a black dress. she was younger, simpler, and more genuine, had a charming brow, and drank very daintily out of her winegl . ryabovitch now hoped that it was she. but soon he began to think her face flat, and fixed his eyes upon the one next her.

"it's difficult to guess," he thought, musing. "if one takes the shoulders and arms of the lilac one only, adds the brow of the fair one and the eyes of the one on the left of lobytko, then . . ."

he made a combination of these things in his mind and so formed the image of the who had kissed him, the image that he wanted her to have, but could not find at the table. . . .

after supper, replete and exhilarated, the officers began to take leave and say thank you. von rabbek and his wife began again apologizing that they could not ask them to stay the night.

"very, very glad to have met you, gentlemen," said von rabbek, and this time sincerely (probably because people are far more sincere and good-humoured at speeding their parting guests than on meeting them). "delighted. i hope you will come on your way back! don't stand on ceremony! where are you going? do you want to go by the upper way? no, go across the garden; it's nearer here by the lower way."

the officers went out into the garden. after the bright light and the noise the garden seemed very dark and quiet. they walked in silence all the way to the gate. they were a little drunk, pleased, and in good spirits, but the darkness and silence made them thoughtful for a minute. probably the same idea occurred to each one of them as to ryabovitch: would there ever come a time for them when, like von rabbek, they would have a large house, a family, a garden -- when they, too, would be able to welcome people, even though insincerely, feed them, make them drunk and contented?

going out of the garden gate, they all began talking at once and laughing loudly about nothing. they were walking now along the little path that led down to the river, and then ran along the water's edge, winding round the bushes on the bank, the pools, and the willows that overhung the water. the bank and the path were scarcely visible, and the other bank was entirely plunged in darkness. stars were reflected here and there on the dark water; they quivered and were broken up on the surface -- and from that alone it could be seen that the river was flowing idly. it was still. drowsy curlews cried plaintively on the further bank, and in one of the bushes on the nearest side a nightingale was trilling loudly, taking no notice of the crowd of officers. the officers stood round the bush, touched it, but the nightingale went on singing.

"what a fellow!" they exclaimed approvingly. "we stand beside him and he takes not a bit of notice! what a rascal!"

at the end of the way the path went uphill, and, skirting the church enclosure, turned into the road. here the officers, tired with walking uphill, down and lighted their cigarettes. on the other side of the river a murky red fire e into sight, and having nothing better to do, they spent a long time in discussing whether it was a p fire or a light in a window, or something else. . . . ryabovitch, too, looked at the light, and he fancied that the light looked and winked at him, as though it knew about the kiss.

on reaching his quarters, ryabovitch undressed as quickly as possible and got into bed. lobytko and lieutenant merzlyakov -- a peaceable, silent fellow, who was considered in his own circle a highly educated officer, and was always, whenever it was possible, reading the "vyestnik evropi," which he carried about with him everywhere -- were quartered in the same hut with ryabovitch. lobytko undressed, walked up and down the room for a long while with the air of a man who has not been isfied, and sent his orderly for beer. merzlyakov got into bed, put a candle by his pillow and plunged into reading the "vyestnik evropi."

"who was she?" ryabovitch wondered, looking at the smoky ceiling.

his neck still felt as though he had been anointed with oil, and there was still the chilly sen ion near his mouth as though from peppermint drops. the shoulders and arms of the young lady in lilac, the brow and the truthful eyes of the fair in black, waists, dresses, and brooches, floated through his imagination. he tried to fix his attention on these images, but they danced about, broke up and flickered. when these images vanished altogether from the broad dark background which every man sees when he closes his eyes, he began to hear hurried footsteps, the rustle of skirts, the sound of a kiss and -- an intense groundless joy took possession of him. . . . abandoning himself to this joy, he heard the orderly return and announce that there was no beer. lobytko was terribly indignant, and began pacing up and down again.

"well, isn't he an idiot?" he kept saying, stopping first before ryabovitch and then before merzlyakov. "what a fool and a dummy a man must be not to get hold of any beer! eh? isn't he a scoundrel?"

"of course you can't get beer here," said merzlyakov, not removing his eyes from the "vyestnik evropi."

"oh! is that your opinion?" lobytko persisted. "lord have mercy upon us, if you dropped me on the moon i'd find you beer and women directly! i'll go and find some at once. . . . you may call me an impostor if i don't!"

he spent a long time in dressing and pulling on his high boots, then finished smoking his cigarette in silence and went out.

"rabbek, grabbek, labbek," he muttered, stopping in the outer room. "i don't care to go alone, damn it all! ryabovitch, wouldn't you like to go for a walk? eh?"

receiving no answer, he returned, slowly undressed and got into bed. merzlyakov sighed, put the "vyestnik evropi" away, and put out the light.

"h'm! . . ." muttered lobytko, lighting a cigarette in the dark.

ryabovitch pulled the bed-clothes over his head, curled himself up in bed, and tried to gather together the floating images in his mind and to combine them into one whole. but nothing e of it. he soon fell asleep, and his last thought was that some one had caressed him and made him happy -- that something extraordinary, foolish, but joyful and delightful, had come into his life. the thought did not leave him even in his sleep.

when he woke up the sen ions of oil on his neck and the chill of peppermint about his lips had gone, but joy flooded his heart just as the day before. he looked enthusiastically at the window-frames, gilded by the light of the rising sun, and listened to the movement of the p ers-by in the street. people were talking loudly close to the window. lebedetsky, the commander of ryabovitch's battery, who had only just overtaken the brigade, was talking to his sergeant at the top of his voice, being always accustomed to shout.

"what else?" shouted the commander.

"when they were shoeing yesterday, your high nobility, they drove a nail into pigeon's hoof. the vet. put on clay and vinegar; they are leading him apart now. and also, your honour, artemyev got drunk yesterday, and the lieutenant ordered him to be put in the limber of a spare gun-carriage."

the sergeant reported that karpov had forgotten the new cords for the trumpets and the rings for the tents, and that their honours, the officers, had spent the previous evening visiting general von rabbek. in the middle of this conver ion the red-bearded face of lebedetsky appeared in the window. he screwed up his short-sighted eyes, looking at the sleepy faces of the officers, and said good-morning to them.

"is everything all right?" he asked.

"one of the horses has a sore neck from the new collar," answered lobytko, yawning.

the commander sighed, thought a moment, and said in a loud voice:

"i am thinking of going to see alexandra yevgrafovna. i must call on her. well, good-bye. i shall catch you up in the evening."

a quarter of an hour later the brigade set off on its way. when it was moving along the road by the granaries, ryabovitch looked at the house on the right. the blinds were down in all the windows. evidently the household was still asleep. the one who had kissed ryabovitch the day before was asleep, too. he tried to imagine her asleep. the wide-open windows of the bedroom, the green branches peeping in, the morning freshness, the scent of the poplars, lilac, and roses, the bed, a chair, and on it the skirts that had rustled the day before, the little slippers, the little watch on the table -- all this he pictured to himself clearly and distinctly, but the features of the face, the sweet sleepy smile, just what was characteristic and important, slipped through his imagination like quicksilver through the fingers. when he had ridden on half a mile, he looked back: the yellow church, the house, and the river, were all bathed in light; the river with its bright green banks, with the blue sky reflected in it and glints of silver in the sunshine here and there, was very beautiful. ryabovitch gazed for the last time at myestetchki, and he felt as sad as though he were parting with something very near and dear to him.

and before him on the road lay nothing but long familiar, uninteresting pictures. . . . to right and to left, fields of young rye and buckwheat with rooks hopping about in them. if one looked ahead, one saw dust and the backs of men's heads; if one looked back, one saw the same dust and faces. . . . foremost of all marched four men with sabres -- this was the vanguard. next, behind, the crowd of singers, and behind them the trumpeters on horseback. the vanguard and the chorus of singers, like torch-bearers in a funeral procession, often forgot to keep the regulation distance and pushed a long way ahead. . . . ryabovitch was with the first cannon of the fifth battery. he could see all the four batteries moving in front of him. for any one not a military man this long tedious procession of a moving brigade seems an intricate and unintelligible muddle; one cannot understand why there are so many people round one cannon, and why it is drawn by so many horses in such a strange network of harness, as though it really were so terrible and heavy. to ryabovitch it was all perfectly comprehensible and therefore uninteresting. he had known for ever so long why at the head of each battery there rode a stalwart bombardier, and why he was called a bombardier; immediately behind this bombardier could be seen the horsemen of the first and then of the middle units. ryabovitch knew that the horses on which they rode, those on the left, were called one name, while those on the right were called another -- it was extremely uninteresting. behind the horsemen e two shaft-horses. on one of them a rider with the dust of yesterday on his back and a clumsy and funny-looking piece of wood on his leg. ryabovitch knew the object of this piece of wood, and did not think it funny. all the riders waved their whips mechanically and shouted from time to time. the cannon itself was ugly. on the fore part lay sacks of oats covered with canvas, and the cannon itself was hung all over with kettles, soldiers' knapsacks, bags, and looked like some small harmless animal surrounded for some unknown reason by men and horses. to the leeward of it marched six men, the gunners, swinging their arms. after the cannon there e again more bombardiers, riders, shaft-horses, and behind them another cannon, as ugly and unimpressive as the first. after the second followed a third, a fourth; near the fourth an officer, and so on. there were six batteries in all in the brigade, and four cannons in each battery. the procession covered half a mile; it ended in a string of wagons near which an extremely attractive creature -- the , magar, brought by a battery commander from turkey -- paced pensively with his long-eared head drooping.

ryabovitch looked indifferently before and behind, at the backs of heads and at faces; at any other time he would have been half asleep, but now he was entirely absorbed in his new agreeable thoughts. at first when the brigade was setting off on the march he tried to persuade himself that the incident of the kiss could only be interesting as a mysterious little adventure, that it was in reality trivial, and to think of it seriously, to say the least of it, was stupid; but now he bade farewell to logic and gave himself up to dreams. . . . at one moment he imagined himself in von rabbek's drawing-room beside a who was like the young lady in lilac and the fair in black; then he would close his eyes and see himself with another, entirely unknown , whose features were very vague. in his imagination he talked, caressed her, leaned on her shoulder, pictured war, separation, then meeting again, supper with his wife, children. . . .

"brakes on!" the word of command rang out every time they went downhill.

he, too, shouted "brakes on!" and was afraid this shout would disturb his reverie and bring him back to reality. . . .

as they p ed by some landowner's estate ryabovitch looked over the fence into the garden. a long avenue, straight as a ruler, strewn with yellow sand and bordered with young birch-trees, met his eyes. . . . with the eagerness of a man given up to dreaming, he pictured to himself little feminine feet tripping along yellow sand, and quite unexpectedly had a clear vision in his imagination of the who had kissed him and whom he had succeeded in picturing to himself the evening before at supper. this image remained in his brain and did not desert him again.

at midday there was a shout in the rear near the string of wagons:

"easy! eyes to the left! officers!"

the general of the brigade drove by in a carriage with a pair of white horses. he stopped near the second battery, and shouted something which no one understood. several officers, among them ryabovitch, galloped up to them.

"well?" asked the general, blinking his red eyes. "are there any sick?"

receiving an answer, the general, a little skinny man, chewed, thought for a moment and said, addressing one of the officers:

"one of your drivers of the third cannon has taken off his leg-guard and hung it on the fore part of the cannon, the rascal. reprimand him."

he raised his eyes to ryabovitch and went on:

"it seems to me your front st is too long."

making a few other tedious remarks, the general looked at lobytko and grinned.

"you look very melancholy today, lieutenant lobytko," he said. "are you pining for madame lopuhov? eh? gentlemen, he is pining for madame lopuhov."

the lady in question was a very stout and tall person who had long p ed her fortieth year. the general, who had a predilection for solid ladies, whatever their ages, suspected a similar taste in his officers. the officers smiled respectfully. the general, delighted at having said something very amusing and biting, laughed loudly, touched his coachman's back, and saluted. the carriage rolled on. . . .

"all i am dreaming about now which seems to me so impossible and unearthly is really quite an ordinary thing," thought ryabovitch, looking at the clouds of dust racing after the general's carriage. "it's all very ordinary, and every one goes through it. . . . that general, for instance, has once been in love; now he is married and has children. captain vahter, too, is married and beloved, though the nape of his neck is very red and ugly and he has no waist. . . . salrnanov is coarse and very tatar, but he has had a love affair that has ended in marriage. . . . i am the same as every one else, and i, too, shall have the same experience as every one else, sooner or later. . . ."

and the thought that he was an ordinary person, and that his life was ordinary, delighted him and gave him courage. he pictured her and his happiness as he pleased, and put no rein on his imagination.

when the brigade reached their halting-place in the evening, and the officers were resting in their tents, ryabovitch, merzlyakov, and lobytko were sitting round a box having supper. merzlyakov ate without haste, and, as he munched deliberately, read the "vyestnik evropi," which he held on his knees. lobytko talked incessantly and kept filling up his gl with beer, and ryabovitch, whose head was confused from dreaming all day long, drank and said nothing. after three gl es he got a little drunk, felt weak, and had an irresistible desire to impart his new sen ions to his comrades.

"a strange thing happened to me at those von rabbeks'," he began, trying to put an indifferent and ironical tone into his voice. "you know i went into the billiard-room. . . ."

he began describing very minutely the incident of the kiss, and a moment later relapsed into silence. . . . in the course of that moment he had told everything, and it surprised him dreadfully to find how short a time it took him to tell it. he had imagined that he could have been telling the story of the kiss till next morning. listening to him, lobytko, who was a great liar and consequently believed no one, looked at him sceptically and laughed. merzlyakov twitched his eyebrows and, without removing his eyes from the "vyestnik evropi," said:

"that's an odd thing! how strange! . . . throws herself on a man's neck, without addressing him by name. .. . she must be some sort of hysterical neurotic."

"yes, she must," ryabovitch agreed.

"a similar thing once happened to me," said lobytko, uming a scared expression. "i was going last year to kovno. . . . i took a second-cl ticket. the train was crammed, and it was impossible to sleep. i gave the guard half a rouble; he took my luggage and led me to another compartment. . . . i lay down and covered myself with a rug. . . . it was dark, you understand. suddenly i felt some one touch me on the shoulder and breathe in my face. i made a movement with my hand and felt somebody's elbow. . . . i opened my eyes and only imagine -- a woman. black eyes, lips red as a prime salmon, nostrils breathing p ionately -- a bosom like a buffer. . . ."

"excuse me," merzlyakov interrupted calmly, "i understand about the bosom, but how could you see the lips if it was dark?"

lobytko began trying to put himself right and laughing at merzlyakov's unimaginativeness. it made ryabovitch wince. he walked away from the box, got into bed, and vowed never to confide again.

p life began. . . . the days flowed by, one very much like another. all those days ryabovitch felt, thought, and behaved as though he were in love. every morning when his orderly handed him water to wash with, and he sluiced his head with cold water, he thought there was something warm and delightful in his life.

in the evenings when his comrades began talking of love and women, he would listen, and draw up closer; and he wore the expression of a soldier when he hears the description of a battle in which he has taken part. and on the evenings when the officers, out on the spree with the setter -- lobytko -- at their head, made don juan excursions to the "suburb," and ryabovitch took part in such excursions, he always was sad, felt profoundly guilty, and inwardly begged her forgiveness. . . . in hours of leisure or on sleepless nights, when he felt moved to recall his childhood, his father and mother -- everything near and dear, in fact, he invariably thought of myestetchki, the strange horse, von rabbek, his wife who was like the empress eugnie, the dark room, the crack of light at the door. . . .

on the thirty-first of august he went back from the p, not with the whole brigade, but with only two batteries of it. he was dreaming and excited all the way, as though he were going back to his native place. he had an intense longing to see again the strange horse, the church, the insincere family of the von rabbeks, the dark room. the "inner voice," which so often deceives lovers, whispered to him for some reason that he would be sure to see her . . . and he was tortured by the questions, how he should meet her? what he would talk to her about? whether she had forgotten the kiss? if the worst e to the worst, he thought, even if he did not meet her, it would be a pleasure to him merely to go through the dark room and recall the past. . . .

towards evening there appeared on the horizon the familiar church and white granaries. ryabovitch's heart beat. . . . he did not hear the officer who was riding beside him and saying something to him, he forgot everything, and looked eagerly at the river shining in the distance, at the roof of the house, at the dovecote round which the pigeons were circling in the light of the setting sun.

when they reached the church and were listening to the billeting orders, he expected every second that a man on horseback would come round the church enclosure and invite the officers to tea, but . . . the billeting orders were read, the officers were in haste to go on to the village, and the man on horseback did not appear.

"von rabbek will hear at once from the peasants that we have come and will send for us," thought ryabovitch, as he went into the hut, unable to understand why a comrade was lighting a candle and why the orderlies were hurriedly setting samovars. . . .

a painful uneasiness took possession of him. he lay down, then got up and looked out of the window to see whether the messenger were coming. but there was no sign of him.

he lay down again, but half an hour later he got up, and, unable to restrain his uneasiness, went into the street and strode towards the church. it was dark and deserted in the square near the church. . . . three soldiers were standing silent in a row where the road began to go downhill. seeing ryabovitch, they roused themselves and saluted. he returned the salute and began to go down the familiar path.

on the further side of the river the whole sky was flooded with crimson: the moon was rising; two peasant women, talking loudly, were picking cabbage in the kitchen garden; behind the kitchen garden there were some dark huts. . . . and everything on the near side of the river was just as it had been in may: the path, the bushes, the willows overhanging the water . . . but there was no sound of the brave nightingale, and no scent of poplar and fresh gr .

reaching the garden, ryabovitch looked in at the gate. the garden was dark and still. . . . he could see nothing but the white stems of the nearest birch-trees and a little bit of the avenue; all the rest melted together into a dark blur. ryabovitch looked and listened eagerly, but after waiting for a quarter of an hour without hearing a sound or catching a glimpse of a light, he trudged back. . . .

he went down to the river. the general's bath-house and the bath-sheets on the rail of the little bridge showed white before him. . . . he went on to the bridge, stood a little, and, quite unnecessarily, touched the sheets. they felt rough and cold. he looked down at the water. . . . the river ran idly and with a faintly audible gurgle round the piles of the bath-house. the red moon was reflected near the left bank; little ripples ran over the reflection, stretching it out, breaking it into bits, and seemed trying to carry it away.

"how stupid, how stupid!" thought ryabovitch, looking at the running water. "how unintelligent it all is!"

now that he expected nothing, the incident of the kiss, his impatience, his vague hopes and disappointment, presented themselves in a clear light. it no longer seemed to him strange that he had not seen the general's messenger, and that he would never see the who had accidentally kissed him instead of some one else; on the contrary, it would have been strange if he had seen her. . . .

the water was running, he knew not where or why, just as it did in may. in may it had flowed into the great river, from the great river into the sea; then it had risen in vapour, turned into rain, and perhaps the very same water was running now before ryabovitch's eyes again. . . . what for? why?

and the whole world, the whole of life, seemed to ryabovitch an unintelligible, aimless jest. . . . and turning his eyes from the water and looking at the sky, he remembered again how fate in the person of an unknown woman had by chance caressed him, he remembered his summer dreams and fancies, and his life struck him as extraordinarily meagre, poverty-stricken, and colourless. . . .

when he went back to his hut he did not find one of his comrades. the orderly informed him that they had all gone to "general von rabbek's, who had sent a messenger on horseback to invite them. . . ."

for an instant there was a flash of joy in ryabovitch's heart, but he quenched it at once, got into bed, and in his wrath with his fate, as though to spite it, did not go to the general's.




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day had broken cold and grey, exceedingly cold and grey, when the man turned aside from the main yu trail and climbed the high earth- bank, where a dim and little-travelled trail led eastward through the fat spruce timberland. it was a steep bank, and he paused for breath at the top, excusing the act to himself by looking at his watch.
it was nine o'clock. there was no sun nor hint of sun, though there was not a cloud in the sky.
it was a clear day, and yet there seemed an intangible pall over the face of things, a subtle gloom that made the day dark, and that was due to the absence of sun. this fact did not worry the man. he was used to the lack of sun. it had been days since he had seen the sun,and he knew that a few more days must p before that cheerful orb ,due south, would just peep above the sky- line and dip immediately from view.

the man flung a look back along the way he had come. the yu lay a mile wide and hidden under three feet of ice. on top of this ice were as many feet of snow. it was all pure white, rolling in gentle undulations where the ice-jams of the freeze-up had formed. north and south, as far as his eye could see, it was unbroken white, save for a dark hair-line that curved and twisted from around the spruce- covered island to the south, and that curved and twisted away into the north, where it disappeared behind another spruce-covered island. this dark hair-line was the trail--the main trail--that led south five hundred miles to the chilcoot p , dyea, and salt water; and that led north seventy miles to dawson, and still on to the north a thousand miles to nulato, and finally to st. michael on bering sea, a thousand miles and half a thousand more.

but all this--the mysterious, far-reaching hairline trail, the absence of sun from the sky, the tremendous cold, and the strangeness and weirdness of it all--made no impression on the man. it was not because he was long used to it. he was a new-comer in the land, a chechaquo, and this was his first winter. the trouble with him was that he was without imagination. he was quick and alert in the things of life, but only in the things, and not in the significances. fifty degrees below zero meant eighty odd degrees of frost. such fact impressed him as being cold and uncomfortable, and that was all. it did not lead him to meditate upon his frailty as a creature of temperature, and upon man's frailty in general, able only to live within certain narrow limits of heat and cold; and from there on it did not lead him to the conjectural field of immortality and man's place in the universe. fifty degrees below zero stood for a bite of frost that hurt and that must be guarded against by the use of mittens, ear-flaps, warm moccasins, and thick socks. fifty degrees below zero was to him just precisely fifty degrees below zero. that there should be anything more to it than that was a thought that never entered his head.

as he turned to go on, he spat speculatively. there was a sharp, explosive crackle that startled him. he spat again. and again, in the air, before it could fall to the snow, the spittle crackled. he knew that at fifty below spittle crackled on the snow, but this spittle had crackled in the air. undoubtedly it was colder than fifty below--how much colder he did not know. but the temperature did not matter. he was bound for the old claim on the left fork of henderson creek, where the boys were already. they had come over across the divide from the indian creek country, while he had come the roundabout way to take a look at the possibilities of getting out logs in the spring from the islands in the yu . he would be in to p by six o'clock; a bit after dark, it was true, but the boys would be there, a fire would be going, and a supper would be ready. as for lunch, he pressed his hand against the protruding bundle under his jacket. it was also under his shirt, w ped up in a handkerchief and lying against the naked skin. it was the only way to keep the biscuits from freezing. he smiled agreeably to himself as he thought of those biscuits, each cut open and sopped in bacon grease, and each enclosing a generous slice of fried bacon.

he plunged in among the big spruce trees. the trail was faint. a foot of snow had fallen since the last sled had p ed over, and he was glad he was without a sled, travelling light. in fact, he carried nothing but the lunch w ped in the handkerchief. he was surprised, however, at the cold. it certainly was cold, he concluded, as he rubbed his numbed nose and cheek-bones with his mittened hand. he was a warm-whiskered man, but the hair on his face did not protect the high cheek-bones and the eager nose that thrust itself aggressively into the frosty air.

at the man's heels trotted a dog, a big native husky, the proper wolf-dog, grey-coated and without any visible or temperamental difference from its brother, the wild wolf. the animal was depressed by the tremendous cold. it knew that it was no time for travelling. its instinct told it a truer tale than was told to the man by the man's judgment. in reality, it was not merely colder than fifty below zero; it was colder than sixty below, than seventy below. it was seventy-five below zero. since the freezing-point is thirty-two above zero, it meant that one hundred and seven degrees of frost obtained. the dog did not know anything about thermometers. possibly in its brain there was no sharp consciousness of a condition of very cold such as was in the man's brain. but the brute had its instinct. it experienced a vague but menacing apprehension that subdued it and made it slink along at the man's heels, and that made it question eagerly every unwonted movement of the man as if expecting him to go into p or to seek shelter somewhere and build a fire. the dog had learned fire, and it wanted fire, or else to burrow under the snow and cuddle its warmth away from the air.

the frozen moisture of its breathing had settled on its fur in a fine powder of frost, and especially were its jowls, muzzle, and eyelashes whitened by its crystalled breath. the man's red beard and moustache were likewise frosted, but more solidly, the deposit taking the form of ice and increasing with every warm, moist breath he exhaled. also, the man was chewing tobacco, and the muzzle of ice held his lips so rigidly that he was unable to clear his chin when he expelled the juice. the result was that a crystal beard of the colour and solidity of amber was increasing its length on his chin. if he fell down it would shatter itself, like gl , into brittle fragments. but he did not mind the appendage. it was the penalty all tobacco- chewers paid in that country, and he had been out before in two cold snaps. they had not been so cold as this, he knew, but by the spirit thermometer at sixty mile he knew they had been registered at fifty below and at fifty-five.

he held on through the level stretch of woods for several miles, crossed a wide flat of -heads, and dropped down a bank to the frozen bed of a small stream. this was henderson creek, and he knew he was ten miles from the forks. he looked at his watch. it was ten o'clock. he was making four miles an hour, and he calculated that he would arrive at the forks at half-past twelve. he decided to celebrate that event by eating his lunch there.

the dog dropped in again at his heels, with a tail drooping discoura ent, as the man swung along the creek-bed. the furrow of the old sled-trail was plainly visible, but a dozen inches of snow covered the marks of the last runners. in a month no man had come up or down that silent creek. the man held steadily on. he was not much given to thinking, and just then particularly he had nothing to think about save that he would eat lunch at the forks and that at six o'clock he would be in p with the boys. there was nobody to talk to and, had there been, speech would have been impossible because of the ice-muzzle on his mouth. so he continued monotonously to chew tobacco and to increase the length of his amber beard.

once in a while the thought reiterated itself that it was very cold and that he had never experienced such cold. as he walked along he rubbed his cheek-bones and nose with the back of his mittened hand. he did this automatically, now and again changing hands. but rub as he would, the instant he stopped his cheek-bones went numb, and the following instant the end of his nose went numb. he was sure to frost his cheeks; he knew that, and experienced a pang of regret that he had not devised a nose-st of the sort bud wore in cold snaps. such a st p ed across the cheeks, as well, and saved them. but it didn't matter much, after all. what were frosted cheeks? a bit painful, that was all; they were never serious.

empty as the man's mind was of thoughts, he was keenly observant, and he noticed the changes in the creek, the curves and bends and timber- jams, and always he sharply noted where he placed his feet. once, coming around a bend, he shied abruptly, like a startled horse, curved away from the place where he had been walking, and retreated several paces back along the trail. the creek he knew was frozen clear to the bottom--no creek could contain water in that arctic winter--but he knew also that there were springs that bubbled out from the hillsides and ran along under the snow and on top the ice of the creek. he knew that the coldest snaps never froze these springs, and he knew likewise their danger. they were t s. they hid pools of water under the snow that might be three inches deep, or three feet. sometimes a skin of ice half an inch thick covered them, and in turn was covered by the snow. sometimes there were alternate layers of water and ice-skin, so that when one broke through he kept on breaking through for a while, sometimes wetting himself to the waist.

that was why he had shied in such panic. he had felt the give under his feet and heard the crackle of a snow-hidden ice-skin. and to get his feet wet in such a temperature meant trouble and danger. at the very least it meant delay, for he would be forced to stop and build a fire, and under its protection to bare his feet while he dried his socks and moccasins. he stood and studied the creek-bed and its banks, and decided that the flow of water e from the right. he reflected awhile, rubbing his nose and cheeks, then skirted to the left, stepping gingerly and testing the footing for each step. once clear of the danger, he took a fresh chew of tobacco and swung along at his four-mile gait.

in the course of the next two hours he e upon several similar t s. usually the snow above the hidden pools had a sunken, candied appearance that advertised the danger. once again, however, he had a close call; and once, suspecting danger, he compelled the dog to go on in front. the dog did not want to go. it hung back until the man shoved it forward, and then it went quickly across the white, unbroken surface. suddenly it broke through, floundered to one side, and got away to firmer footing. it had wet its forefeet and legs, and almost immediately the water that clung to it turned to ice. it made quick efforts to lick the ice off its legs, then dropped down in the snow and began to bite out the ice that had formed between the toes. this was a matter of instinct. to permit the ice to remain would mean sore feet. it did not know this. it merely obeyed the mysterious prompting that arose from the deep crypts of its being. but the man knew, having achieved a judgment on the subject, and he removed the mitten from his right hand and helped tear out the ice- particles. he did not expose his fingers more than a minute, and was astonished at the swift numbness that smote them. it certainly was cold. he pulled on the mitten hastily, and beat the hand savagely across his chest.

at twelve o'clock the day was at its brightest. yet the sun was too far south on its winter journey to clear the horizon. the bulge of the earth intervened between it and henderson creek, where the man walked under a clear sky at noon and cast no shadow. at half-past twelve, to the minute, he arrived at the forks of the creek. he was pleased at the speed he had made. if he kept it up, he would certainly be with the boys by six. he un oned his jacket and shirt and drew forth his lunch. the action consumed no more than a quarter of a minute, yet in that brief moment the numbness laid hold of the exposed fingers. he did not put the mitten on, but, instead, struck the fingers a dozen sharp smashes against his leg. then he down on a snow-covered log to eat. the sting that followed upon the striking of his fingers against his leg ceased so quickly that he was startled, he had had no chance to take a bite of biscuit. he struck the fingers repeatedly and returned them to the mitten, baring the other hand for the purpose of eating. he tried to take a mouthful, but the ice-muzzle prevented. he had forgotten to build a fire and thaw out. he chuckled at his foolishness, and as he chuckled he noted the numbness creeping into the exposed fingers. also, he noted that the stinging which had first come to his toes when he down was already p ing away. he wondered whether the toes were warm or numbed. he moved them inside the moccasins and decided that they were numbed.

he pulled the mitten on hurriedly and stood up. he was a bit frightened. he stamped up and down until the stinging returned into the feet. it certainly was cold, was his thought. that man from sulphur creek had spoken the truth when telling how cold it sometimes got in the country. and he had laughed at him at the time! that showed one must not be too sure of things. there was no mistake about it, it was cold. he strode up and down, stamping his feet and threshing his arms, until re ured by the returning warmth. then he got out matches and proceeded to make a fire. from the undergrowth, where high water of the previous spring had lodged a supply of seasoned twigs, he got his firewood. working carefully from a small beginning, he soon had a roaring fire, over which he thawed the ice from his face and in the protection of which he ate his biscuits. for the moment the cold of space was outwitted. the dog took isfaction in the fire, stretching out close enough for warmth and far enough away to escape being singed.

when the man had finished, he filled his pipe and took his comfortable time over a smoke. then he pulled on his mittens, settled the ear-flaps of his cap firmly about his ears, and took the creek trail up the left fork. the dog was disappointed and yearned back toward the fire. this man did not know cold. possibly all the generations of his ancestry had been ignorant of cold, of real cold, of cold one hundred and seven degrees below freezing-point. but the dog knew; all its ancestry knew, and it had inherited the knowledge. and it knew that it was not good to walk abroad in such fearful cold. it was the time to lie snug in a hole in the snow and wait for a curtain of cloud to be drawn across the face of outer space whence this cold e. on the other hand, there was keen intimacy between the dog and the man. the one was the toil-slave of the other, and the only caresses it had ever received were the caresses of the whip- lash and of harsh and menacing throat-sounds that threatened the whip-lash. so the dog made no effort to communicate its apprehension to the man. it was not concerned in the welfare of the man; it was for its own sake that it yearned back toward the fire. but the man whistled, and spoke to it with the sound of whip-lashes, and the dog swung in at the man's heels and followed after.

the man took a chew of tobacco and proceeded to start a new amber beard. also, his moist breath quickly powdered with white his moustache, eyebrows, and lashes. there did not seem to be so many springs on the left fork of the henderson, and for half an hour the man saw no signs of any. and then it happened. at a place where there were no signs, where the soft, unbroken snow seemed to advertise solidity beneath, the man broke through. it was not deep. he wetted himself half-way to the knees before he floundered out to the firm crust.

he was angry, and cursed his luck aloud. he had hoped to get into p with the boys at six o'clock, and this would delay him an hour, for he would have to build a fire and dry out his foot-gear. this was imperative at that low temperature--he knew that much; and he turned aside to the bank, which he climbed. on top, tangled in the underbrush about the trunks of several small spruce trees, was a high-water deposit of dry firewood--sticks and twigs principally, but also larger portions of seasoned branches and fine, dry, last-year's gr es. he threw down several large pieces on top of the snow. this served for a foundation and prevented the young flame from drowning itself in the snow it otherwise would melt. the flame he got by touching a match to a small shred of birch-bark that he took from his pocket. this burned even more readily than paper. placing it on the foundation, he fed the young flame with wisps of dry gr and with the tiniest dry twigs.

he worked slowly and carefully, keenly aware of his danger. gradually, as the flame grew stronger, he increased the size of the twigs with which he fed it. he squatted in the snow, pulling the twigs out from their entanglement in the brush and feeding directly to the flame. he knew there must be no failure. when it is seventy- five below zero, a man must not fail in his first attempt to build a fire--that is, if his feet are wet. if his feet are dry, and he fails, he can run along the trail for half a mile and restore his circulation. but the circulation of wet and freezing feet cannot be restored by running when it is seventy-five below. no matter how fast he runs, the wet feet will freeze the harder.

all this the man knew. the old-timer on sulphur creek had told him about it the previous fall, and now he was appreciating the advice. already all sen ion had gone out of his feet. to build the fire he had been forced to remove his mittens, and the fingers had quickly gone numb. his pace of four miles an hour had kept his heart pumping blood to the surface of his body and to all the extremities. but the instant he stopped, the action of the pump eased down. the cold of space smote the unprotected tip of the planet, and he, being on that unprotected tip, received the full force of the blow. the blood of his body recoiled before it. the blood was alive, like the dog, and like the dog it wanted to hide away and cover itself up from the fearful cold. so long as he walked four miles an hour, he pumped that blood, willy-nilly, to the surface; but now it ebbed away and sank down into the recesses of his body. the extremities were the first to feel its absence. his wet feet froze the faster, and his exposed fingers numbed the faster, though they had not yet begun to freeze. nose and cheeks were already freezing, while the skin of all his body chilled as it lost its blood.

but he was safe. toes and nose and cheeks would be only touched by the frost, for the fire was beginning to burn with strength. he was feeding it with twigs the size of his finger. in another minute he would be able to feed it with branches the size of his wrist, and then he could remove his wet foot-gear, and, while it dried, he could keep his naked feet warm by the fire, rubbing them at first, of course, with snow. the fire was a success. he was safe. he remembered the advice of the old-timer on sulphur creek, and smiled. the old-timer had been very serious in laying down the law that no man must travel alone in the klondike after fifty below. well, here he was; he had had the accident; he was alone; and he had saved himself. those old-timers were rather womanish, some of them, he thought. all a man had to do was to keep his head, and he was all right. any man who was a man could travel alone. but it was surprising, the idity with which his cheeks and nose were freezing. and he had not thought his fingers could go lifeless in so short a time. lifeless they were, for he could scarcely make them move together to grip a twig, and they seemed remote from his body and from him. when he touched a twig, he had to look and see whether or not he had hold of it. the wires were pretty well down between him and his finger-ends.

all of which counted for little. there was the fire, snapping and crackling and promising life with every dancing flame. he started to untie his moccasins. they were coated with ice; the thick german socks were like sheaths of iron half-way to the knees; and the moc in strings were like rods of steel all twisted and knotted as by some conflagration. for a moment he tugged with his numbed fingers, then, realizing the folly of it, he drew his sheath-knife.

but before he could cut the strings, it happened. it was his own fault or, rather, his mistake. he should not have built the fire under the spruce tree. he should have built it in the open. but it had been easier to pull the twigs from the brush and drop them directly on the fire. now the tree under which he had done this carried a weight of snow on its boughs. no wind had blown for weeks, and each bough was fully freighted. each time he had pulled a twig he had communicated a slight agitation to the tree--an imperceptible agitation, so far as he was concerned, but an agitation sufficient to bring about the disaster. high up in the tree one bough capsized its load of snow. this fell on the boughs beneath, capsizing them. this process continued, spreading out and involving the whole tree. it grew like an avalanche, and it descended without warning upon the man and the fire, and the fire was blotted out! where it had burned was a mantle of fresh and disordered snow.

the man was shocked. it was as though he had just heard his own sentence of death. for a moment he and stared at the spot where the fire had been. then he grew very calm. perhaps the old-timer on sulphur creek was right. if he had only had a trail-mate he would have been in no danger now. the trail-mate could have built the fire. well, it was up to him to build the fire over again, and this second time there must be no failure. even if he succeeded, he would most likely lose some toes. his feet must be badly frozen by now, and there would be some time before the second fire was ready.

such were his thoughts, but he did not sit and think them. he was busy all the time they were p ing through his mind, he made a new foundation for a fire, this time in the open; where no treacherous tree could blot it out. next, he gathered dry gr es and tiny twigs from the high-water flotsam. he could not bring his fingers together to pull them out, but he was able to gather them by the handful. in this way he got many rotten twigs and bits of green moss that were undesirable, but it was the best he could do. he worked methodically, even collecting an armful of the larger branches to be used later when the fire gathered strength. and all the while the dog and watched him, a certain yearning wistfulness in its eyes, for it looked upon him as the fire-provider, and the fire was slow in coming.

when all was ready, the man reached in his pocket for a second piece of birch-bark. he knew the bark was there, and, though he could not feel it with his fingers, he could hear its crisp rustling as he fumbled for it. try as he would, he could not clutch hold of it. and all the time, in his consciousness, was the knowledge that each instant his feet were freezing. this thought tended to put him in a panic, but he fought against it and kept calm. he pulled on his mittens with his teeth, and threshed his arms back and forth, beating his hands with all his might against his sides. he did this sitting down, and he stood up to do it; and all the while the dog in the snow, its wolf-brush of a tail curled around warmly over its forefeet, its sharp wolf-ears pricked forward intently as it watched the man. and the man as he beat and threshed with his arms and hands, felt a great surge of envy as he regarded the creature that was warm and secure in its natural covering.

after a time he was aware of the first far-away signals of sen ion in his beaten fingers. the faint tingling grew stronger till it evolved into a stinging ache that was excruciating, but which the man hailed with isfaction. he stripped the mitten from his right hand and fetched forth the birch-bark. the exposed fingers were quickly going numb again. next he brought out his bunch of sulphur matches. but the tremendous cold had already driven the life out of his fingers. in his effort to separate one match from the others, the whole bunch fell in the snow. he tried to pick it out of the snow, but failed. the dead fingers could neither touch nor clutch. he was very careful. he drove the thought of his freezing feet; and nose, and cheeks, out of his mind, devoting his whole soul to the matches. he watched, using the sense of vision in place of that of touch, and when he saw his fingers on each side the bunch, he closed them--that is, he willed to close them, for the wires were drawn, and the fingers did not obey. he pulled the mitten on the right hand, and beat it fiercely against his knee. then, with both mittened hands, he scooped the bunch of matches, along with much snow, into his lap. yet he was no better off.

after some manipulation he managed to get the bunch between the heels of his mittened hands. in this fashion he carried it to his mouth. the ice crackled and snapped when by a violent effort he opened his mouth. he drew the lower jaw in, curled the upper lip out of the way, and s ed the bunch with his upper teeth in order to separate a match. he succeeded in getting one, which he dropped on his lap. he was no better off. he could not pick it up. then he devised a way. he picked it up in his teeth and scratched it on his leg. twenty times he scratched before he succeeded in lighting it. as it flamed he held it with his teeth to the birch-bark. but the burning brimstone went up his nostrils and into his lungs, causing him to cough spasmodically. the match fell into the snow and went out.

the old-timer on sulphur creek was right, he thought in the moment of controlled despair that ensued: after fifty below, a man should travel with a partner. he beat his hands, but failed in exciting any sen ion. suddenly he bared both hands, removing the mittens with his teeth. he caught the whole bunch between the heels of his hands. his arm-muscles not being frozen enabled him to press the hand-heels tightly against the matches. then he scratched the bunch along his leg. it flared into flame, seventy sulphur matches at once! there was no wind to blow them out. he kept his head to one side to escape the strangling fumes, and held the blazing bunch to the birch-bark. as he so held it, he be e aware of sen ion in his hand. his flesh was burning. he could smell it. deep down below the surface he could feel it. the sen ion developed into pain that grew acute. and still he endured it, holding the flame of the matches clumsily to the bark that would not light readily because his own burning hands were in the way, absorbing most of the flame.

at last, when he could endure no more, he ed his hands apart. the blazing matches fell sizzling into the snow, but the birch-bark was alight. he began laying dry gr es and the tiniest twigs on the flame. he could not pick and choose, for he had to lift the fuel between the heels of his hands. small pieces of rotten wood and green moss clung to the twigs, and he bit them off as well as he could with his teeth. he cherished the flame carefully and awkwardly. it meant life, and it must not perish. the withdrawal of blood from the surface of his body now made him begin to shiver, and he grew more awkward. a large piece of green moss fell squarely on the little fire. he tried to poke it out with his fingers, but his shivering frame made him poke too far, and he disrupted the nucleus of the little fire, the burning gr es and tiny twigs separating and scattering. he tried to poke them together again, but in spite of the tenseness of the effort, his shivering got away with him, and the twigs were hopelessly scattered. each twig gushed a puff of smoke and went out. the fire-provider had failed. as he looked apathetically about him, his eyes chanced on the dog, sitting across the ruins of the fire from him, in the snow, making restless, hunching movements, slightly lifting one forefoot and then the other, shifting its weight back and forth on them with wistful eagerness.

the sight of the dog put a wild idea into his head. he remembered the tale of the man, caught in a blizzard, who killed a steer and crawled inside the carc , and so was saved. he would kill the dog and bury his hands in the warm body until the numbness went out of them. then he could build another fire. he spoke to the dog, calling it to him; but in his voice was a strange note of fear that frightened the animal, who had never known the man to speak in such way before. something was the matter, and its suspicious nature sensed danger,--it knew not what danger but somewhere, somehow, in its brain arose an apprehension of the man. it flattened its ears down at the sound of the man's voice, and its restless, hunching movements and the liftings and shiftings of its forefeet be e more pronounced but it would not come to the man. he got on his hands and knees and crawled toward the dog. this unusual posture again excited suspicion, and the animal sidled mincingly away.

the man up in the snow for a moment and struggled for calmness. then he pulled on his mittens, by means of his teeth, and got upon his feet. he glanced down at first in order to ure himself that he was really standing up, for the absence of sen ion in his feet left him unrelated to the earth. his erect position in itself started to drive the webs of suspicion from the dog's mind; and when he spoke peremptorily, with the sound of whip-lashes in his voice, the dog rendered its customary allegiance and e to him. as it e within reaching distance, the man lost his control. his arms flashed out to the dog, and he experienced genuine surprise when he discovered that his hands could not clutch, that there was neither bend nor feeling in the lingers. he had forgotten for the moment that they were frozen and that they were freezing more and more. all this happened quickly, and before the animal could get away, he encircled its body with his arms. he down in the snow, and in this fashion held the dog, while it snarled and whined and struggled.

but it was all he could do, hold its body encircled in his arms and sit there. he realized that he could not kill the dog. there was no way to do it. with his helpless hands he could neither draw nor hold his sheath-knife nor throttle the animal. he released it, and it plunged wildly away, with tail between its legs, and still snarling. it halted forty feet away and surveyed him curiously, with ears sharply pricked forward. the man looked down at his hands in order to locate them, and found them hanging on the ends of his arms. it struck him as curious that one should have to use his eyes in order to find out where his hands were. he began threshing his arms back and forth, beating the mittened hands against his sides. he did this for five minutes, violently, and his heart pumped enough blood up to the surface to put a stop to his shivering. but no sen ion was aroused in the hands. he had an impression that they hung like weights on the ends of his arms, but when he tried to run the impression down, he could not find it.

a certain fear of death, dull and oppressive, e to him. this fear quickly be e poignant as he realized that it was no longer a mere matter of freezing his fingers and toes, or of losing his hands and feet, but that it was a matter of life and death with the chances against him. this threw him into a panic, and he turned and ran up the creek-bed along the old, dim trail. the dog joined in behind and kept up with him. he ran blindly, without intention, in fear such as he had never known in his life. slowly, as he ploughed and floundered through the snow, he began to see things again--the banks of the creek, the old timber-jams, the leafless aspens, and the sky. the running made him feel better. he did not shiver. maybe, if he ran on, his feet would thaw out; and, anyway, if he ran far enough, he would reach p and the boys. without doubt he would lose some fingers and toes and some of his face; but the boys would take care of him, and save the rest of him when he got there. and at the same time there was another thought in his mind that said he would never get to the p and the boys; that it was too many miles away, that the freezing had too great a start on him, and that he would soon be stiff and dead. this thought he kept in the background and refused to consider. sometimes it pushed itself forward and demanded to be heard, but he thrust it back and strove to think of other things.

it struck him as curious that he could run at all on feet so frozen that he could not feel them when they struck the earth and took the weight of his body. he seemed to himself to skim along above the surface and to have no connection with the earth. somewhere he had once seen a winged mercury, and he wondered if mercury felt as he felt when skimming over the earth.

his theory of running until he reached p and the boys had one flaw in it: he lacked the endurance. several times he stumbled, and finally he tottered, crumpled up, and fell. when he tried to rise, he failed. he must sit and rest, he decided, and next time he would merely walk and keep on going. as he and regained his breath, he noted that he was feeling quite warm and comfortable. he was not shivering, and it even seemed that a warm glow had come to his chest and trunk. and yet, when he touched his nose or cheeks, there was no sen ion. running would not thaw them out. nor would it thaw out his hands and feet. then the thought e to him that the frozen portions of his body must be extending. he tried to keep this thought down, to forget it, to think of something else; he was aware of the panicky feeling that it caused, and he was afraid of the panic. but the thought erted itself, and persisted, until it produced a vision of his body totally frozen. this was too much, and he made another wild run along the trail. once he slowed down to a walk, but the thought of the freezing extending itself made him run again.

and all the time the dog ran with him, at his heels. when he fell down a second time, it curled its tail over its forefeet and in front of him facing him curiously eager and intent. the warmth and security of the animal angered him, and he cursed it till it flattened down its ears appeasingly. this time the shivering e more quickly upon the man. he was losing in his battle with the frost. it was creeping into his body from all sides. the thought of it drove him on, but he ran no more than a hundred feet, when he staggered and pitched headlong. it was his last panic. when he had recovered his breath and control, he up and entertained in his mind the conception of meeting death with dignity. however, the conception did not come to him in such terms. his idea of it was that he had been making a fool of himself, running around like a chicken with its head cut off--such was the simile that occurred to him. well, he was bound to freeze anyway, and he might as well take it decently. with this new-found peace of mind e the first glimmerings of drowsiness. a good idea, he thought, to sleep off to death. it was like taking an anaesthetic. freezing was not so bad as people thought. there were lots worse ways to die.

he pictured the boys finding his body next day. suddenly he found himself with them, coming along the trail and looking for himself. and, still with them, he e around a turn in the trail and found himself lying in the snow. he did not belong with himself any more, for even then he was out of himself, standing with the boys and looking at himself in the snow. it certainly was cold, was his thought. when he got back to the states he could tell the folks what real cold was. he drifted on from this to a vision of the old-timer on sulphur creek. he could see him quite clearly, warm and comfortable, and smoking a pipe.

"you were right, old hoss; you were right," the man mumbled to the old-timer of sulphur creek.

then the man drowsed off into what seemed to him the most comfortable and isfying sleep he had ever known. the dog facing him and waiting. the brief day drew to a close in a long, slow twilight. there were no signs of a fire to be made, and, besides, never in the dog's experience had it known a man to sit like that in the snow and make no fire. as the twilight drew on, its eager yearning for the fire mastered it, and with a great lifting and shifting of forefeet, it whined softly, then flattened its ears down in anticipation of being chidden by the man. but the man remained silent. later, the dog whined loudly. and still later it crept close to the man and caught the scent of death. this made the animal bristle and back away. a little longer it delayed, howling under the stars that leaped and danced and shone brightly in the cold sky. then it turned and trotted up the trail in the direction of the p it knew, where were the other food-providers and fire-providers.


by: jack london



روز ، سرد و ابری آغاز شده بود ، بسیار سرد وابری . مرد از باریک راه اصلی رودخانه " یوکن " فاصله گرفت و از کناره خاکی و بلند رود بالا رفت . در بالای کناره ، یک باریکه راه ناپیدا و کم رفت و آمد از میان جنگل زار به سمت شرق می رفت . کناره پر شیبی بود ، و او در بالای آن با این بهانه که ساعت را نگاه کند ، برای تازه نفسش لحظه ای ایستاد .ساعت نه صبح بود.خورشید یا حتی نشانه ای ازآن به چشم نمی خورد ، اما ابری هم در آسمان دیده نمی شد . آسمان صاف بود ، ولی تیرگی نامحسوسی روز را تاریک کرده بود ، و این به خاطر عدم حضور خورشید بود . این امر مرد را نگران نمی کرد . او به نبود خورشید عادت داشت . روزها از آ ین دیدارش با خورشید می گذشت و این را می دانست که چند روز دیگر طول می کشد تا ستاره امید بخش ، از سمت جنوب خط افق بیرون بیاید و بلافاصله از دیدها محو شود.مرد یک نگاه به راهی که آمده بود انداخت .

رودخانه یوکن به پهنای یک مایل زیر سه فوت یخ خو ده بود . روی این یخ ها ، برف زیاد و یک دست سفیدی نشسته بود . و در جاهایی ، انبوه یخ ها ، باعث پدید آمدن موج های لطیفی روی برف ها شده بود . از شمال تا جنوب ، تا آنجا که چشمش کار می کرد ، یک دست سفید بود ؛ به جز یک خط سیاه که از جنوب با پیچ و تاب- های زیاد به سمت شمال می رفت . این خط سیاه همان باریکه راه ( راه اصلی ) بود که جنوب را طی مسافتی پانصد مایلی به گذرگاه " شیلوکوت " و آب های شور می رساند ؛ و شمال را در مسافتی هفتاد میلی به " داوسون " وصل کرده و در همان مسیر در مسافت دو هزار و پانصد مایلی به سمت " سنت مایکل " و دریای " برینگ " ادامه داشت .

اما تمام اینها ( باریکه راه مرموزو طولانی ؛ نبود خورشید در آسمان ، سرمای طاقت فرسا ، و عجیب و غریب بودن آنها ) هیچ تأثیری روی مرد نمی گذاشت . به این خاطر نبود که به آنها عادت داشت ؛ او تازه به این سرزمین آمده بود و اولین زمستان آن را تجربه می کرد . مشکل او این بود که قوه تخیل نداشت . او نسبت به پیشامدهای زندگی ، سریع و هوشیار بود ، اما فقط نسبت به خود پیشامدها ، نه به معنا و مفهوم آنها . دمای پنجاه درجه زیر صفر ، فقط در حد سرما و ناراحتی جسمی بر رویش تأثیر داشت و نه بیشتر . این امر باعث نمی شد تا او درباره ضعف خود به عنوان یک انسان تأمل کند ؛ اینکه فقط قادر است بین حدود مشخصی از سرما و گرما دوام بیاورد و زنده بماند . دمای پنجاه درجه زیر صفر به معنای سرما زدگی بود ، که به بدن آسیب می رساند و باید با استفاده از دستکش های مخصوص اسکیمویی ، کلاه روگوشی ، موکازین و جوراب کلفت ، در مقابل آن از خود مراقبت می کرد . دمای پنجاه درجه زیر صفر برای او دقیقاً همان پنجاه درجه زیر صفر بود . اینکه مفهومی فراتر از آن داشته باشد ، فکری بود که هیچ گاه وارد ذهنش نمی شد .

همین که برگشت تا به راهش ادامه دهد، با توجه خاصی ، آب دهانش را بیرون انداخت. صدای تیز و تندی او را متعجب ساخت. دوباره تف کرد. و دوباره قبل از اینکه آب دهانش به زمین برسد، در هوا یخ می زد و ترق ترق صدا می کرد. او می دانست که در دمای پنجاه درجه زیر صفر این اتفاق می افتد. بدون شک، دما پایین تر از پنجاه درجه زیر صفر بود. چقدرش را او نمی دانست. اما دما برایش مهم نبود. او عازم اردوگاه قدیمی واقع در شاخه سمت چپ رود " هندرسون" بود، جایی که دیگر دوستانش بودند. آنها از راه روستایی رود " ایندیان" رفته بودند، در حالیکه او از راهی انحرافی آمده بود تا ببیند امکان دارد که بتواند کنده درختان در فصل بهار از خشکی های درون یوکن بیرون آورد. او تا ساعت شش در اردوگاه خواهد بود؛ و این درست که تا آن موقع کمی از تاریکی هوا گذشته است اما در عوض دوستانش در آنجا هستند، آتشی روشن است و یک شام گرم آماده است. و اما برای نهار، او دستش را روی بسته برآمده زیر بالاپوش خود فشار داد. این بسته، زیر پیراهنش در یک دستمال، پیچیده شده و در تماس با پوست بدن او بود. زیرا این تنها راه گرم نگاه داشتن کلوچه ها و جلوگیری از یخ زدنشان بود. هنگامی که به فکر کلوچه ها افتاد، با رضایت لبخندی زد: هر کدام را با چاقو باز می کرد و در روغن ژامبون خوک آغشته می کرد، یک تکه درشت از ژامبون سرخ شده را داخل کلوچه می گذاشت و آن را می بست.

مرد با شدت به راهش در میان درختان صنوبر ادامه می داد. راه ناپیدا بود. از هنگام عبور آ ین سورتمه از این راه، نزدیک به یک فوت برف روی زمین نشسته بود. او از اینکه بدون سورتمه و سبک سفر می کرد، احساس رضایت داشت. در واقع، به غیر از نهار پیچیده در دستمال چیزی همراهش نبود. با این حال، شدت سرما او را غافلگیر کرده بود. وقتی با دستان پوشیده در دستکش، بینی و گونه های بی حسش را می مالید، به این نتیجه رسید که هوا واقعا سرد است. مرد به تازگی ریش گذاشته بود، اما موهای روی صورتش دیگر گونه های بالاتر و بینی تیزش را که جسورانه خود را در هوای یخ بندان بیرون زده بود، نمی پوشاند.

هم پای مرد، سگی نیز به آرامی می دوید؛ یک سگ گرگی بزرگ و بومی، به رنگ خا تری و بدون هیچ گونه تفاوت ظاهری یا طبیعی از برادرش، گرگ وحشی. سرمای شدید حیوان را افسرده کرده بود. می دانست که این زمان سفر نیست. غریزه او بیانگر حقیقت مطمئن تری بود تا آنچه که قوه تشخیص مرد، به مرد می گفت. در واقعیت، دما پنجاه درجه زیر صفر نبود؛ بیش از شصت درجه زیر صفر بود، یا حتی بالاتر از هفتاد درجه زیر صفر. هفتاد درجه زیر صفر بود. نقطه انجماد، سی و دو درجه بالای صفر است؛ اما سگ چیزی راجع به دماسنج نمی دانست. در عوض او به غریزه اش متکی بود. او ترس غریزی اما تهدیدگری را حس می کرد که او را تحت کنترل خود در آورده و وادارش می کرد که پشت سر مرد آرام آرام به راهش ادامه دهد، از آنجا که انتظار داشت مرد به سمت اردوگاه برود یا در جایی یک پناه پیدا کند و آتشی بیافروزد ، هر حرکت غیر عادی مرد را مورد سؤال قرار می داد . سگ آتش را می شناخت ، و اکنون به آن نیاز داشت ، وگرنه می توانس





مشاهده متن کامل ...
intellect in the qur’an and islamic civilization
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

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intellect in the qur’an and islamic civilization

short-term research program 2013

guide book

 

tehran, iran (february 02, 2013 to february 19, 2013)

 

 

 

 

 

 

intellect in the qur’an and islamic civilization

short-term research program 2013

 

 

under the supervision of ayatollah ‘allamah ‘abdullah jawadi-amoli

organized by al-mustafa international university-tehran branch

 

 

 

in cooperation with

the esra international foundation for revealed science and philosophy,

 the supreme embly of islamic wisdom, and the iranian institute of philosophy

 

                              

tehran, iran (february 02, 2013 to february 19, 2013)

 

 

 

 

content

                                                                                                                                    page

  • introduction

4

  • main subjects

4

  • a short view of the questions

5

  • members of the scientific board

6

  • al-mustafa international university

7

  • a schedule of lecture topics

8

  • the biog hical notes of seminar lecturers

9

  • strp supervisors

9

  • lecturer

11

  • outline of the lecture topics
  1. intellect in islamic ethics and the new challenges (contemporary ethical intellectual living paradigm )

dr. mahdi alizadeh

 

  1. “systematic thought theory in islam” an abstract of the comprehensive theoretical framework

ayatollah dr. mahdi hadavi tehrani

 

  1. “ideas of rationality” and “contemporary debates on rationality”

dr. n. mousavian

 

  1. a comparative study on the nature of rationality in islamic civilization

                         dr. seyed mahmud musawi

 

  1. islamic intellectuality and fundamentalism (on fundamentalism’s origins, features, and implications)

dr. ahmad pakatchi

 

  1. the islamic intellectual heritage and contemporary worldviews

dr. mohammed rustom

 

  1. rationality in islamic mysticism ,the case of the mathnavi of mawlana rumi

dr. shahram pazouki

 

  1.  islamic rationality and islamic philosophy

dr. ahmad vaezi

 

18

 

18

 

 

 

18

 

 

19

 

 

 

20

 

 

20

 

 

 

21

 

 

21

 

 

 

22

  • attendees

22

  • time table

26

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introduction:

 

 

 

the second short-term course on “islam and contemporary issues”, with a focus on “intellect in the qur’an and islamic civilization” has aimed to ess the relation between qur’anic notion of intellect and its pertinence to the concept of “aql ” that has appeared in the islamic traditional knowledge both in transmitted and intellectual forms.

 in this short-term course islam’s approach towards rationality, its principles, features, and outcomes will be tackled at the analytical section of the course through a comparative study between the qur’anic notion of ‘aql with a focus on islamic sciences, and modern rationalism.

on a deeper level, the course will address the following questions:

could islamic intellect answer the questions and challenges of the contemporary world and the contemporary man? if the answer is yes, how can this take place?

the course will also tackle fundamental issues such as challenges and predi ents ahead of the contemporary man.

 

main subjects:

  • ‘aql (intellect) in the qur’an and traditions
  • ‘aql in islamic philosophy and theology
  • ‘aql in islamic spirituality and ethics
  • ‘aql in political science and fiqh (jurisprudence)
  • ‘aql in modern philosophy
  • a comparative study of islamic and modern rationality

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a short view of the questions forming the short-term research program

 

 

 

in this short pause we will point out the questions which have primed the inception of the second short term. the main purpose of these questions is to provide the proper ground for methodical dialogue and collective contemplation on one of the most fundamental concerns of quran and humanity, and to orientate the seminars on the basis of the aforementioned questions.

  1. what does qur’anic intellect mean? (this question both considers the nature of qur’anic intellect and the quran intellectual system)
  2. what are the standards of qur’anic rationality?
  3. what are the comprising causes and conditions of qur’anic rationality?
  4. what are the consequences of qur’anic rationality? (these consequences could be followed into all individual and social aspects of life. for instance the effect of qur’anic intellect could be discussed in different areas of sciences including ethics, jurisprudence, politics, and social institutions such as politics and economy.)
  5. what are the differences of qur’anic rationality from the intellect in the intellectual sciences, such as theology, philosophy, and mysticism?
  6. what is the proper methodology for the perception of qur’anic intellect?(the importance of this question and a systematic response to it, becomes critical when we consider that an improper method for understanding qur’anic lexicons and its immediate consequent thinking system, will result in the intrusion of non-qur’anic postulates in understanding quran, and this will lead us to the undesired destinations.)
  7. what are the main rationalism and non-rationalism currents in islamic civilization? and how much independent they are from the qur’anic teachings in formation of their intellectual system?
  8. what is the relation of fanaticism, fundamentalism, and religious superstition to qur’anic rationality? is the future of qur’anic rationality threatened by them?
  9. how to institutionalize the qur’anic rationality in the lives of muslim population, specifically in theology training centers?
  10. what is the relation of qur’anic rationality with practical and modern rationality? 
  11. what are the main obstacles to understand qur’anic intellect in the muslim society and implement qur’anic rationality in the muslim society?

without any doubt, what is provided in this embly, is just an introduction to the myriad of discussions which considering them would demand a great time and effort. the professional knows that answering the questions of the qur’anic intellect project is beyond a seminar and a two-week gathering. tehran higher education complex hopes to accomplish these important issues by the help of the scholars and the instructors.

the scientific board:

the scientific board began its discussions on choosing the main subject and other topics of the 2nd short-term course from september 2012. it also planned the short-term course schedule.

 

members of the scientific board

 

 

ali akbar attaran toosi, head of the miu-tehran

hasan askari, vice chancellor of education of miu-tehran

seyed amirhossein asghari, scientific secretary of the short-term course

mohammad taghi sadraei javaheri, vice chancellor of international affairs

seyed mohsen mousawi, vice chancellor of research

moslem madani, senior research member of the miu-tehran

seyed morteza mir majidi, chief executive of research center

 

 

 

 

 

al-mustafa international university (miu)

 

 

it is with the support of the invaluable experience of many centuries of education and scholarship imbued in traditional islamic seminaries—in their role as the standard bearers of religious guidance and the intellectual nucleus of islamic civilization—that al-mustafa international university (miu) was established nearly a quarter of a century ago. as such this educational institution has made it a priority to respond to the deep thirst for sacred knowledge in our times, and in so doing, it has aimed to take the steps necessary to increase the scope and depth of islamic erudition in the modern world.

the goals of this scholastic institution can be categorized as follows:

  • training and nurturing of devoted and committed religious experts, researchers,  
    lecturers and disseminators of islamic knowledge and virtues;
  • deep exposition of qur’anic themes and ideas as would lead to a greater scope for, and relevancy of, islamic doctrines;
  • facilitating access to authentic islamic teachings.

some of the main policies of miu are as follows:

  • to emphasize intellectual vigor—unfolding ideas and opening new vistas of knowledge.
  • to translate traditional islamic sources into other languages.
  • to adopt a research-oriented educational approach.
  • to respect human dignity in all interactions.
  • to respect all islamic schools of thought.

to the present day, nearly 34,000 male and female students from 108 different countries have enrolled at this center of learning and approximately 16,000 have graduated from its various levels. they have returned to their respective countries and are busy in centers of learning, research and culture. now, nearly 18,000 male and female students are busy in their studies. of these 10,000 are studying in iran while 8,000 are receiving their education at affiliated institutions in other countries.

miu-tehran

al-mustafa international university, tehran branch, is an educational institution which, while keeping to the general mission of al-mustafa international university and in congruence with its identity as a traditional seminary, takes a spiritual and civilizational approach to the islamic sciences. as such, its mandate is to make the fullest use of the wisdom traditions of man and the profound potentials of the human intellect in the education of religious scholars from all islamic schools of thought and from all parts of the world. it also espouses to shed light on the teachings of islam so as to meet the needs of the present-day world, especially in regards to religious proximity.

 

 

the intellect in the qur’an and islamic civilization

no

lecturer

subject

date

1

h.dr. seyed mahmud musawi

a comparative study of the nature of intellect in islamic civilization

2013-02-02

2

dr. hamid parsania

on the pertinence of intellectuality in islamic civilization in light of the quranic intellect

2013-02-03

3

dr. shahram pazouki

the mystic intellect (with an emphasis on rumi)

04-02-2013

 

4

dr. gholamreza aavani

the meaning of qur’anic intellect and its stance on philosophical reason   

05-02-2013

5

dr. karim crow

the creation of intelligence: from wisdom to intellect

05-02-2013

6

h.dr. alizadeh

the rationality of islamic morality and modern challenges (what is the islamic moral/intellectual roadmap for life?)

06-02-2013

7

dr. ahmad pakatchi

islamic intellectuality and fundamentalism (on fundamentalism’s origins, features, and implications)

07-02-2013

08-02-2013

8

dr. seyed nasrrollah mousavian

 

1-models of rationality 2-contemporary debates about rationality

09-02-2013

9

other programs

 

10-02-2013

11

dr. christian bonaud

1. philosophy and mysticism: a debate (on the correspondence between qunawi and tusi)

2. the function of revelation, intellect and image (khayal) in relation to prophecy and wisdom from al-farabi to mulla sadra

12-02-2013

13-02-2013

12

ayatollah mahdi hadavi tehrani

systematic thought theory in islam

2013-02-14

 

13

grand ayatollah javadi amoli

 

intellect in the holy qur’an

2013-02-14

 

14

h.dr. ahmad vaezi

islamic intellectuality and political philosophy (on justice)

2013-02-15

15

dr. mohammed rustom

the islamic intellectual heritage and contemporary worldviews

2013-02-16

2013-02-17

16

h.dr. parsania

conclusions

18-02-2013

17

excursion

excursion

2013-02-19

 

 

 

 

 

the biog hical notes of seminar lecturers

 

strp is planned under the supervision of

grand ayatollah abdollah javadi amoli

  • grand ayatollah abdollah javadi amoli was born in amol in 1933. after finishing the elementary school, he entered amol’s hawzah in 1946 and studied there till 1950. then he went to tehran’s theological school. after entering marvi school, he studied “rasa’el va makaseb” (treatises & earnings), then learned “kefayat-ul ‘usul” (the qualities of principles), and ‘ulume aqli va naqli (rational and transmitted sciences). after 5 years, he went to qom’s theological school and has been there ever since. he established “esra” publication and research institute in 1993. he was a member of the elite embly of the constitution. he has been a teacher of the community of qom’s theological school. now he is the head of esra international research institute for the revealed sciences.

his teachers: ayatollah azizollah tabarsi, mirza mahdi mohi-u-din elahi ghomshe’ie, ayatollah burudjerdi, imam khomeini and allameh seyyed mohammad hossein tabataba’ie et al. he has many works such as: t nim, exposition of the qu’ran, thematic commentary on the quran, rahighe makhtom (commentary on mulla sadra’s transcendental philosophy, asrar-u-salaat(the mysteries of parayers, sahbaye hajj(the wine of hajj) , vilayat-e faqih, etc. 

*          *          *

president of al_mustafa international university

ayatollah dr. alireza a’rafi

ayatollah a’rafi was born in 1958 in meybod, a city in yazd province, into a virtuous clerical family. after finishing his general education, he moved to qom in 1970 and completed his seminary education. he soon finished the elementary level and began the a nced level in 1977.

he also took, and excelled in, philosophy and ethics courses. a’rafi learned arabic and english languages and excelled in mathematics and western philosophy via studying books which were rare back then. he attended the teaching and learning courses arranged by research institute of the seminary and university. he studied almizan commentary on the qur’an and the exposition of nahdj-ul-balaghe written by ibn abi al-hadid.

 

a’rafi enjoyed the lectures of some well-known teachers such as ayatollah meshkini and ayatollah ḥ anzade amoli, learning books like “falsafatona va eqtesadona”(our philosophy & our economy) written by shahid sadr. he also attended the cl es of ayatollah sayed kaẓem ḥa’eri. for studying a nced islamic law and principles of jurisprudence, he enjoyed the lectures of ayatollah ḥadj sheikh morteza ḥa’eri, ayatollah-ul-‘uẓma faḍhel lankarani, ayatollah vahid khorasani, ayatollah jawad tabrizi, ayatollah-ul-‘uẓma makarem shirazi, and ayatollah-ul-‘uẓma shobeiri zandjani. he also attended the lectures of ayatollah jawadi amoli, ayatollah shahid motahari and ayatollah misbah yazdi for courses like: asfar e arba’eh, borhan e shafa, fusus-ul-ḥikam, tamḥid-ul-qawa’ed, and philosophy.

academic and cultural activities:

ayatollah a’rafi has had various academic and cultural activities. he has often taught many of the elementary seminary courses; he has lectured asfar-e-arba’eh, and a nced islamic law and nurturing (fiqh al-tarbiyah) for many years. for his teachings, he initiated a method comparing the discussions of old books with those of modern sciences. he has published a number of books in training sciences, such as:

 

research plans and works:

 

  1. philosophy of teaching and learning (authorship).

 

  1. objectives of teaching and learning according to islam (research)

 

  1. an introduction to man’s talent (research)

 

  1. the viewpoints of muslim scientists regarding teaching and learning. second and fourth volumes (research)

 

  1. the viewpoints of muslim scientists regarding training. first and third volumes (authorship)

 

  1. the prophet’s (p.b.u.h) and imams’ (p.b.u.t) teaching method. three volumes (research)

 

  1. the system of islamic training. three volumes (research)

 

  1. role of teacher training (advisor and supervisor)

 

  1. relation between training studies and islam. (advisor and supervisor)

 

  1. jurisprudential and training lessons and lessons of judgment and witnessing

 

  1. collection of articles and lectures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

lecturers

 

 

professor dr. gholamreza aavani

 

  • gholamreza aavani was born in semnan in 1943. he graduated from the university of tehran. he is a renowned professor of philosophy and the director of iranian philosophical ociation and the previous head of iranian institute of philosophy. his awards and honors include: distinguished professor of shahid beheshti university, 1993, select professor at the first conference on lasting personalities in science and culture, 2001, honorary professor at the newly established international university of china, 2004,  distinguished professor and researcher of the hua-jung university of china, 2004 (for two years). aavani has many publications in first-rate international and national journals. he is fluent in english, french, arabic and persian. his interests vary from western, islamic and comparative philosophy to philosophy of art and mysticism.

 

hujjat-ul-islam  dr.  mahdi alizadeh

 

  • hujjat al-islam  dr.  mahdi alizadeh was born in tehran in 1972. he studied fiqh (islamic jurisprudence) and usul (principles of islamic jurisprudence) at qom seminary (howza). his leading teachers were ayatollah jawadi amoli and ayatollah mirza jawad tabrizi. then, he holds a ph.d. in islamic ethics. dr. alizadeh is the istant professor and director of the center for ethics and education at academy of islamic sciences and culture (qom, iran), and also the director of the ethics department at al-mustafa open university.

he has written five books on ethics (including three specialized books and two text books), two books on mahdism and the culture of mahdism, and one book on islamic mysticism and mystical interpretation of the qur’an. amongst the most important  of his 25 papers are applied ethics: studies and challenges in the practical ethics (2007) (national award winning book), islamic ethics: foundations and concepts (2010), bibliog hy of islamic ethics: an analytical account (2006),the theological-mystical interpretation of the verse of noor (award winning book),looking forward to phoenix (on mahdism) (2000, award winning book), and the signs of the appearance of promised mahdi(2001) are the most important ones.he also has done three academic researches on applied ethics, social ethics, the history of ethics and islamic ethics. a critique of the moral principles of the contemporary biotechnology (2011), and a psychological analysis of moral weakness (2012).

he has taught courses on logics, islamic ethics, the comparative ethics of religions, theology, the principles of fiqh, and arabic literature to students at the qom seminary (1997-2012). he has also taught courses on the philosophy of ethics, islamic ethics, and applied ethics, to university students since 2006.

dr. alizadeh has delivered many academic lectures on ethics and different islamic subjects. amongst them includes lectures on mysticism in persian literature,(2011, chicago university), the roles of religions in global ethics (2011, hartford seminary), and islamization of western humanities, (2011, iiit, virginia). he has also had some important academic panel discussions on ethics, like re-reading the foundations of religious ethics (2011, chicago university), and biomedical ethics (2011, georgetown university). 

 

dr. yahya christian bonaud

 

  • yahya christian bonaud was born in 1957 into a christian catholic family in fribourg germany. due to his father’s job, he lived in germany and algeria for the first 10 years of his life and then moved to strasburg france. he converted to islam under the influence of rené guénon, the french muslim philosopher. he then started his studies in arabic language and literature and islamic sciences. while pursuing his studies, he e to know the works of henry corbin. under the teachings of ahmad hampate, he chose shia sect of islam and changed his name to yahya alavi. bonaud received the professeur agrégé position in 1987. he received his phd form suborn university in 1995 with dissertation title: theology in philosophical and mystical works of imam khomeini. his dissertation was chosen as the select research of the year in 1999.in order to carry out his research, bonaud lived in iran for fifteen years. participating in cl es held by jalal-e-din ashtiani in mashhad, he learned about islamic philosophy and mysticism. he is currently residing in france and working on a project named: “hekmate mota’alie (transcendental philosophy) of mullah sadra, a response to sadr-u-din qunawi’s expectations”. he is also translating the holy qur’an and its exposition into french.

selected publications:

  1. islamic sufism and mysticism
  2. imam khomeini, the unknown gnostic of 20th century
  3. islamic revolution doctrine
  4. religion and thought in the snare of self-interest
  5. fighting ego or the great jihad, a work of imam khomeini  

 

ayatollah mahdi hadavi tehrani

 

  • ­­­­ayatollah mahdi hadavi tehrani was born in 1961 in tehran. he graduated from khwarazmi high school in mathematics and physics with honors.  then he was admitted at sharif university of technology where he studied electrical engineering. he started his official seminary studies in qom in 1980. he studied arabic literature and logic in cl es of ayatollah khoshwaqt in tehran. when returned to qom, he finished h (intermediate) studies in five years, and then started his a nced studies by enjoying the lectures of some great scholars such as ayatollah sheikh jawad tabrizi, ayatollah vahid khorasani, ayatollah bahjat foomani, ayatollah makarem shirazi, ayatollah mirza hashem amoli and ayatollah sheikh ja`far sobhani.  moreover, he mostly enjoyed the cl es of ayatollah sayyed kazem ha’eri. he studied philosophy by taking part in cl es of some eminent figures such as ayatollah ansari shirazi, ayatollah hasanzadeh amoli, and ayatollah mesbah yazdi and for many years he attended the lectures of ayatollah jawadi amoli. he studied mysticism, ethics, fiqh, exposition of the holy qur’an and holy sayings in the cl es of ayatollah baha’oddini.

ayatollah hadavi is fluent in english and arabic and knows french and german well. now, he supervises the islamquest.net website which provides answers to islamic questions in 16 languages.

his positions and activities are as follows:

teaching post-graduate fiqh (islamic law) and usool (islamic jurisprudence) in the hawza since 1990

full professor of islamic law and philosophy

founder of porch of wisdom cultural institute in qom

research on modern sciences such as economics, modern theology, philosophy of science, and philosophy of art

chairman of the “jurisprudence and law group” of the “council for revising humanities text books” in the ministry of science, research and technology

member of the academic council of philosophy of science in sharif university of technology

member of the supreme council of the ahl al-bait world embly (abwa)

excellent member of the world council of religious leaders (wcrl)

member of board of trustees of institute for humanities and cultural studies

member of fiqh (shari`ah) committee of the stock exchange market in the islamic republic of iran

ayatollah hadavi's books include: the chest of wisdom (2 volumes), tahrir al-maqal fi kolliyat-e-elm-e-rejal (arabic), wilayat al-faqih (principles, proofs and jurisdiction), judging and the judge, the theological bases of ijtihad (recognized as book of the year in 1999 by the hawza of qom), islam's economic doctrine and system, governance and religion: essays on the islamic political thought, beliefs and questions, the history of usool (islamic jurisprudence), to the heavens with the youth, the green tryst, the green steps of anticipation, iran: the homeland of divine wisdom, the overall structure of the islamic economic system according to the quran.

 

 

 

 

hujjat al-islam  dr.seyed mahmud musawi

 

  • seyed mahmud musawi started his seminary studies in 1977 at meybod theological school. with the outbreak of iran's revolution he moved to qom. at feyzieh he enjoyed teachers such as ayatollah eshtehardi, ayatollah mohaqeq damad, ayatollah mousavi tehrani, ayatollah payani, and some of other great seminarians of hawze. he finished h and then enrolled in usul courses held by ayatollah vahid khorasani. beside jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence, he learned philosophy and exegesis form ayatollah jawadi amoli and misbah yazdi. he is also familiar with astronomy. he received his m.a. from dar-u-shafa teacher training center in 1993. his m.a. thesis title is “translation of the philosophical works of etienne gilson”. he was admitted in university of qom in 1998 and received his phd in theology. his dissertation was a comparative study between ayatollah motahari’s works and g. l. macky’s works on the problem of evil. he has been a faculty member of bagher al ‘olum university, department of philosophy and theology, since 1999.

publications:

  1. introduction to the philosophy of religion (book)
  2. introduction to christian philosophy
  3. encyclopedia ‏of islamic mysticism terms
  4. encyclopedia of islamic philosophy and theology terms
  5. the meaning of life
  6. introduction to the philosophy of religion (paper)

 

 

dr. seyed n. mousavian

 

  •  seyed n. mousavian (phd university of alberta, canada, 2009) is istant professor at the iranian institute of philosophy and faculty research fellow at the institute for research in fundamental sciences. his research interests include philosophy of language and metaphysics as well as islamic philosophy and philosophy of religion. mousavian’s recent publications include “neo-meinongian, neo-russellians” (pacific philosophical quarterly, 2010) and “gappy propositions?” (canadian journal of philosophy, 2011). his current projects include papers on meinongianism and the problem of empty names, the relationship between understanding religion and the persistence of meaning, origination and individuation of soul from an avicennian point of view, and the concept of existence; as well as a book entitled an introduction to western philosophy.

 

 

*          *          *

 

dr. ahmad pakatchi

 

 

  •  ahmad pakatchi, was born in tehran, 1963. he holds a ph.d. in religious studies and a ph.d. in philology. he is an interdisciplinary scholar working at the same time with several departments. the central core of his interests is the quranic studies and historical linguistics, cultural semiotics, especially concerning the qur'an. he has been the head of the department of qur’an & hadith studies, the center for great islamic encyclopedia, since 1989 and the head of the department of islamic law, the center for great islamic encyclopedia, since 1991. he is a faculty member at imam sadeq university, since 1999. he is also the head of the department of qur’an & hadith studies, imam sadeq university, faculty of theology, since 2000 and head of iranian circle of semiotics, since 2006. he is a member of the department of russian studies, faculty of world studies, university of tehran, since 2005 and a member of editorial board, international journal for semiotics of law, since 2006. he is the author of numerous works in persian, arabic, english and russian, in the fields such as islamic culture, islamic traditional sciences, and some sectarian movements like salafiyya etc.

 

 

hujjat al-islam dr. hamid parsania

 

  • hamid parsania was born in 1958.  after receiving his ba in sociology from the university of tehran, he graduated from the seminary of qum, specializing in islamic philosophy and mysticism.  he has compiled, edited, and notified dissertations on the verbal discourses of the major authorities in the field in thirty volumes.  he is the author of tens of books and articles and has taught numerous courses in various universities and the seminary.  his seminal work on the spiritual anthropology of islam,existence and the fall, has been translated into english and serbian. he was the chancellor of the baqir-ul-‘ulūm university in qum for five years and is currently a member of the supreme council for cultural revolution in iran.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

professor dr. sharam pazouki

 

 

  • shahram pazouki was born in tehran in 1956. he graduated from the university of tehran, department of philosophy. he is a professor of philosophy and religious studies and head of the department of religious studies. he is also editor in chief of the quarterly rumi studies. fields of his teaching and research includes:
  • comparative philosophy: western and islamic 
  • comparative mysticism: islamic and christian,
  • sufi studies: teachings, methods, art, history, modern era, philosophy of art and beauty

his publications includes articles and books in persian, english and arabic mainly on mawlana rumi, suhravardi, shah ni'matullahi wali and his sufi path, mirfendereski, philosophy of art and beauty in islam, dialogue among religions and comparative topics in islamic and modern philosophy. his last published book is: islam, iran, erfan, a collection of essays on suhravardi 

 

       

dr. mohammed rustom

 

 

  • mohammed rustom was born and raised in toronto, canada. he received a ba (hons.) from the university of toronto in islamic studies and philosophy in 2004, and then received a phd at the same institution in the field of islamic thought in 2009. currently, dr. rustom is istant professor of islamic studies at carleton university (ottawa, canada), and is also the director of the carleton centre for the study of islam. he is the main editor of an anthology of professor william chittick's writings entitled, in search of the lost heart: explorations in islamic thought (suny, 2012), and is the istant editor of the harpercollins study quran (harperone, forthcoming), headed by professor seyyed hossein nasr. dr. rustom's own books include the triumph of mercy: philosophy and scripture in mulla sadra (suny, 2012), an anthology of quranic commentaries: human nature (oxford university press, forthcoming), and a forthcoming study of the teachings of 'ayn al-qudat hamadani.

 

 

 

 

 

 

hujjat-ul-islam dr. ahmad va’ezi

 

  • dr. ahmad va’ezi entered qom seminary in 1982 and studied h in 1986. he then took courses in islamic jurisprudence, enjoying the cl es of great scholars such as ayatollah vahid khorasani, shiekh jawad tabrizi, seyed kazem haeri, and sadeq larijani. mastering philosophy under ayatollah javadi amoli, misbah yazdi and h. fayazi, he then started his professional studies in western philosophy and modern transmitted sciences.  he has been a university lecturer since 1987 and has taught in many iranian and international universities. in 2001 he moved to london to teach at bridge university, london islamic college and london seminary. his major research interests are modern transmitted sciences and western philosophy and, since 2006, he has focused on hermeneutics and political thought.

publications:

 

1.         alternation of theological understanding

2.         theological society, civilized society

3.         man from islam perspective

4.         bedaye al hekam (the beginning of wisdoms)

5.         theocracy

6.         islamic rule

7.         introduction to hermeneutics

8.         shia political thought

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a schedule of lectur topics

outline of the lectures topic

intellectuality in islamic ethics and the new challenges (contemporary ethical-intellectual living paradigm )

by: dr. mahdi alizadeh

 

 

in the emergence of the third millennium, the appearance of modern technologies in the fields of information, communication, biological sciences, genetics, etc., and the formation of movements such as religious fundamentalism, secular spiritualties and new religious movements (nrms) have created a lot of problems for the mankind in our era to understand ethical criteria and recognize ethical obligations. this is true while the ethical-spiritual living and providing standards and scales for ethical-spiritual living, is the central message of religions.

the quran’s extensive call and emphasis on self-construction of individual and formation of ethical society and sovereignty is a proof to the importance of ethics among the objectives of islam.

 in first pivot of these coming lectures, we will work on a short history of islamic ethics and the four main approaches to it, i. e., philosophical approach, transmitted approach, mystical approach and composed approach, as an introduction. then we will point out the status of intellect and the quran among the knowledge resources of islamic ethical system.

 in the second pivot, we will deal with the great challenge of moral philosophy in the present time, and we will study the discourse of realism-unrealism and thereby answer to the problem of absolutism-relativism of ethical propositions, on the basis of islamic ethics and the synergy between intellect and the quran. in the third pivot, we will give the intellectual answers of islam ethical system to an important part of the new-born challenges of the modern life, i.e. genetic ethical crises and environmental crises. 

    

  “systematic thought theory in islam”

 an abstract of the comprehensive theoretical framework

by: ayatollah dr. mahdi hadavi tehrani

 

islam provides guidance through its teachings regarding different domains and fields of human life. however in light of the complicated nature of human beings and the relations that exist between them and their surroundings, an equally comprehensive and multifaceted framework has to be developed to put this guidance in perspective and to infer the teachings of islam based on a systematic approach. the “systematic thought theory in islam” which was formulated and introduced by the author more than twenty years ago after a thorough study of those teachings combined with a philosophical and systematic insight developed through an in depth scrutiny of the academic tradition p ed down to the present day scholars by their predecessors. over the years, this theory has been refined and consolidated by the author.

this theory states that: islam introduces a philosophy, a doctrine, a system and a legal system in each aspect of human’s life. all of the elements in this theoretical model are universal (not bound by time and space) and from them we can derive situational and conditional elements, i.e. mechanism and situational legal system to be implemented in specific times and places.

hence, based on this theoretical model, it can be claimed that, for example, in the field of economy the following components exist:

1.         philosophy: a set of existential and cosmological realities and truths related to and having a bearing upon a specific field of human behavior such as economy.

2.         doctrine: the values and norms governing human behavior in that specific field which itself consists of two parts:

a.         principles & bases, i.e. the accepted values and guidelines for that particular field;

b.         aims and goals, i.e. the value-laden milestones which should be endeavored for.

3.         system: the set of relevant institutions and/or consolidated human behaviors for progressing towards the doctrinal goals and achieving them based on the principles enshrined in the doctrine.

4.         universal legal system: the legal consequence of the doctrine and system.

5.         mechanism: the manifestation of the system in specific circumstances.

6.         situational legal system is the manifestation of the universal legal system in those specific circumstances.

hence, for example, in the field of economy the following components exist:

1.         philosophy of islamic economy

2.         doctrine of islamic economy

3.         system of islamic economy

4.         universal legal system of islamic economy

and for specific circumstances:

1.         mechanism of islamic economy

2.         situational legal system of islamic economy

*          *          *

 

“ideas of rationality” and “contemporary debates on rationality”

by: dr. n. mousavian

 

i will deliver two speeches: “ideas of rationality” and “contemporary debates on rationality”. in the first speech, i will try to introduce different perspectives on rationality: i will be talking about maximizing vs. isfying, criticisms of each and recent formulations of these archetypes of economic rationality. also, i will attempt to compare probability views on rationality with explanatory coherence views.  we may touch on some issues regarding individual rationally versus group rationality, if time permits. in the second speech, i will try to introduce and review adam morton’s forthcoming book entitled “bounded thinking” (by oxford university press). the book contains interesting ideas like the relationship between content externalism and virtue epistemology, on the one hand, and contemporary views on rationality, on the other hand. as part of my review, i will focus on the ways in which rationality may be understood. i will end by a short discussion of morton’s criticisms of weirich’s (2004) “realistic decision theory.”

 

 

a comparative study on the nature of rationality in islamic civilization

by: dr. seyed mahmud musawi

 

in the history of islamic thought we find different approaches to rationality which depending on the nature of the reason and rationality in question range from affirmative and sympathetic to negative and hostile. therefore a review of the nature and modes of rationality as well as its criteria seems to be essential in any comparative study on this subject. in this way we must also have in mind and highlight the crucial roles, reason can play in the whole system of religious beliefs. it seems that these different, divergent and sometimes conflicting versions of rationality, have been developed by muslim scholars in light of the way they experience and understand the reality. so we can speak of various encounters and experiences of reality which give rise to different modes of rationality.  the deeper we encounter reality, the deeper mode of rationality we can develop.  hence there are different modes and levels. faith-based, instrumental, practical, theoretical, philosophical and mystical and some other sorts of rationality grew out of our various concerns and experience.  in order to have a fair judgment on the status of reason and rationality it is necessary to examine the origin and nature of each type and evaluate it on the basis of its functions and adequacy in meeting the challenges we face in the main domain of thoughts.

 

 

islamic intellectuality and fundamentalism

 (on fundamentalism’s origins, features, and implications)

by:dr. ahmad pakatchi

 

i would like to emphasize on the fact that fundamentalism is a result of facing of a kind of religious radicalism with modernity. what we call here a kind of religious radicalism is an orientation to religion which wants to refine it from all historical adaptations and supplementations received and to achieve to a pure version of religion. in the course of this refinement, the fundamentalists detach the religion from its historical context, while there is no reliable way to reconstruct the context of revelation. then the religious texts including the holy qur’an and the sunna remain decontextualized, while the fundamentalists seek to have their solutions for modern issues through achronical or pseudo-chronial readings of resources.

secondly, i would like to show that the historical adaptations and supplementations play an important role for bridging the theoretical gap between theory and practice. that’s why in the course of islamic centuries, many sects and schools found their way of practice to solve social and political issues, while there are no specific methods expected to help for finding solutions. for example, for schools denying the influence of intellectual evaluation of human acts (al-husn wa-l-qubh al-‘aqliyyân) the results in jurisprudence and ethics are not much different than those of the schools supporting intellectual evaluation. but i want to emphasize the fact that the schools denying the need for intellectual evaluating of the theory and adapting their attitude with it in practice, lack the ability for immediate reaction to the current cases and confronting issues in the society. in such schools, adaptation with intellectual evaluations totally depends on p ing time and historical process and every raised matter of debate needs a long time to be digested.

thirdly, yet again by concentrating on fundamentalism, i try to make clear that the supporters of fundamentalism while denying the historical readings of religion and rejecting the traditional adaptations to intellectual perception, lose the historical support of intellect in their seek  for religious rules of social and political practice. adhering to the position of rejecting an independent decree for intellect, they have no way to a direct use of intellect in the course of perception of religion. then the result is a not only a rupture with the religious tradition, but also a distance from the world lived in. the result is breaking from all aspects of reality and falling in a fantasy perception of religion, far from what actually exists and far from what religion expects to exist.

 

the islamic intellectual heritage and contemporary worldviews

by: dr. mohammed rustom

 

 

this session will seek to explain the manner in which the findings of the islamic intellectual heritage (particularly the traditions of philosophy and religion) can contribute to contemporary discussions in philosophy and religion. the approach here will be two-fold, that is, both theoretical and practical. in laying out the theoretical underpinnings of our proposed topic, we will attempt to take stock of what is implied by the term “worldview,” and how challenging the traditional islamic worldview can be to most popular, wide-spread worldviews currently in vogue. the practical component of this session will seek to offer a close reading of a famous but surprisingly yet less known letter written by the famous sufi ibn ‘arabi (d. 638/1240) to the foremost theologian and philosopher of his day, fakhr al-din al-razi (d. 606/1210). by investigating the contents of this letter, two tendencies—the “spiritual” and the “rational”—will be brought into comparative perspective, thereby pointing up the distinction between

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tape ure a nced is well integrated into hpe command view tl software for a single pane of
gl mana ent, monitoring and analytics. hpe tape ure a nced software provides a
dashboard display with pie charts, live and historical g hs for performance, health and utilization
data, and highlights issues in the tape infrastructure.
note: commandview tl is a required pre-requisite for tape ure a nced.
easy installation the msl tape libraries are shipped as a rack-ready unit. the rack mount hardware included with the
library allows installation in a variety of hpe racks. for more information on the hpe rack offerings,
please see the following url:
http:/www.hpe.com/info/rackandpower.html
partitioning the msl tape libraries now include the ability to be configured as a partitioned library. msl libraries
may be configured with up to one partition per drive; four partitions if four drives are installed.
partitioning allows each partitioned library to be presented to the host as an independent library,
separate from other partitions in the library. hosts for each partition own independent sets of media
and can use isv software that is different from the other partitions allowing maximum flexibility and
utilization of the msl library.
proven reliability with a rating of 2,000,000 robot load/unload cycles, the msl tape libraries provides necessary high
reliability for today's demanding environment. to improve reliability and longevity, all hpe ultrium
products feature data rate matching (drm). this allows the tape drive to dynamically and
continuously adjust the speed of the drive, to match the speed of the host or network. this increases
performance, reduces mechanical wear on the tape drive and extends tape life.
disaster recovery and
security
removable media also has the a ntage that data is held 'offline' which means that archive data on
tape has the additional level of protection from the threats to on-line data from viruses, ers and
cyber-attacks. lto-6 ultrium tape drives include hardware based data encryption to prevent
unauthorized access to data at rest and cartridges are available with write-once-read-many (worm)
capability to prevent accidental overwriting of data archived on the tape. both worm and hardware
data encryption features help organizations to comply with increased data security regulations
data encryption the hpe msl tape libraries offers multiple options for data encryption, depending on the
requirements for policy, regulation, compliance, and centralized key mana ent.
protect the confidentiality and integrity of your data:
the hpe 1/8 g2 & msl encryption kit provides a library-enabled encryption solution that greatly
enhances data privacy, confidentiality, and integrity of your critical business data while supporting
compliance requirements. while there are a wide range of encryption solutions available, the hpe
1/8 g2 & msl encryption kit is intended to be an easy and affordable library-enabled solution for
small businesses.
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
product highlights
page 4
the encryption kit includes two usb key server tokens, product documentation, and firmware
support. one encryption kit is needed per library or autoloader and it must be physically accessible
so that the usb token can be inserted into the automation device. one of the two tokens will plug
into the usb port in the autoloader or library and will generate and maintain encryption keys for the
lto-7, lto-6, lto-5 and lto-4 drives/libraries. the usb key server token uses a hardware
random number generator, p word authentication, and digital envelopes for strong encryption
keys and security operations. the encryption kit provides a self-contained solution for autoloaders
and msl libraries with no additional software, pcs, or servers required or involved.
protect critical data across an enterprise:
to meet requirements for larger scale encryption key managers, the hpe msl tape libraries
supports kmip 1.2 compliant key managers. with the purchase of the kmip encryption license, the
1/8 g2 tape autoloader and msl libraries will be able to request encryption keys from kmip 1.2
compliant key managers, for data encryption and key mana ent.
for more information on all supported key mana ent servers, please visit:
http://www.hpe.com/storage/buracompatibility
serviceability modular in design, the msl tape libraries has easily replaceable components minimizing the meantime-to-repair
on the unit. replaceable components include the tape drive, the magazines, the power
supply and the controller board. hpe library and tape tools (l&tt) provides easy access to thee msl
error log, generates support tickets, and enables firmware s. l&tt can be ed for
free at: http://www.hpe.com/support/tapetools.
lto ultrium technology hpe lto (linear tape open) ultrium tape drives use best of breed technology. by taking the best
features from other tape technologies and combining them into a single new technology, ultrium tape
drives are in a league of their own. inclusion of innovative features such as adaptive tape speed (ats)
ensure that ultrium drives can meet the performance and reliability demands of a library environment.
lto technology is an open industry standard format; thus data written on hpe ultrium tape drives
can be interchanged directly with ultrium tape drives from other vendors.
hpe lto tape drives and automation products are founded on the lto open standard and adhere to
the published lto format roadmap to generation 8 at 32tb of compressed capacity per cartridge by
generation 8. with in-built two generation backwards compatibility, lto customers can be ured of
investment protection.
data rate matching data rate matching combines sophisticated buffer mana ent with variable tape drive motor speeds
to match the tape drive transfer rate to the host output. . this feature ensures that the tape drive
continues to stream data regardless of the environment, and brings three big a ntages:
• it optimizes performance and maximizes overall efficiency, allowing the drive to respond
immediately to any data speed changes from the host.
• it minimizes rewinding and repositioning of the tape, significantly reducing physical wear and
increasing reliability.
• it minimizes the power requirements for the drive by reducing the number of repositions
needed.
lto ultrium tape drive ats data transfer rate range (native)
hpe lto-7 ultrium 15000 101 to 300 mb/s
hpe lto-6 ultrium 6250 54 to 160 mb/s
hpe lto-5 ultrium 3280/3000 47 to 140 mb/s
hpe lto-4 ultrium 1840 40 to 120 mb/s
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
product highlights
page 5
hpe lto-4 ultrium 1760 35 to 80 mb/s
hpe lto-3 ultrium 920 26 to 60 mb/s
hpe ultrium worm critical to the success of data retention policies in highly regulated environments is the ability to store
and manage data in an unalterable state. following stringent guidelines set forth by regulatory
agencies such as the sec and hippa, it organizations must now integrate new solutions and policies
that can verify the integrity of stored data for periods that can extend well beyond seven years.
every generation of lto ultrium since lto-3 tape drives feature the ability to archive and store data
in a read-only, non-rewriteable format that meets the most stringent regulatory guidelines. using a
combination of integrated fail-safe features in the drive firmware, cartridge memory, and tape
formatting, lto ultrium provides the ability to archive large amounts of data for periods of up to 30
years in a secure, untampered state. ultrium tape drives include support for both rewritable and worm
media providing for a secure, long-term archiving solution into any data protection strategy. lto
ultrium worm provides the following a ntages:
• a single drive to support all backup and archiving needs
• two distinctive tape cartridges to easily distinguish and manage both rewriteable and worm
data cartridges
• a specially designed worm data cartridge with multiple integrated fail-safe features to
prevent accidental or intentional overwriting of data
• high-capacity, low-cost hpe worm media that can store up to 6.25 tb (2.5:1 compression)
of data on a single data cartridge
• support from many backup and archiving software vendors, providing the most
comprehensive and mainstream support in the industry
• the lto open standard that offers greater choice and compatibility across all third- and
fourth-generation ultrium products
note: while all hpe lto-7, lto-6, lto-5, lto-4, and lto-3 ultrium tape drives support lto
ultrium worm media, some lto ultrium tape drives from other manufacturers may not include
read and write support for lto ultrium worm media. for non-hpe lto ultrium tape drives, please
check the manufacturers' specifications to ensure this support is provided if you are using your
worm media. if worm support is not provided, the drive will eject the worm tape cartridge
immediately upon insertion into to the tape drive
hpe data protector
software
hpe data protector software automates high performance backup and recovery, from disk or tape,
over unlimited distances, to enable 24x7 business continuity and improve it resource utilization. data
protector software responds to the pressure for lower it costs and greater operational efficiency by
offering acquisition and deployment costs which are 30 - 70 % less than competition. the license
model is very simple and easy to understand, helping to reduce complexity. extensive scalability and
features for continuous backup and recovery operations enable growth with a single product. a superb
solution, no other software can integrate better with the hewlett packard enterprise market-leading
line of disk and tape family of products, as well as with other heterogeneous storage infrastructures. as
an integral component of the fast-growing hewlett packard enterprise software portfolio, which
includes storage resource mana ent, archiving, replication, and device mana ent software, data
protector software also fully integrates with the hpe mana ent solutions, allowing managing data
protection as an essential element of an overall it service. this solution offers the unique a ntage of
being able to source hardware, software, and award winning service offerings from a single, trusted
source.
data protector software simplifies the use of complex backup and recovery procedures with the fastest
installation, automated routine tasks, and easy-to-use features. the centralized multi-site mana ent
easily allows implementing multi-site changes, adapting in real time to changing business
requirements. appropriate for medium and large companies in any industry, data protector software is
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
product highlights
page 6
the ideal solution to reduce it costs and complexity while remaining reliable and scalable to grow from
single server environments to the largest distributed enterprise infrastructures.
for further information, please visit our web page at: http://www.hpe.com/storage/dataprotector
hpe storeopen
automation
hpe storeopen automation is a free able application that extends the ltfs capability to
hpe autoloaders, hpe msl and esl tape libraries. by simply mounting the tape autoloader or library
as a file system, the intuitive hpe storeopen automation interface makes it easier to copy, rename,
create or move files. when a cartridge folder is selected for use, that tape is automatically moved to an
available tape drive.
when two drives are present, hpe storeopen automation supports tape-to-tape operations. hpe
storeopen automation takes a ntage of other standard hpe tape library features including data
encryption and hpe tape ure.
for more information, including user guide, s and compatibility, visit:
http://www.hpe.com/storage/hpstoreopen
hpe storeever archive
manager
80% of your data is rarely or never accessed after 90 days of creation. however, the business value of
much of this data means it still has to be retained and readily available over extended periods of time.
imagine the efficiencies and risk reduction you could achieve by moving this static data from your tier
1 production environment to an intelligent archive optimized for easy access, low cost and reliable
long-term retention? hpe storeever archive manager software solutions creates an intelligent archive
by combining the accessibility of flash with the economics, scalability and reliability of tape. it enables
you to easily save, search, and retrieve data directly from a cost effective and self-protecting hpe
storeever archive tier. hpe storeever archive manager software solutions lets you easily identify and
migrate inactive data from your primary storage and backup cycle automatically and based on policy.
you can maintain transparent access to your data, even after it has been archived. hpe storeever
archive manager software solutions stores data in the linear tape file system (ltfs) open standard,
supporting data transportability and long-term data accessibility.
for further information, please visit our web page at:
https://www.hpe.com/storage/archivemanager
hpe library and tape
tools
the msl tape libraries are supported on hp's industry-leading diagnostic tool - hpe library and
tape tools (l&tt). l&tt is a single, convenient program that is easy to install and simple to operate.
l&tt's intuitive user interface eliminates the need for training and deploys in less than five minutes.
this robust diagnostic tool is designed for both the experienced professional and the untrained
administrator. it ensures product integrity through self-diagnostics and fast resolution to device
concerns. additional information on l&tt plus information can be found at:
http://www.hpe.com/support/tapetools.
hpe storage media hewlett packard enterprise recommends that you use hp-branded cartridges in the msl tape
libraries to ure the highest level of protection for your valuable data. the test program for hewlett
packard enterprise media is the most thorough and comprehensive in the industry.
all hpe cartridges must isfy an exhaustive battery of additional tests that relate directly to real life
situations, where real data and real businesses are at stake. the benefit of the hewlett packard
enterprise brand specification for media is consistent quality. through the testing of thousands of hpe
drives and hpe cartridges, the ideal formulation for backup performance is defined and then
continuously monitored. this hugely resource-intensive process is unique to hewlett packard
enterprise and affords deep insight into the hp+hpe backup solution for a wide range of
environments and duty cycles. your best choice for ease of support and maximum dependability is to
use hp-branded ultrium cartridges at all times. correctly labeling your media will allow the library to
quickly determine media and drive compatibility.
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
product highlights
page 7
factory express
portfolio for servers and
storage
hpe factory express offers configuration, customization, integration and deployment services for hpe
servers and storage products. customers can choose how their factory solutions are built, tested,
integrated, shipped and deployed. customization must comply with all relevant product specifications
and factory supported configurations. factory express offers service packages for simple configuration,
racking, installation, complex configuration and design services as well as individual factory services,
such as image loading, et tagging, and custom packaging. hewlett packard enterprise products
supported through factory express include a wide array of servers and storage: hpe integrity, hpe
proliant, hpe proliant server blades, hpe bladesystem, and hpe 9000 servers as well as msa,
va7 , eva, and xp disk arrays, rackable tape libraries and configurable network switches.
type of service support varies by platform and product family. for more information on factory
express services for your specific server model or storage device please contact your sales
representative or go to: http://www.hpe.com/info/factoryexpress.
compatibility hp's extensive compatibility testing program ures that your hpe msl tape libraries work with
leading servers, operating systems, and backup applications - and not just those sold by hp. the msl
libraries work seamlessly in many environments, making them especially suitable if you have a mixed
system environment. for the latest list of servers, workstations, operating systems, and backup
software that support the msl tape libraries, check the hpe data agile bura compatibility matrix
(formerly ebs) at: http://www.hpe.com/storage/buracompatibility.
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
service and support and warranty information
page 8
warranty msl2024: the warranty for this product consists of 1-year parts exchange, next business day
msl4048: the warranty for this product consists of 1-year parts exchange, next business day
note: the hpe msl tape libraries warranty includes support for customer self repair (csr). the
tape library cartridges, terminators, external cables, drives, magazines, controller board and power
supplies are mandatory customer self-repair parts. this means both the removal and replacement of
the above parts are designed for easy replacement; the on-site warranty does not extend to these
parts. however, customers may request hpe services to replace these replaceable units (rus) for an
additional charge. also, customers who purchase an hpe support agreement have the option to
perform csr or receive onsite support.
please refer to hewlett packard enterprise's limited warranty statement for further details:
http://h18006.www1.hpe.com/storage/warranty.html
protect your business beyond warranty with hpe support services
hpe technology services delivers confidence, reduces risk and helps customers realize agility and stability. our integrated
portfolio of services for storage help customers reduce costs, optimize data, streamline storage mana ent, and improve backup
and recovery. hpe support services enable you to choose the right service level, length of coverage and response time as you
purchase your new storage solution, giving you full entitlement for the support for need for your it and business.
recommended services hpe foundation care 24x7, three-year support service
hpe foundation care 24x7 gives you access to hpe 24 hours a day, seven days a week for istance
on resolving issues. this service includes need based hardware onsite response within four hours.
simplify your support experience and make hpe your first call to help resolve hardware or software
problems.
https://www.hpe.com/h20195/v2/getdocument.aspx?docname=4aa4-8876enw&cc=us&lc=en
related services hpe esl, msl tape libraries installation and startup
deployment of your hpe midrange storage library (msl) products in san environments:.
• system installation and setup by an hewlett packard enterprise technical specialist
• verification prior to installation that all service prerequisites are met
• delivery of the service at a mutually scheduled convenient time
• provides product installation according to the product specifications
• offers deployment activities that are designed to bring the fibre channel-based tape library
into operation
• helps improve performance
• makes the most of the value of the hpe esl, msl, and eml libraries in an it environment by
leveraging hewlett packard enterprise knowledge in implementing fibre channel-based
systems and solutions
• helps reduce implementation-related disruptions in the it environment
• helps increase system reliability and provides more effective data mana ent
http://h20195.www2.hpe.com/v2/getpdf.aspx/5981-7355en.pdf
hpe backup and recovery solution service
id recovery from system downtime can hinge on the efficiency of your backup and recovery
mana ent environment - and on how well that environment is integrated with your storage
infrastructure. but integration processes can be time-consuming and complex, and your it resources
are already stretched thin. where can you find the expert help you need?
for fast, effective integration of your backup solution into an existing or new storage infrastructure,
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
service and support and warranty information
page 9
turn to the storage experts at hpe services. our backup and recovery solution service (brss)
provides end-to-end mana ent of your backup integration process. the brss team works with you
to analyze your business and it environment; develop a comprehensive integration plan and timetable;
design an architecture that suits your critical requirements; install backup software; implement your
solution; and validate your configuration.
• by engaging hewlett packard enterprise to implement hpe data protector, customers' it staff
can stay focused on their core tasks and priorities, resulting in less impact to your business
• professional backup and recovery planning that aligns with customer's business needs and
implementation that reduces project execution time and risk to the storage environment
• hp's expertise with backup and recovery helps ensure issues are avoided
http://h20195.www2.hpe.com/v2/getpdf.aspx/5982-7442en.pdf
esupport hpe esupport is a portfolio of technology-based services that ist you with managing your business
environment - from the desktop to the data center.
support portal
the hewlett packard enterprise support portal provides one-stop access to the information, tools and
services you need to manage the daily operations of your it environment.
features include:
• access to self-solve tools (including search technical knowledge base)
• efficient logging and tracking of support cases
• collaboration with other business and it professionals
• of patches and drivers
• access to diagnostic tools
• proactive notification of relevant information
access to certain features of the support portal requires a hewlett packard enterprise service
agreement. to access the support portal, visit: http://www.hpe.com/support
customer technical
training
consider education as an integral part of your strategy to get the best return on investment for your
hpe storage solution. hewlett packard enterprise offers a variety of training courses on storage
software, networking, archiving and disk storage systems. our cl es are available in many delivery
modalities from traditional instructor-led courses at one of our 80 training centers worldwide to on-site
training customized to your needs or online. http://www.hpe.com/learn/storage
hpe services awards hpe services continues to be recognized for service and support excellence by customers, partners,
industry organizations and publications around the world. recent honors and award reflect our services
team's dedications, technical expertise, professionalism and uncompromising commitment to customer
isfaction. for a list of all our awards, please visit:
http://h20219.www2.hpe.com/services/cache/433028-0-0-225-121.htm
additional services
information
for more information about hpe care pack services for storage, please visit:
http://www.hpe.com/services/storage
if you have specific questions, contact your local hewlett packard enterprise representative. contact
information for a representative in your area can be found at "contact hpe" http://www.hpe.com
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
configuration information
page 10
step 1 - select base library
hpe storeever msl tape
libraries
description part number
hpe storeever msl2024 0-drive tape library
note: includes 24 slots, zero drives.
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
ak379a
hpe storeever msl4048 0-drive tape library
note: includes 48 slots, zero drives.
ak381a
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
kit contents (for each library):
• one 2.5m pdu power cord, c13/c14, 10a (part number 142257-002)
• one rj-45 ethernet cable
• rack-mount hardware
• flyer for yosemite server backup software*
*note: yosemite server backup basic comes with 30 days of free
maintenance and support. after that time, customers have the option to
upgrade to a retail version with maintenance and support
factory racking factory integrate the msl2024 & 4048 tape libraries with other hpe products
such as hpe proliant servers
note: #0d1 will appear after the tape library part number on the sales order if
hpe factory integration is indicated
#0d1
step 2 - select generation & quantity of ultrium tape drives
select each option as required with quantities specified:
tape drives hpe storeever msl lto-7 ultrium 15000 fc drive upgrade kit
note: half height lto-7 fibre chanel tape drive. for use with the msl2024,
4048 or msl6480 libraries. drive kit includes a tape drive and documentation
note: #0d1 will appear after n7p36a on the sales order if hpe factory
integration is indicated
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
n7p36a
hpe storeever msl lto-7 ultrium 15000 sas drive upgrade kit
note: half height lto-7 sas tape drive. for use with the msl2024, 4048 or
msl6480 libraries. drive kit includes a tape drive and documentation
note: #0d1 will appear after n7p37a on the sales order if hpe factory
integration is indicated
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
n7p37a
hpe storeever msl lto-6 ultrium 6250 sas drive upgrade kit
note: half height lto-6 sas tape drive. for use with the msl2024, 4048 or
msl6480 libraries. drive kit includes a tape drive and documentation.
note: #0d1 will appear after c0h27a on the sales order if hpe factory
integration is indicated
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
c0h27a
hpe storeever msl lto-6 ultrium 6250 fibre channel drive upgrade kit
note: half height lto-6 fc tape drive. for use with the msl2024, 4048 or
msl6480 libraries. drive kit includes a tape drive and documentation.
note: #0d1 will appear after c0h28a on the sales order if hpe factory
integration is indicated
c0h28a
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
configuration information
page 11
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
hpe storeever msl lto-5 ultrium 3000 sas drive upgrade kit
note: half height lto-5 sas tape drive. for use with the msl2024, 4048 or
msl6480 libraries. drive kit includes a tape drive and documentation.
note: #0d1 will appear after bl540b on the sales order if hpe factory
integration is indicated
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
bl540b
hpe storeever msl lto-5 ultrium 3000 fibre channel drive upgrade kit
note: half height lto-5 fc tape drive. for use with the msl2024, 4048 or
msl6480 libraries. drive kit includes a tape drive and documentation.
note: #0d1 will appear after bl544b on the sales order if hpe factory
integration is indicated
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
bl544b
hpe storeever msl lto-5 ultrium 3280 fibre channel drive upgrade kit
note: full height lto-5 fc tape drive. for use with the msl2024, 4048 or
msl6480 libraries. drive kit includes a tape drive and documentation.
note: #0d1 will appear after bl535b on the sales order if hpe factory
integration is indicated
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
bl535b
hpe storeever msl lto-4 ultrium 1760 sas drive upgrade kit
note: half height lto-4 sas tape drive. for use with the msl2024, 4048, , or
6480 libraries. drive kit includes a tape drive and documentation.
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
ak383b
step 3 - select software licenses
tape ure a nced hpe storeever msl tape ure a nced ltu
a nced analytics feature makes use of predictive analytics to predict the likelihood
of failures, bottlenecks and load balancing issues in the tape infrastructure. it has
unique capabilities of analytics around drive health and life as well as cartridge health
and life.
note: one license needed per library and command view tl must be installed.
note: this is a paper license that will be mailed
tc406a
hpe storeever msl tape ure a nced e-ltu
hpe storeever tape ure a nced software provides a nced analytics for
predictive analysis the likelihood of failures, bottlenecks and load balancing issues in
the tape infrastructure. it has unique capabilities of analytic s around drive health
and life as well as cartridge health and life.
note: one license needed per library and command view tl must be installed.
note: this is an electronically delivered license.
tc406aae
encryption
options/licenses
hpe 1/8 g2 tape autoloader and msl tape library encryption kit
note: for use with new or installed lto-7, lto-6, lto-5 and lto-4 drives for
msl2024/4048/8048/8096 or msl6480 tape libraries. the encryption kit key
server token generate and retain encryption keys for above lto tape drives in
the library. does not require support from isv.
am495a
hpe storeever msl2024/4048/8096 kmip encryption ltu
note: for use with msl2024/4048/8048/8096 tape libraries using lto-6,
tc468a
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
configuration information
page 12
lto-5 tape drives. the license will enable secure connectivity with supported
kmip 1.2 compliant key mana ent servers. see the hpe data agile bura
compatibility matrix (formerly ebs) for the list of supported servers.
http://www.hpe.com/storage/buracompatibility
note: this license will be delivered via hard copy in the mail.
note: msl libraries now have the ability to connect to kmip complaint
encryption key managers in fips 140-2 secure mode with hh fc lto-7 tape
drives, which are fips 140-2 certified.
hpe storeever msl2024/4048/8096 kmip encryption e-ltu
note: for use with msl2024/4048/8048/8096 tape libraries using lto-6,
lto-5 tape drives. the license will enable secure connectivity with supported
kmip 1.2 compliant key mana ent servers. see the hpe data agile bura
compatibility matrix (formerly ebs) for the list of supported servers.
http://www.hpe.com/storage/buracompatibility
note: this license will be delivered electronically.
note: msl libraries now have the ability to connect to kmip complaint
encryption key managers in fips 140-2 secure mode with hh fc lto-7 tape
drives, which are fips 140-2 certified.
tc468aae
step 4 - select additional accessories
regional power cords note: one pdu power cord is shipped per library. if not using the included pdu cord mentioned
above (part number 142257-002) please select the correct power cord for your geog hical
location below.
quantity description part number
1 each hp c13 - nema 5-15p us/ca 110v 10amp 1.83m power cord af556a
1 each hp c13 - cee-vii eu 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af568a
1 each hp c13 - bs-1363a uk/hk/sg 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af570a
1 each hp c13 - dk-2.5a dk 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af566a
1 each hp c13 - sev 1011 ch 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af565a
1 each hp c13 - cei-23-50 it/cl 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af571a
1 each hp c13 - sabs-164 za 250v 10amp 2.5m power cord af567a
1 each hp c13 - cns-690 tw 110v 13amp 1.83m power cord af561a
1 each hp c13 - gb-1002 cn 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af557a
1 each hp c13 - jis c8303 jp 100v 12amp 2.0m power cord af572a
1 each hp c13 - as3112-3 au 250v 10amp 2.5m power cord af569a
1 each hp c13 - iram -2073 ar 250v 10a 2.5m power cord af558a
1 each hp c13 - nema 5-15p th/ph 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af559a
1 each hp c13 - ksc- 8305 kr 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af560a
1 each hp c13 - si-32 il 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af564a
1 each hp c13 - is-1293 in 240v 6amp lv 2.0m power cord af562a
warning: this product can only be used with an hpe approved power cord for your specific
geog hic region. use of a non-hpe approved power cord may result in: 1) not meeting individual
country specific safety requirements; 2) insufficient conductor ampacity that could result in
overheating with potential personal injury and/or property damage; and 3) an unapproved power
cord could fracture resulting in the internal contacts being exposed, which potentially could subject
the user to a shock hazard. hewlett packard enterprise disclaims all liability in the event a non-hpe
approved power cord is used.for a complete list of power cord options, please see:
http://www.hpe.com/products/powercords
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
related options
page 13
redundant power
supply upgrade kit
hpe storeever msl redundant power supply upgrade kit
note: for use in the msl4048, 8048 or 8096 tape libraries to add a second
customer-installable power supply into the unit. hpe msl redundant power
supply ships with pdu power cord (c13/c14, 10a, p/n 142257-002). if a user
wishes to connect to hpe msl redundant power supply to 110v us wall outlet
power then the us power cord (p/n af556a) must be ordered separately. if
customers require a power cord, they can check the power cord matrix for the
appropriate cord. please see the ups and pdu cable matrix's on the power
protection page under power cords that lists cable descriptions, requirements,
and specifications for ups and pdu units at the new hpe power cord link @
hpe.com. use the following new link: http://www.hpe.com/products/powercords
ah220a
magazine kits hpe storeever msl2024 ultrium left magazine kit
note: for use in the msl 2024 tape libraries in the left position. user-enabled
mail slots can be configured at either 0 or 1 slot.
ag119a
hpe storeever msl ultrium left magazine kit
note: for use in the msl 4048, 8048, or 8096 tape libraries in either the upper
or lower left position. when used in the lower left position, user-enabled mail slots
can be configured at either 0 or 3 slots.
ag330a
hpe storeever msl ultrium right magazine kit
note: for use only on the right side of the msl 4048, 8048, or 8096 tape
libraries; additional 12-slot magazine for either the right upper or lower position.
note: for use on the right side of the msl 2024 tape libraries; additional 12-
slot magazine for the right position.
ag120a
rack cabinets the msl libraries are supported in a variety of hpe rack offerings, including the hpe intelligent series
racks and the hpe 10000 g2 series racks. for more information on the hpe rack offerings, please
see the following url: http://www.hpe.com/info/rackandpower
note: the msl tape libraries are certified to ship in hpe racks which include a shock pallet. it is
mandatory to use a shock pallet in order to ship racks with equipment installed.
media hpe lto-7 ultrium 15tb rw data cartridge c7977a
hpe lto-7 ultrium no case 960 tape pallet c7977ab
hpe lto-7 ultrium rw 960 tape pallet c7977ad
hpe lto-7 ultrium 15tb eco case data cartridge 20 pack c7977ah
hpe lto-7 ultrium worm data cartridge c7977w
hp lto-6 ultrium 6.25tb mp rw data cartridge c7976a
hp lto-6 ultrium 6.25tb mp rw 960 tape pallet c7976ad
hp lto-6 ultrium 6.25tb mp worm data cartridge c7976w
hp lto-6 ultrium 6.25tb bafe rw data cartridge c7976b
hp lto-6 ultrium 6.25tb bafe worm data cartridge c7976bw
hp lto-5 ultrium 3tb rw data cartridge c7975a
hp lto-5 ultrium 3tb worm data cartridge c7975w
hp lto4 ultrium 1.6tb read/write data cartridge c7974a
hp lto4 ultrium 1.6tb worm data tape cartridge c7974w
hp ultrium universal cleaning cartridge c7978a
bar code labels
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
related options
page 14
hpe lto-7 ultrium rw bar code label pack q2014a
hp lto-6 ultrium rw bar code label pack q2013a
hp lto-5 ultrium rw bar code label pack q2011a
hp lto-5 ultrium worm bar code label pack q2012a
hp lto-4 ultrium read/write bar code label pack q2009a
hp lto-4 ultrium worm bar code label pack q2010a
non-custom labeled data cartridges
note: non-custom labels will come pre-labeled with a pre-determined number
sequence.
hpe lto-7 ultrium rw no case custom labeled data cartridge 20 pack c7977ac
hpe lto-7 ultrium non custom labeled data cartridge 20 pack c7977an
hp lto-6 ultrium 6.25tb mp rw non custom labeled data cartridge 20 pack c7976an
hp lto-6 ultrium 6.25tb bafe rw non custom labeled data cartridges 20 pack c7976bn
hp lto-5 ultrium non-custom labeled data cartridge 20 pack c7975an
hp lto-4 ultrium 1.6tb non-custom label data cartridge 20 pack c7974an
custom labeled data cartridges
note: custom labeled products allow customers to customize a specific
sequence printed on each label.
hpe lto-7 ultrium 15 tb rw rfid custom labeled data cartridge (20 pack) 7977af
hpe lto-7 ultrium rw custom labeled data cartridge 20 pack c7977al
hpe lto-7 ultrium worm custom labeled data cartridge 20 pack c7977wl
hp lto-6 ultrium 6.25tb mp rw custom labeled data cartridge 20 pack c7976al
hp lto-5 rw custom labeled data cartridge 20 pack c7975al
hp lto-5 rw custom labeled no case data cartridge 20 pack c7975ac
hp lto-5 worm custom labeled cartridge 20 pack c7975wl
hp lto-4 ultrium 1.6tb rw custom label data cartridge 20 pack c7974al
hp lto-4 ultrium 1.6tb worm custom label data cartridge 20 pack c7974wl
fc and sas host bus
adapters
the msl libraries are certified with multiple fibre channel and sas host bus and adapters. for the most
current list of supported fc and sas hbas, please see the hpe storage hpe data agile bura compatibility
matrix (formerly ebs) and design guide located at: http://www.hpe.com/storage/buracompatibility.
optical cables om4 lc-lc type cables
hp premier flex lc/lc multi-mode om4 2 fiber 1m cable qk732a
hp premier flex lc/lc multi-mode om4 2 fiber 2m cable qk733a
hp premier flex lc/lc multi-mode om4 2 fiber 5m cable qk734a
hp premier flex lc/lc multi-mode om4 2 fiber 15m cable qk735a
hp premier flex lc/lc multi-mode om

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hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries introdution
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
product highlights
page 1
hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
the hpe storeever msl tape libraries meet demanding storage requirement of businessess needing unattended backup, disaster
recovery, or archive capability. the msl libraries offer a broad choice of storage capacity and technology including lto-7, lto-6,
lto-5, or lto-4, ultrium tape drives. web-based remote mana ent makes the msl libraries easily managed from across the
room or across the globe, eliminating the need for remote office it staff. quickly and simply manage the tape media both in and
out of the library with the standard bar code reader, configurable mail slots, and multiple 12-slot removable magazines. if a tape
were lost or stolen, protect important business data from unauthorized access with data encryption options. msl library
investment protection and uncertain data growth are easily managed within the msl library portfolio. quickly increase capacity
and/or performance with tool-free drive upgrades in the msl2024 or 4048, or move tape drive kitss to the msl6480 for library
scalability and additional enterprise cl features. proactively receive detailed information about your msl libraries with
tape ure. information about the library, drives, and media are all monitored for utilization, operational performance, and life and
health information. prevent problems before they occur by proactively receiving notification if any library, drive or tape media
parameters fall below hewlett packard enterprise recommended standards.
hpe storeever msl2024 tape library
hpe storeever msl4048 tape library
key features • exceptional storage density: up to 360 tb with msl2024, 720tb with an msl4048, and up
to 8,400tb of with an msl6480 ((capacity based upon 2.5:1 compression using lto-7 tape
cartridges)
• easy-to-use web-based remote mana ent
• integrated bar code reader
• tool-free tape drive upgrades
• leverage tape drives in an msl2024 or 4048 into an msl6480 for investment protection.
• customer upgradeable redundant power supply in the msl4048.
• multiple interface choices available (fc or sas)
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
product highlights
page 2
• removable magazines with user-configurable mail slots
• easy-to-enable aes 256-bit embedded hardware encryption with compression
• extensive os and software compatibility testing
• proven high reliability
• achieve the highest level of encryption security to secure confidential business information
while meeting compliance guidelines with the hpe 1/8 g2 & msl encryption kit or kmip 1.2
encryption key manager license.
• proactively monitor utilization, operational performance, and overall life and health of the
drives and media with tape ure and tape ure a nced.
• quick, easy, and affordable capacity growth.
manageability the msl tape libraries come with web-based remote manageability so they can be easily monitored
and managed from across the room or across the globe. functions included in the mana ent tool
include:
• status information on the drive and system
• system configuration operations and reporting
• system error and status logs
• library and drive firmware upgrade capabilities
• diagnostic tests and information
• cartridge movement for maintenance and mana ent purposes
• cleaning cartridge support
• security and access control
• snmp support for ip communication
• partitioning and encryption mana ent
• https capable
• ipv6 and ipv4 network protocol support
tape ure hpe tape ure makes managing, optimizing and archiving on the hpe storeever msl tape libraries
easier. tape ure provides comprehensive summaries and detailed information about the status,
performance, utilization, and health of all tape drives and cartridges. tape ure utilization and
performance reporting features allow you to optimize the use of your existing hpe msl tape libraries
to make informed purchasing decisions if an increase in capacity is needed.
• modify backup schedules to make best use of the drives and tapes available and evenly
distribute their workload
• predict and prevent failures through early warnings and recommended service actions
• determine if each drive and each tape is experiencing a high (or low) rate of usage
• know when to retire tapes
• find out the compression ratios actually achieved
tape ure builds a database of drive and tape history information that you can export as .csv
(comma-separated-value) files and import into excel or other tools to create pivot-charts, pie charts
and bar charts for g hical presentation or further analysis. this data can be automatically exported
on a schedule or on demand and written to a local or network drive where analysis scripts can also be
run.
tape ure real time alerts notify instantly if drive and data quality standards are not being achieved:
• in-depth analysis pinpoints if drive, tape or data characteristics fall below hewlett packard
enterprise backup and archiving standards
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
product highlights
page 3
• view alerts and statistics is real-time in the command view tl gui
tape ure a nced hpe storeever tape ure a nced software is a licensed feature thatt leverages the information
from tape ure but will additionally provide an intuitive, easy to use dashboard, and a nce
analytics feature for performance, health and utilization related to tape libraries, drives and cartridges.
a nced analytics feature makes use of predictive analytics to predict the likelihood of failures,
bottlenecks and load balancing issues in the tape infrastructure. it has unique capabilities of analytics
around drive health and life as well as cartridge health and life.
tape ure a nced is well integrated into hpe command view tl software for a single pane of
gl mana ent, monitoring and analytics. hpe tape ure a nced software provides a
dashboard display with pie charts, live and historical g hs for performance, health and utilization
data, and highlights issues in the tape infrastructure.
note: commandview tl is a required pre-requisite for tape ure a nced.
easy installation the msl tape libraries are shipped as a rack-ready unit. the rack mount hardware included with the
library allows installation in a variety of hpe racks. for more information on the hpe rack offerings,
please see the following url:
http:/www.hpe.com/info/rackandpower.html
partitioning the msl tape libraries now include the ability to be configured as a partitioned library. msl libraries
may be configured with up to one partition per drive; four partitions if four drives are installed.
partitioning allows each partitioned library to be presented to the host as an independent library,
separate from other partitions in the library. hosts for each partition own independent sets of media
and can use isv software that is different from the other partitions allowing maximum flexibility and
utilization of the msl library.
proven reliability with a rating of 2,000,000 robot load/unload cycles, the msl tape libraries provides necessary high
reliability for today's demanding environment. to improve reliability and longevity, all hpe ultrium
products feature data rate matching (drm). this allows the tape drive to dynamically and
continuously adjust the speed of the drive, to match the speed of the host or network. this increases
performance, reduces mechanical wear on the tape drive and extends tape life.
disaster recovery and
security
removable media also has the a ntage that data is held 'offline' which means that archive data on
tape has the additional level of protection from the threats to on-line data from viruses, ers and
cyber-attacks. lto-6 ultrium tape drives include hardware based data encryption to prevent
unauthorized access to data at rest and cartridges are available with write-once-read-many (worm)
capability to prevent accidental overwriting of data archived on the tape. both worm and hardware
data encryption features help organizations to comply with increased data security regulations
data encryption the hpe msl tape libraries offers multiple options for data encryption, depending on the
requirements for policy, regulation, compliance, and centralized key mana ent.
protect the confidentiality and integrity of your data:
the hpe 1/8 g2 & msl encryption kit provides a library-enabled encryption solution that greatly
enhances data privacy, confidentiality, and integrity of your critical business data while supporting
compliance requirements. while there are a wide range of encryption solutions available, the hpe
1/8 g2 & msl encryption kit is intended to be an easy and affordable library-enabled solution for
small businesses.
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
product highlights
page 4
the encryption kit includes two usb key server tokens, product documentation, and firmware
support. one encryption kit is needed per library or autoloader and it must be physically accessible
so that the usb token can be inserted into the automation device. one of the two tokens will plug
into the usb port in the autoloader or library and will generate and maintain encryption keys for the
lto-7, lto-6, lto-5 and lto-4 drives/libraries. the usb key server token uses a hardware
random number generator, p word authentication, and digital envelopes for strong encryption
keys and security operations. the encryption kit provides a self-contained solution for autoloaders
and msl libraries with no additional software, pcs, or servers required or involved.
protect critical data across an enterprise:
to meet requirements for larger scale encryption key managers, the hpe msl tape libraries
supports kmip 1.2 compliant key managers. with the purchase of the kmip encryption license, the
1/8 g2 tape autoloader and msl libraries will be able to request encryption keys from kmip 1.2
compliant key managers, for data encryption and key mana ent.
for more information on all supported key mana ent servers, please visit:
http://www.hpe.com/storage/buracompatibility
serviceability modular in design, the msl tape libraries has easily replaceable components minimizing the meantime-to-repair
on the unit. replaceable components include the tape drive, the magazines, the power
supply and the controller board. hpe library and tape tools (l&tt) provides easy access to thee msl
error log, generates support tickets, and enables firmware s. l&tt can be ed for
free at: http://www.hpe.com/support/tapetools.
lto ultrium technology hpe lto (linear tape open) ultrium tape drives use best of breed technology. by taking the best
features from other tape technologies and combining them into a single new technology, ultrium tape
drives are in a league of their own. inclusion of innovative features such as adaptive tape speed (ats)
ensure that ultrium drives can meet the performance and reliability demands of a library environment.
lto technology is an open industry standard format; thus data written on hpe ultrium tape drives
can be interchanged directly with ultrium tape drives from other vendors.
hpe lto tape drives and automation products are founded on the lto open standard and adhere to
the published lto format roadmap to generation 8 at 32tb of compressed capacity per cartridge by
generation 8. with in-built two generation backwards compatibility, lto customers can be ured of
investment protection.
data rate matching data rate matching combines sophisticated buffer mana ent with variable tape drive motor speeds
to match the tape drive transfer rate to the host output. . this feature ensures that the tape drive
continues to stream data regardless of the environment, and brings three big a ntages:
• it optimizes performance and maximizes overall efficiency, allowing the drive to respond
immediately to any data speed changes from the host.
• it minimizes rewinding and repositioning of the tape, significantly reducing physical wear and
increasing reliability.
• it minimizes the power requirements for the drive by reducing the number of repositions
needed.
lto ultrium tape drive ats data transfer rate range (native)
hpe lto-7 ultrium 15000 101 to 300 mb/s
hpe lto-6 ultrium 6250 54 to 160 mb/s
hpe lto-5 ultrium 3280/3000 47 to 140 mb/s
hpe lto-4 ultrium 1840 40 to 120 mb/s
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
product highlights
page 5
hpe lto-4 ultrium 1760 35 to 80 mb/s
hpe lto-3 ultrium 920 26 to 60 mb/s
hpe ultrium worm critical to the success of data retention policies in highly regulated environments is the ability to store
and manage data in an unalterable state. following stringent guidelines set forth by regulatory
agencies such as the sec and hippa, it organizations must now integrate new solutions and policies
that can verify the integrity of stored data for periods that can extend well beyond seven years.
every generation of lto ultrium since lto-3 tape drives feature the ability to archive and store data
in a read-only, non-rewriteable format that meets the most stringent regulatory guidelines. using a
combination of integrated fail-safe features in the drive firmware, cartridge memory, and tape
formatting, lto ultrium provides the ability to archive large amounts of data for periods of up to 30
years in a secure, untampered state. ultrium tape drives include support for both rewritable and worm
media providing for a secure, long-term archiving solution into any data protection strategy. lto
ultrium worm provides the following a ntages:
• a single drive to support all backup and archiving needs
• two distinctive tape cartridges to easily distinguish and manage both rewriteable and worm
data cartridges
• a specially designed worm data cartridge with multiple integrated fail-safe features to
prevent accidental or intentional overwriting of data
• high-capacity, low-cost hpe worm media that can store up to 6.25 tb (2.5:1 compression)
of data on a single data cartridge
• support from many backup and archiving software vendors, providing the most
comprehensive and mainstream support in the industry
• the lto open standard that offers greater choice and compatibility across all third- and
fourth-generation ultrium products
note: while all hpe lto-7, lto-6, lto-5, lto-4, and lto-3 ultrium tape drives support lto
ultrium worm media, some lto ultrium tape drives from other manufacturers may not include
read and write support for lto ultrium worm media. for non-hpe lto ultrium tape drives, please
check the manufacturers' specifications to ensure this support is provided if you are using your
worm media. if worm support is not provided, the drive will eject the worm tape cartridge
immediately upon insertion into to the tape drive
hpe data protector
software
hpe data protector software automates high performance backup and recovery, from disk or tape,
over unlimited distances, to enable 24x7 business continuity and improve it resource utilization. data
protector software responds to the pressure for lower it costs and greater operational efficiency by
offering acquisition and deployment costs which are 30 - 70 % less than competition. the license
model is very simple and easy to understand, helping to reduce complexity. extensive scalability and
features for continuous backup and recovery operations enable growth with a single product. a superb
solution, no other software can integrate better with the hewlett packard enterprise market-leading
line of disk and tape family of products, as well as with other heterogeneous storage infrastructures. as
an integral component of the fast-growing hewlett packard enterprise software portfolio, which
includes storage resource mana ent, archiving, replication, and device mana ent software, data
protector software also fully integrates with the hpe mana ent solutions, allowing managing data
protection as an essential element of an overall it service. this solution offers the unique a ntage of
being able to source hardware, software, and award winning service offerings from a single, trusted
source.
data protector software simplifies the use of complex backup and recovery procedures with the fastest
installation, automated routine tasks, and easy-to-use features. the centralized multi-site mana ent
easily allows implementing multi-site changes, adapting in real time to changing business
requirements. appropriate for medium and large companies in any industry, data protector software is
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
product highlights
page 6
the ideal solution to reduce it costs and complexity while remaining reliable and scalable to grow from
single server environments to the largest distributed enterprise infrastructures.
for further information, please visit our web page at: http://www.hpe.com/storage/dataprotector
hpe storeopen
automation
hpe storeopen automation is a free able application that extends the ltfs capability to
hpe autoloaders, hpe msl and esl tape libraries. by simply mounting the tape autoloader or library
as a file system, the intuitive hpe storeopen automation interface makes it easier to copy, rename,
create or move files. when a cartridge folder is selected for use, that tape is automatically moved to an
available tape drive.
when two drives are present, hpe storeopen automation supports tape-to-tape operations. hpe
storeopen automation takes a ntage of other standard hpe tape library features including data
encryption and hpe tape ure.
for more information, including user guide, s and compatibility, visit:
http://www.hpe.com/storage/hpstoreopen
hpe storeever archive
manager
80% of your data is rarely or never accessed after 90 days of creation. however, the business value of
much of this data means it still has to be retained and readily available over extended periods of time.
imagine the efficiencies and risk reduction you could achieve by moving this static data from your tier
1 production environment to an intelligent archive optimized for easy access, low cost and reliable
long-term retention? hpe storeever archive manager software solutions creates an intelligent archive
by combining the accessibility of flash with the economics, scalability and reliability of tape. it enables
you to easily save, search, and retrieve data directly from a cost effective and self-protecting hpe
storeever archive tier. hpe storeever archive manager software solutions lets you easily identify and
migrate inactive data from your primary storage and backup cycle automatically and based on policy.
you can maintain transparent access to your data, even after it has been archived. hpe storeever
archive manager software solutions stores data in the linear tape file system (ltfs) open standard,
supporting data transportability and long-term data accessibility.
for further information, please visit our web page at:
https://www.hpe.com/storage/archivemanager
hpe library and tape
tools
the msl tape libraries are supported on hp's industry-leading diagnostic tool - hpe library and
tape tools (l&tt). l&tt is a single, convenient program that is easy to install and simple to operate.
l&tt's intuitive user interface eliminates the need for training and deploys in less than five minutes.
this robust diagnostic tool is designed for both the experienced professional and the untrained
administrator. it ensures product integrity through self-diagnostics and fast resolution to device
concerns. additional information on l&tt plus information can be found at:
http://www.hpe.com/support/tapetools.
hpe storage media hewlett packard enterprise recommends that you use hp-branded cartridges in the msl tape
libraries to ure the highest level of protection for your valuable data. the test program for hewlett
packard enterprise media is the most thorough and comprehensive in the industry.
all hpe cartridges must isfy an exhaustive battery of additional tests that relate directly to real life
situations, where real data and real businesses are at stake. the benefit of the hewlett packard
enterprise brand specification for media is consistent quality. through the testing of thousands of hpe
drives and hpe cartridges, the ideal formulation for backup performance is defined and then
continuously monitored. this hugely resource-intensive process is unique to hewlett packard
enterprise and affords deep insight into the hp+hpe backup solution for a wide range of
environments and duty cycles. your best choice for ease of support and maximum dependability is to
use hp-branded ultrium cartridges at all times. correctly labeling your media will allow the library to
quickly determine media and drive compatibility.
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
product highlights
page 7
factory express
portfolio for servers and
storage
hpe factory express offers configuration, customization, integration and deployment services for hpe
servers and storage products. customers can choose how their factory solutions are built, tested,
integrated, shipped and deployed. customization must comply with all relevant product specifications
and factory supported configurations. factory express offers service packages for simple configuration,
racking, installation, complex configuration and design services as well as individual factory services,
such as image loading, et tagging, and custom packaging. hewlett packard enterprise products
supported through factory express include a wide array of servers and storage: hpe integrity, hpe
proliant, hpe proliant server blades, hpe bladesystem, and hpe 9000 servers as well as msa,
va7 , eva, and xp disk arrays, rackable tape libraries and configurable network switches.
type of service support varies by platform and product family. for more information on factory
express services for your specific server model or storage device please contact your sales
representative or go to: http://www.hpe.com/info/factoryexpress.
compatibility hp's extensive compatibility testing program ures that your hpe msl tape libraries work with
leading servers, operating systems, and backup applications - and not just those sold by hp. the msl
libraries work seamlessly in many environments, making them especially suitable if you have a mixed
system environment. for the latest list of servers, workstations, operating systems, and backup
software that support the msl tape libraries, check the hpe data agile bura compatibility matrix
(formerly ebs) at: http://www.hpe.com/storage/buracompatibility.
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
service and support and warranty information
page 8
warranty msl2024: the warranty for this product consists of 1-year parts exchange, next business day
msl4048: the warranty for this product consists of 1-year parts exchange, next business day
note: the hpe msl tape libraries warranty includes support for customer self repair (csr). the
tape library cartridges, terminators, external cables, drives, magazines, controller board and power
supplies are mandatory customer self-repair parts. this means both the removal and replacement of
the above parts are designed for easy replacement; the on-site warranty does not extend to these
parts. however, customers may request hpe services to replace these replaceable units (rus) for an
additional charge. also, customers who purchase an hpe support agreement have the option to
perform csr or receive onsite support.
please refer to hewlett packard enterprise's limited warranty statement for further details:
http://h18006.www1.hpe.com/storage/warranty.html
protect your business beyond warranty with hpe support services
hpe technology services delivers confidence, reduces risk and helps customers realize agility and stability. our integrated
portfolio of services for storage help customers reduce costs, optimize data, streamline storage mana ent, and improve backup
and recovery. hpe support services enable you to choose the right service level, length of coverage and response time as you
purchase your new storage solution, giving you full entitlement for the support for need for your it and business.
recommended services hpe foundation care 24x7, three-year support service
hpe foundation care 24x7 gives you access to hpe 24 hours a day, seven days a week for istance
on resolving issues. this service includes need based hardware onsite response within four hours.
simplify your support experience and make hpe your first call to help resolve hardware or software
problems.
https://www.hpe.com/h20195/v2/getdocument.aspx?docname=4aa4-8876enw&cc=us&lc=en
related services hpe esl, msl tape libraries installation and startup
deployment of your hpe midrange storage library (msl) products in san environments:.
• system installation and setup by an hewlett packard enterprise technical specialist
• verification prior to installation that all service prerequisites are met
• delivery of the service at a mutually scheduled convenient time
• provides product installation according to the product specifications
• offers deployment activities that are designed to bring the fibre channel-based tape library
into operation
• helps improve performance
• makes the most of the value of the hpe esl, msl, and eml libraries in an it environment by
leveraging hewlett packard enterprise knowledge in implementing fibre channel-based
systems and solutions
• helps reduce implementation-related disruptions in the it environment
• helps increase system reliability and provides more effective data mana ent
http://h20195.www2.hpe.com/v2/getpdf.aspx/5981-7355en.pdf
hpe backup and recovery solution service
id recovery from system downtime can hinge on the efficiency of your backup and recovery
mana ent environment - and on how well that environment is integrated with your storage
infrastructure. but integration processes can be time-consuming and complex, and your it resources
are already stretched thin. where can you find the expert help you need?
for fast, effective integration of your backup solution into an existing or new storage infrastructure,
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
service and support and warranty information
page 9
turn to the storage experts at hpe services. our backup and recovery solution service (brss)
provides end-to-end mana ent of your backup integration process. the brss team works with you
to analyze your business and it environment; develop a comprehensive integration plan and timetable;
design an architecture that suits your critical requirements; install backup software; implement your
solution; and validate your configuration.
• by engaging hewlett packard enterprise to implement hpe data protector, customers' it staff
can stay focused on their core tasks and priorities, resulting in less impact to your business
• professional backup and recovery planning that aligns with customer's business needs and
implementation that reduces project execution time and risk to the storage environment
• hp's expertise with backup and recovery helps ensure issues are avoided
http://h20195.www2.hpe.com/v2/getpdf.aspx/5982-7442en.pdf
esupport hpe esupport is a portfolio of technology-based services that ist you with managing your business
environment - from the desktop to the data center.
support portal
the hewlett packard enterprise support portal provides one-stop access to the information, tools and
services you need to manage the daily operations of your it environment.
features include:
• access to self-solve tools (including search technical knowledge base)
• efficient logging and tracking of support cases
• collaboration with other business and it professionals
• of patches and drivers
• access to diagnostic tools
• proactive notification of relevant information
access to certain features of the support portal requires a hewlett packard enterprise service
agreement. to access the support portal, visit: http://www.hpe.com/support
customer technical
training
consider education as an integral part of your strategy to get the best return on investment for your
hpe storage solution. hewlett packard enterprise offers a variety of training courses on storage
software, networking, archiving and disk storage systems. our cl es are available in many delivery
modalities from traditional instructor-led courses at one of our 80 training centers worldwide to on-site
training customized to your needs or online. http://www.hpe.com/learn/storage
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quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
configuration information
page 10
step 1 - select base library
hpe storeever msl tape
libraries
description part number
hpe storeever msl2024 0-drive tape library
note: includes 24 slots, zero drives.
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
ak379a
hpe storeever msl4048 0-drive tape library
note: includes 48 slots, zero drives.
ak381a
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
kit contents (for each library):
• one 2.5m pdu power cord, c13/c14, 10a (part number 142257-002)
• one rj-45 ethernet cable
• rack-mount hardware
• flyer for yosemite server backup software*
*note: yosemite server backup basic comes with 30 days of free
maintenance and support. after that time, customers have the option to
upgrade to a retail version with maintenance and support
factory racking factory integrate the msl2024 & 4048 tape libraries with other hpe products
such as hpe proliant servers
note: #0d1 will appear after the tape library part number on the sales order if
hpe factory integration is indicated
#0d1
step 2 - select generation & quantity of ultrium tape drives
select each option as required with quantities specified:
tape drives hpe storeever msl lto-7 ultrium 15000 fc drive upgrade kit
note: half height lto-7 fibre chanel tape drive. for use with the msl2024,
4048 or msl6480 libraries. drive kit includes a tape drive and documentation
note: #0d1 will appear after n7p36a on the sales order if hpe factory
integration is indicated
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
n7p36a
hpe storeever msl lto-7 ultrium 15000 sas drive upgrade kit
note: half height lto-7 sas tape drive. for use with the msl2024, 4048 or
msl6480 libraries. drive kit includes a tape drive and documentation
note: #0d1 will appear after n7p37a on the sales order if hpe factory
integration is indicated
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
n7p37a
hpe storeever msl lto-6 ultrium 6250 sas drive upgrade kit
note: half height lto-6 sas tape drive. for use with the msl2024, 4048 or
msl6480 libraries. drive kit includes a tape drive and documentation.
note: #0d1 will appear after c0h27a on the sales order if hpe factory
integration is indicated
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
c0h27a
hpe storeever msl lto-6 ultrium 6250 fibre channel drive upgrade kit
note: half height lto-6 fc tape drive. for use with the msl2024, 4048 or
msl6480 libraries. drive kit includes a tape drive and documentation.
note: #0d1 will appear after c0h28a on the sales order if hpe factory
integration is indicated
c0h28a
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
configuration information
page 11
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
hpe storeever msl lto-5 ultrium 3000 sas drive upgrade kit
note: half height lto-5 sas tape drive. for use with the msl2024, 4048 or
msl6480 libraries. drive kit includes a tape drive and documentation.
note: #0d1 will appear after bl540b on the sales order if hpe factory
integration is indicated
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
bl540b
hpe storeever msl lto-5 ultrium 3000 fibre channel drive upgrade kit
note: half height lto-5 fc tape drive. for use with the msl2024, 4048 or
msl6480 libraries. drive kit includes a tape drive and documentation.
note: #0d1 will appear after bl544b on the sales order if hpe factory
integration is indicated
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
bl544b
hpe storeever msl lto-5 ultrium 3280 fibre channel drive upgrade kit
note: full height lto-5 fc tape drive. for use with the msl2024, 4048 or
msl6480 libraries. drive kit includes a tape drive and documentation.
note: #0d1 will appear after bl535b on the sales order if hpe factory
integration is indicated
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
bl535b
hpe storeever msl lto-4 ultrium 1760 sas drive upgrade kit
note: half height lto-4 sas tape drive. for use with the msl2024, 4048, , or
6480 libraries. drive kit includes a tape drive and documentation.
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
ak383b
step 3 - select software licenses
tape ure a nced hpe storeever msl tape ure a nced ltu
a nced analytics feature makes use of predictive analytics to predict the likelihood
of failures, bottlenecks and load balancing issues in the tape infrastructure. it has
unique capabilities of analytics around drive health and life as well as cartridge health
and life.
note: one license needed per library and command view tl must be installed.
note: this is a paper license that will be mailed
tc406a
hpe storeever msl tape ure a nced e-ltu
hpe storeever tape ure a nced software provides a nced analytics for
predictive analysis the likelihood of failures, bottlenecks and load balancing issues in
the tape infrastructure. it has unique capabilities of analytic s around drive health
and life as well as cartridge health and life.
note: one license needed per library and command view tl must be installed.
note: this is an electronically delivered license.
tc406aae
encryption
options/licenses
hpe 1/8 g2 tape autoloader and msl tape library encryption kit
note: for use with new or installed lto-7, lto-6, lto-5 and lto-4 drives for
msl2024/4048/8048/8096 or msl6480 tape libraries. the encryption kit key
server token generate and retain encryption keys for above lto tape drives in
the library. does not require support from isv.
am495a
hpe storeever msl2024/4048/8096 kmip encryption ltu
note: for use with msl2024/4048/8048/8096 tape libraries using lto-6,
tc468a
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
configuration information
page 12
lto-5 tape drives. the license will enable secure connectivity with supported
kmip 1.2 compliant key mana ent servers. see the hpe data agile bura
compatibility matrix (formerly ebs) for the list of supported servers.
http://www.hpe.com/storage/buracompatibility
note: this license will be delivered via hard copy in the mail.
note: msl libraries now have the ability to connect to kmip complaint
encryption key managers in fips 140-2 secure mode with hh fc lto-7 tape
drives, which are fips 140-2 certified.
hpe storeever msl2024/4048/8096 kmip encryption e-ltu
note: for use with msl2024/4048/8048/8096 tape libraries using lto-6,
lto-5 tape drives. the license will enable secure connectivity with supported
kmip 1.2 compliant key mana ent servers. see the hpe data agile bura
compatibility matrix (formerly ebs) for the list of supported servers.
http://www.hpe.com/storage/buracompatibility
note: this license will be delivered electronically.
note: msl libraries now have the ability to connect to kmip complaint
encryption key managers in fips 140-2 secure mode with hh fc lto-7 tape
drives, which are fips 140-2 certified.
tc468aae
step 4 - select additional accessories
regional power cords note: one pdu power cord is shipped per library. if not using the included pdu cord mentioned
above (part number 142257-002) please select the correct power cord for your geog hical
location below.
quantity description part number
1 each hp c13 - nema 5-15p us/ca 110v 10amp 1.83m power cord af556a
1 each hp c13 - cee-vii eu 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af568a
1 each hp c13 - bs-1363a uk/hk/sg 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af570a
1 each hp c13 - dk-2.5a dk 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af566a
1 each hp c13 - sev 1011 ch 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af565a
1 each hp c13 - cei-23-50 it/cl 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af571a
1 each hp c13 - sabs-164 za 250v 10amp 2.5m power cord af567a
1 each hp c13 - cns-690 tw 110v 13amp 1.83m power cord af561a
1 each hp c13 - gb-1002 cn 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af557a
1 each hp c13 - jis c8303 jp 100v 12amp 2.0m power cord af572a
1 each hp c13 - as3112-3 au 250v 10amp 2.5m power cord af569a
1 each hp c13 - iram -2073 ar 250v 10a 2.5m power cord af558a
1 each hp c13 - nema 5-15p th/ph 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af559a
1 each hp c13 - ksc- 8305 kr 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af560a
1 each hp c13 - si-32 il 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af564a
1 each hp c13 - is-1293 in 240v 6amp lv 2.0m power cord af562a
warning: this product can only be used with an hpe approved power cord for your specific
geog hic region. use of a non-hpe approved power cord may result in: 1) not meeting individual
country specific safety requirements; 2) insufficient conductor ampacity that could result in
overheating with potential personal injury and/or property damage; and 3) an unapproved power
cord could fracture resulting in the internal contacts being exposed, which potentially could subject
the user to a shock hazard. hewlett packard enterprise disclaims all liability in the event a non-hpe
approved power cord is used.for a complete list of power cord options, please see:
http://www.hpe.com/products/powercords
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
related options
page 13
redundant power
supply upgrade kit
hpe storeever msl redundant power supply upgrade kit
note: for use in the msl4048, 8048 or 8096 tape libraries to add a second
customer-installable power supply into the unit. hpe msl redundant power
supply ships with pdu power cord (c13/c14, 10a, p/n 142257-002). if a user
wishes to connect to hpe msl redundant power supply to 110v us wall outlet
power then the us power cord (p/n af556a) must be ordered separately. if
customers require a power cord, they can check the power cord matrix for the
appropriate cord. please see the ups and pdu cable matrix's on the power
protection page under power cords that lists cable descriptions, requirements,
and specifications for ups and pdu units at the new hpe power cord link @
hpe.com. use the following new link: http://www.hpe.com/products/powercords
ah220a
magazine kits hpe storeever msl2024 ultrium left magazine kit
note: for use in the msl 2024 tape libraries in the left position. user-enabled
mail slots can be configured at either 0 or 1 slot.
ag119a
hpe storeever msl ultrium left magazine kit
note: for use in the msl 4048, 8048, or 8096 tape libraries in either the upper
or lower left position. when used in the lower left position, user-enabled mail slots
can be configured at either 0 or 3 slots.
ag330a
hpe storeever msl ultrium right magazine kit
note: for use only on the right side of the msl 4048, 8048, or 8096 tape
libraries; additional 12-slot magazine for either the right upper or lower position.
note: for use on the right side of the msl 2024 tape libraries; additional 12-
slot magazine for the right position.
ag120a
rack cabinets the msl libraries are supported in a variety of hpe rack offerings, including the hpe intelligent series
racks and the hpe 10000 g2 series racks. for more information on the hpe rack offerings, please
see the following url: http://www.hpe.com/info/rackandpower
note: the msl tape libraries are certified to ship in hpe racks which include a shock pallet. it is
mandatory to use a shock pallet in order to ship racks with equipment installed.
media hpe lto-7 ultrium 15tb rw data cartridge c7977a
hpe lto-7 ultrium no case 960 tape pallet c7977ab
hpe lto-7 ultrium rw 960 tape pallet c7977ad
hpe lto-7 ultrium 15tb eco case data cartridge 20 pack c7977ah
hpe lto-7 ultrium worm data cartridge c7977w
hp lto-6 ultrium 6.25tb mp rw data cartridge c7976a
hp lto-6 ultrium 6.25tb mp rw 960 tape pallet c7976ad
hp lto-6 ultrium 6.25tb mp worm data cartridge c7976w
hp lto-6 ultrium 6.25tb bafe rw data cartridge c7976b
hp lto-6 ultrium 6.25tb bafe worm data cartridge c7976bw
hp lto-5 ultrium 3tb rw data cartridge c7975a
hp lto-5 ultrium 3tb worm data cartridge c7975w
hp lto4 ultrium 1.6tb read/write data cartridge c7974a
hp lto4 ultrium 1.6tb worm data tape cartridge c7974w
hp ultrium universal cleaning cartridge c7978a
bar code labels
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
related options
page 14
hpe lto-7 ultrium rw bar code label pack q2014a
hp lto-6 ultrium rw bar code label pack q2013a
hp lto-5 ultrium rw bar code label pack q2011a
hp lto-5 ultrium worm bar code label pack q2012a
hp lto-4 ultrium read/write bar code label pack q2009a
hp lto-4 ultrium worm bar code label pack q2010a
non-custom labeled data cartridges
note: non-custom labels will come pre-labeled with a pre-determined number
sequence.
hpe lto-7 ultrium rw no case custom labeled data cartridge 20 pack c7977ac
hpe lto-7 ultrium non custom labeled data cartridge 20 pack c7977an
hp lto-6 ultrium 6.25tb mp rw non custom labeled data cartridge 20 pack c7976an
hp lto-6 ultrium 6.25tb bafe rw non custom labeled data cartridges 20 pack c7976bn
hp lto-5 ultrium non-custom labeled data cartridge 20 pack c7975an
hp lto-4 ultrium 1.6tb non-custom label data cartridge 20 pack c7974an
custom labeled data cartridges
note: custom labeled products allow customers to customize a specific
sequence printed on each label.
hpe lto-7 ultrium 15 tb rw rfid custom labeled data cartridge (20 pack) 7977af
hpe lto-7 ultrium rw custom labeled data cartridge 20 pack c7977al
hpe lto-7 ultrium worm custom labeled data cartridge 20 pack c7977wl
hp lto-6 ultrium 6.25tb mp rw custom labeled data cartridge 20 pack c7976al
hp lto-5 rw custom labeled data cartridge 20 pack c7975al
hp lto-5 rw custom labeled no case data cartridge 20 pack c7975ac
hp lto-5 worm custom labeled cartridge 20 pack c7975wl
hp lto-4 ultrium 1.6tb rw custom label data cartridge 20 pack c7974al
hp lto-4 ultrium 1.6tb worm custom label data cartridge 20 pack c7974wl
fc and sas host bus
adapters
the msl libraries are certified with multiple fibre channel and sas host bus and adapters. for the most
current list of supported fc and sas hbas, please see the hpe storage hpe data agile bura compatibility
matrix (formerly ebs) and design guide located at: http://www.hpe.com/storage/buracompatibility.
optical cables om4 lc-lc type cables
hp premier flex lc/lc multi-mode om4 2 fiber 1m cable qk732a
hp premier flex lc/lc multi-mode om4 2 fiber 2m cable qk733a
hp premier flex lc/lc multi-mode om4 2 fiber 5m cable qk734a
hp premier flex lc/lc multi-mode om4 2 fiber 15m cable qk735a
hp premier flex lc/lc multi-mode om

مشاهده متن کامل ...

how to write a scientific manuscript
درخواست حذف اطلاعات


how to write a scientific manuscript for publicationgiancarlo maria liumbruno,1 claudio velati,2 patrizio pasqualetti,3 and m imo franchini41immunohaematology, transfusion medicine and clinical pathology units, “san giovanni calibita” fatebenefratelli hospital, afar, rome, italy2immunohaematology and transfusion medicine department, ospedale maggiore pizzardi, azienda usl bologna, bologna, italy3medical statistics & information technology, fatebenefratelli ociation for research, isola tiberina, rome, italy4department of transfusion medicine and haematology, carlo poma hospital, mantua, italycorrespondence: giancarlo maria liumbruno, viale italia, 19, 57126 livorno, italy, e-mail: [email protected] author information ► article notes ► copyright and license information ►received october 31, 2012; accepted december 6, 2012.keywords: medical manuscript, publication, journal article, review, authorshipcopyright © simti servizi srlgo to:introduction
the origins and development of the scientific and technical press can be traced back to 1665 when the first “modern” scientific papers appeared and were characterized by non standardised form and style1. subsequently, nearly 300 years ago2, in an attempt to ensure that articles met the journal’s standards of quality and scientific validity, the peer-reviewed process for scientific manuscripts was born in england and france. since then, there has been an enormous proliferation of scientific journals and manuscripts so that, at present, the numbers of biomedical papers published annually by over 20,000 journals, at a rate of 5,500 new papers per day, far exceeds 2,000,0001,2.
published scientific papers and professional meetings are really essential to disseminate relevant information and research findings. however, most of the abstracts of presentations given at scientific meetings are usually available only in conference proceedings although they have the potential to be subsequently published as articles in peer-reviewed journals.
a recently published cochrane review showed that only 44.5% of almost 30,000 scientific meeting abstracts were published as articles3. no ociation between full publication and authors’ country of origin was detected. factors ociated with full publication included acceptance vs rejection of abstracts for oral or poster presentations, acceptance for oral presentations rather than poster sessions, “positive” results, using the report authors’ definition of “positive”, randomised trial study design and basic rather than clinical research.
possible reasons for failed publication include lack of time, research still underway, problems with co-authors and negative results4. undoubtedly, lack of the necessary skills and experience in the process of writing and publishing is another possible contributing factor also in the field of transfusion medicine although the specialists in this discipline are currently adopting the principles and research methodologies that support evidence-based medicine5, and high-level research is actually being carried out at the same rate as in all medical specialties.
there are three broad groups of manuscripts: original scientific articles, reviews and case reports. although case reports are part of the evidence hierarchy in evidence-based practice, albeit at a lower level, and case series are incorporated in a significant proportion of health technology essments6, this article will address the multiple steps required in writing original articles and reviews with the aim of providing the reader with the necessary tools to prepare, submit and successfully publish a manuscript.go to:the anatomy of a paper: from origin to current format
the history of scientific journals dates from 1665, when the french “journal des sçavans” and the english “philosophical transactions of the royal society” first began systematically publishing research results7. from then on, the initial structure of scientific papers evolved gradually from letters (usually by a single author, with a polite style and contemporarily addressing multiple subjects) and experimental reports (essentially descriptive and presenting experiences and effects in chronological order) to a better structured and more fluent form characterised by an embryonic description of methods and interpretation of results. this evolved way of reporting experiments gradually replaced the letter form.
it was not, however, until the second half of the 19th century that the method description be e fully developed and a comprehensive organi ion of the manuscripts known as “theory-experiment-discussion” emerged1. at the beginning of the last century a gradual decrease of the use of the literary style coincided with a growing standardi ion of the editorial rules that paved the way for the formal established introduction, methods, results, and discussion (imrad) structure of scientific papers, which was adopted in the 1980s.
at present, imrad is the format encouraged for the text of observational (i.e. retrospective/descriptive) and experimental (i.e. randomised controlled) studies by the “uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals” which have become the most important and widely accepted (by over 500 biomedical journals) guide to writing, publishing, and editing in international biomedical publications8. the uniform requirements are released by the international committee of medical journal editors (icmje), an evolution of the initial group of journal editors who met for the first time in vancouver in 1978 and subsequently issued a number of editorial policy statements and guidelines for manuscript submission.
according to the icmje, “this so-called imrad structure is not an arbitrary publication format but rather a direct reflection of the process of scientific discovery”9. in addition it facilitates modular reading and locating of specific information, which is normally found in pre-established sections of an article7.
“long articles may need subheadings within some sections (especially results and discussion) to clarify their content. other types of articles, such as case reports, reviews and editorials, probably need to be formatted differently”9.
this format does not comprise other important and integral parts of the article, such as the title page, abstract, acknowled ents, figures and tables (comprising their legends) and references8.
there are often slight variations from one journal’s format to another but every journal has instructions to authors available on their website and it is crucial that authors and comply with them.
the latest edition of the uniform requirements was updated in april 2010; it is available at the icmje website and is an essential guideline for all authors writing a biomedical manuscript9.go to:consolidated standards of reporting trials
medical science depends entirely on the transparent reporting of clinical trials10.
unfortunately, several reviews have documented deficiencies in reports of clinical trials11–15.
in 1996, a group of scientists and editors developed the consolidated standards of reporting trials (consort) statement which is intended to improve the reporting of a randomised, controlled trial (rct), enabling readers to understand the design of a trial, its conduct, analysis and interpretation and to ess the validity of its results16. it emphasises that this can only be achieved through complete transparency from authors.
the consort statement was updated in 2001 and after the 2007 meeting the statement was further revised and published as consort 2010 which is the most up-to-date version and can be freely viewed and ed through one of the several link to journals available at the consort website under the section “consort statement - s”17. the statement facilitates critical appraisal and interpretation of rct and many leading medical journals and major international editorial groups have endorsed it.
the statement consists of a checklist (25 items) and a flow diagram that authors can use for reporting a rct. the checklist items pertain to the content of the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion and other information. the flow diagram is intended to depict the p age of participants through a rct (enrolment, intervention allocation, follow-up and analysis). it is strongly recommended that the consort statement be used in conjunction with the consort explanation and elaboration document which is available at the consort website under the above mentioned section17.
another major point to consider is the obligation to register clinical trials9.
in september 2004 the icmje changed their policy and decided they would consider trials for publication only if they had been registered before the enrolment of the first participant. the icmje accepts registration in the international registries listed in table i.table iinternational trial registries acceptable to the international committee of medical journal editors and relevant websites.go to:strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology
the reporting of observational studies frequently lacks details and is not clear enough18,19. consequently the quality is poor although many questions in medical research are investigated in observational studies and overwhelming evidence is also ext olated from them20. in fact, observational studies are more suitable for the detection of rare or late adverse effects of treatments, and are more likely to provide an indication of what is achieved in daily medical practice21.
to improve the reporting of observational studies (cohort, case-control or cross-sectional studies) a group of methodologists, researchers and editors developed a useful checklist of 22 items: the strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (strobe) statement21. the checklist items pertain to the content of the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion and other information sections of articles. the strobe checklists can be freely viewed and ed at the strobe website under the section “available checklists”22. they also include a draft checklist for conference abstracts (items to be included when reporting observational studies in a conference abstract) pertaining to the content of the following sections: title, authors, study design, objective, methods, results and conclusion.
the strobe statement provides guidance to authors on how to improve the reporting of observational studies, it facilitates critical appraisal and interpretation of studies and is widely supported by reviewers, a growing number of biomedical journal editors and readers.
the strobe checklist is best used in conjunction with an explanation and elaboration article which discusses each of the 22 checklist items, gives methodological background, publishes examples of transparent reporting and is freely available at the strobe statement website under the above mentioned section through the link with the journals in which the document has been published (plos medicine, annals of internal medicine and epidemiology)22.go to:reviews
as review articles comprehensively cover a specific biomedical topic and justify future research directions, they require that the author extensively review and master the literature and then develop some general statements and conclusions with practical implications for patients’ care23,24. in addition, they should provide an updated reference for those readers interested in broadening their knowledge of critical issues. review articles are, therefore, important not only for younger physicians early in their career but also for senior academic staff as they represent a tool for intellectual enrichment and enhancement of the standards of research. writing a review requires knowledge and continuous improvement of qualifications in line with the accumulation of better and updated scientific literature evidence. for this reason, journals often invite experts on a specific topic to write a review article. however, authors can also ask editors if they would be interested in publishing a review article on a particular, topical, relevant and debated issue.
as reviews are the most accessed among the various types of articles and contribute substantially to the impact factor of journals, obviously they are welcomed and encouraged by many journals and have become an inseparable part of the writing scientific culture.
the three basic types of literature reviews are narrative reviews (which include editorials, commentaries and narrative overviews or non-systematic narrative reviews), qualitative systematic reviews and quantitative systematic reviews (meta-analyses) (table ii)25.table iisummary of the types of literature reviews.go to:editorials
editorials, typically written by the editor of the journal or an invited guest, may be a narrative review if the author retrieves and summarises information about a particular topic for the reader25. usually, these types of narrative reviews are based upon a short, select and narrowly focused review of only a few papers. however, editorials may be no more than the editor’s comments regarding a current issue of the journal or a current event in health care and do not, therefore, automatically qualify as narrative reviews.go to:commentaries
commentaries may also be written as a narrative review; however, they are typically written with a particular opinion being expressed25. research methodology is not usually presented in these articles which reflect the author’s biased synthesis of other articles. commentaries are usually shorter than a full-length review article and the author should be an expert in the content area of the commentary. usually, the purpose of a commentary is to stimulate academic debate between the journal’s readers.go to:narrative reviews
non-systematic narrative reviews are comprehensive narrative syntheses of previously published information26. this type of literature review reports the author’s findings in a condensed format that typically summarises the contents of each article. authors of narrative overviews are often acknowledged experts in the field and have conducted research themselves. editors sometimes solicit narrative overviews from specific authors in order to bring certain issues to light. although the bibliog hic research methodology is an obligatory section in systematic reviews and meta-analyses, it is also becoming an inseparable part of narrative literature reviews. providing information on the databases accessed, terms, inclusion and exclusion criteria and time limits adds objectivity to the main messages and conclusions. it is advisable to use only credible databases (at least two or three) which only select high-quality publications that contain the most up-to-date information (see table iii)24. the best way to organise the analysis of the sources in the main text of a narrative biomedical review is to transform information from the retrieved publications into bibliog hic cards with a short description of the main results, level of evidence, strengths and limitations of each study and relevance to each section of the manuscript. furthermore, the readability of a review can be improved by including a few self-explanatory tables, boxes, and figures synthesising essential information and conveying original messages24. we also suggest the use of software packages for reference mana ent, which saves time during the multiple revisions.table iiimain online libraries, catalogues and databases.
in conclusion, a successful narrative review should have the following characteristics: be well-structured, synthesise the available evidence pertaining to the topic, convey a clear message and draw conclusions supported by data analysis.go to:qualitative systematic reviews
qualitative systematic reviews are a type of literature review that employ detailed, rigorous and explicit methods and are, therefore, a more powerful evidence-based source to garner clinical information than narrative reviews, case reports, case series, and poorly conducted cohort studies. a detailed bibliog hic research based upon a focused question or purpose is the peculiar characteristic of a systematic review27. these reviews are called qualitative because the process by which the individual studies are integrated includes a summary and critique of the findings derived from systematic methods, but does not statistically combine the results of all of the studies reviewed.go to:quantitative systematic reviews
a quantitative systematic review or meta-analysis critically evaluates each paper and statistically combines the results of the studies28. the authors of a meta-analysis employ all of the rigorous methodology of qualitative systematic reviews and, in addition, gather the original patients’ data from each of the studies under review, pool it all together in a database and produce the appropriate statistics on this larger sample. while this process leads to a more powerful and generalizable conclusion, which is the strength of the meta-analysis, on the other hand it can pool together studies that are very heterogeneous which is the main drawback of a quantitative systematic review. nevertheless, well-executed quantitative systematic reviews constitute the highest level of evidence for medical decision making28.
the recently published preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (prisma) statement aims to help improve reporting, focusing on systematic reviews of rct. the statement consists of a checklist of 27 essential items for transparent reporting and a flow diagram for the phases of study selection and is accompanied by the prisma explanation and elaboration document, which, among other things, provides examples of good reporting for the various review sections29.
a further guidance on the reporting of systematic reviews has been published by the cochrane collaboration, an international organi ion that prepares, updates and publishes systematic reviews of the effects of health-care interventions following a standardised format30.go to:preparing to write a manuscript background information
the question or hypothesis formulated by the investigator is the common starting point to search the relevant published literature for an answer31. gathering the background information through an extensive literature search relevant to the topic of interest is the subsequent essential step. peer reviewers are often experts and not citing important articles poses the manuscript at risk of rejection. it is advisable to consult at least two or three credible databases (see table iii) to identify the crucial relevant articles and to track down “landmark” articles. in addition, avoid using papers published more than 10 years ago and do not rely on just the abstracts but obtain full-text articles. articles relevant to the research topic and published in the journal in which the paper is to be submitted should be reviewed and cited32.
last but not least, the bibliog hical search should also aim at finding recently published articles similar to the one the author intends to submit. in fact, a journal can be less interested in publishing such a manuscript unless the results reflect new or different findings.go to:target journal
it can be worth thinking about this issue before starting to write as a proper choice of the journal can affect not only the writing style but also the ease of publication and the prompt dissemination of research. ideally, the target journal should be the one in which similar work has been published32.
electronic and open-access journals are the latest resources for publishing and data dissemination available on the scientific journal horizon.
it is also worth considering an appropriate level of impact factor or journal quality. the impact factor of a journal is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to recent articles published in science and social science journals. it is determined by the ratio of the number of citations of papers from that journal in the whole of the biomedical literature over a 2-year period. it is frequently used as a for the relative importance of a journal within its field, with journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those with lower ones.
it is also extremely important to read the instructions to authors section of the selected journal carefully. in fact, although there is a general style for most biomedical journals as agreed by the icmje in the uniform requirements9, individual journals may differ slightly in detail.go to:authorship
it is always best to sort out authorship before writing a manuscript as authorship order can be a source of problems once the paper has been written23.
several guidelines relating to authorship are available and this issue has been extensively addressed in a recently published review article by elizabeth wager33. most guidelines on the authorship of scientific articles are focused more on creative and intellectual aspects of research than on routine or technical contributions.
alhough not universally accepted, the authorship criteria suggested by the icmje are the ones most widely promoted by medical journals9. according to these criteria, co-authors should: (i) substantially contribute to conception and design of the study, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (ii) draft the article or revise it critically for important intellectual content; and (iii) approve the final version.
the authors are listed in decreasing order of their contribution and the senior author, or mentor, should be the last but this convention has never been codified33.
it is advisable to provide accurate affiliations and contacts as they will be published on pubmed as well as in the journal but it is also important to agree on the corresponding author who should have full access to the study data and through the provided e-mail address will be the link with the scientific community for the future1.go to:ethical issues
in addition to the authorship discussed above, there are several ethical issues involved in writing a paper. these include fabrication of data, duplicate publication, plagiarism, misuse of statistics, manipulation of images and inadequate or obviously false citations31.
a must-read for all those who are involved in any editorial activity are the guidelines released by the committee on publication ethics (cope) which is a forum for editors and publishers of peer-reviewed journals to discuss all aspects of publication ethics34. cope provides advice to editors and publishers on all aspects of publication ethics and, in particular, how to handle cases of research and publication misconduct.go to:writing the manuscript
several models for the initial draft exist. a useful algorithm for writing a scientific manuscript is the one recently published by o’connor and holmquist35. according to these authors, the writing should start with making figures and tables, and then proceed with summary statements (the conclusions summarising the major contributions of the manuscript to the scientific community), identification of the audience, materials and methods, results, discussion, references, introduction, title and conclusion. the aim of this algorithm is to give the structural backbone to the manuscript and is designed to overcome writer’s block and to ist scientists who are not native english speakers.
a further and more general strategy to increase productivity during the early phases of manuscript writing is to ignore at the outset all the details that can be approached later such as structure, grammar and spelling.
the sequence of writing should address the following core sections of the paper in the order from first to last: methods, results, discussion and introduction31,36,37.
“like every well-written story, a scientific manuscript should have a beginning (introduction), middle (materials and methods), and an end (results). the discussion (the moral of the story) puts the study in perspective. the abstract is an opening summary of the story and the title gives the story a name”38. however, as correctly pointed out by michael mckay, “writing is not necessarily in the temporal order of the final document (i.e. the imrad format)”39.
the take-home messages are, therefore: (i) a clear understanding of the essential components of each of these sections is critical to the successful composition of a scientific manuscript; (ii) the proper order of writing greatly facilitates the ease of writing; (iii) the approach to writing can be customised by authors on the basis both of the subject they are dealing with and their personal experience; (iv) the consort16,17, strobe21,22 or prisma29 statement must be used as a guidance document for the appropriate reporting of the type of study the authors are dealing with31,32,38.
in the following part of this paper the different sections of a manuscript will be dealt with in the order they are presented in the final document.go to:title, keywords and abstract
the title is determinant for the indexing process of the article and greatly contributes to the visibility of the paper. it should reflect the essence of the article, its novelty and its relevance to the biomedical field it deals with24. it should be clear, brief, specific, not include jargon or non-standard and unexplained abbreviations, reflect the purpose of the study and state the issue(s) addressed rather than the conclusions38. indicative titles are, therefore, better than declarative ones. obviously, the title and abstract should correlate with each other.
available evidence suggests that the presence of a colon in the title positively correlates with the number of citations40. in other words, the more specific and accurate the description of the content is, the more chance the manuscript has of being cited38.
the title of systematic reviews should ideally follow the participants, interventions, comparisons, outcomes, and study design (picos) approach, and include the terms “systematic review”, “meta-analysis”, or both41.
the keywords enable the database searching of the article and should be provided in compliance with the instructions to authors. a careful choice from the medical subject headings (mesh) in the national library of medicine (nlm) controlled vocabulary thesaurus used for indexing articles in pubmed greatly increases the chances the paper is retrieved and cited by other authors42.
the abstract is the last section to be written but it is the most important part of a paper because it is usually the first to be read and readers use the information contained in it to decide whether to read the whole article or not. it should be a concise summary of the manuscript and no longer than specified in the instructions to authors. usually, abstracts do not contain references and abbreviations and acronyms are not always allowed. if required, it has to be structured in a specific way. for example, original articles submitted to blood transfusion, require an abstract of no more than 2,000 characters (including spaces), structured as follows: background, materials and methods, results, discussion43.
a good abstract should be easy to understand and broadly appealing, informative but not too detailed. it can start with a sentence or two outlining the work; then the disease and/or system studied must be introduced and what was previously unknown has to be stated in order to provide a brief overview of the current state-of-the art knowledge on the issue. the methods must be summarised without too many details; the major findings must be clearly indicated and followed by a sentence or two showing the major implications of the paper that must be consistent with the study conclusions without overestimating their possible relevance44. in the abstract the present tense should be used to refer to facts already established in the field, while the findings from the current study should be dealt with in the past tense.go to:introduction
the aim of the introduction is to introduce the topic to the readers in a straightforward way, avoiding excessive wordiness42. for this reason it should be short and focused, comprising approximately three parag hs in one page37.
the first parag h should mention the questions or issues that outline the background of the study and establish, using the present tense, the context, relevance, or nature of the problem, question, or purpose (what is known)23,37.
the second parag h may include the importance of the problem and unclear issues (what is unknown).
the last parag h should state the rationale, hypothesis, main objective, or purpose thus clearly identifying the hypothesis to be treated and the questions addressed in the manuscript (why the study was done).
one of the most common mistakes is the failure to make a clear statement of purpose. this is because many research projects, especially retrospective clinical studies, do not start at the beginning (with the identification of a specific question, followed by methods and data collection) but begin by collecting data without first identifying a specific question to be addressed that must in any case be established before beginning to write38. data or conclusions from the study should not be presented or anticipated in the introduction section.
writing the introduction at the end of the process prevents any block and it is easier after the methods, results and discussion have been completed.go to:materials and methods
the methods section is one of the most important parts of a scientific manuscript and its aim is to give the reader all the necessary details to replicate the study.
consort16,17, strobe21,22 and prisma29 statements provide a guideline relevant to the particular type of study2,42.
the two essential elements of this section are a clear presentation of the study design and the identification and description of the measurement parameters used to evaluate the purpose of the study.
it is, therefore, necessary to provide a thorough explanation of the research methodology, including the study design, data collection, analysis principles and rationale. special attention should be paid to the sample selection, including inclusion and exclusion criteria and to any relevant ethical considerations. a description of the randomi ion or other group ignment methods used should be included, as should be the pre-specified primary and secondary outcome(s) and other variables.
according to the uniform requirements9, in the case of experimental/clinical reports involving patients or volunteers, the authors must provide information about institutional, regulatory and ethical committee authori ion, informed consent from patients and volunteers and the observance of the latest release of the helsinki declaration45.
when reporting experiments on animals, authors should state which institutional authority granted approval for the animal experiments9.
finally, in addition to describing and identifying all the measurement parameters used, it is also important to describe any unusual statistical methodology applied, how subjects were recruited and compen ed and how compliance was measured (if applicable).go to:results
the results section consists of the organised presentation of the collected data. all measurements that the authors described in the materials and methods section must be reported in the results section and be presented in the same order as they were in that section35. the past tense should be used as results were obtained in the past. author(s) must ensure that they use proper words when describing the relationship between data or variables. these “data relation words” should be turned into “cause/effect logic and mechanistic words” in the discussion section. a clear example of the use of this appropriate language can be found in the article by o’connor35.
this section should include only data, including negative findings, and not background or methods or results of measurements that were not described in the methods section2. the interpretation of presented data must not be included in this section.
results for primary and secondary outcomes can be reported using tables and figures for additional clarity. the rationale for end-point selection and the reason for the non-collection of information on important non-measured variables must be explained35.
figures and tables should be simple, expand text information rather than repeat it, be consistent with reported data and summarise them23. in addition, they should be comprehensible on their own, that is, with only title, footnotes, abbreviations and comments.
references in this section should be limited to methods developed in the manuscript or to similar methods reported in the literature.
patients’ anonymity is essential unless consent for publication is obtained.go to:discussion
the main objective of the discussion is to explain the meaning of the results.
this section should be structured as if it were a natural flow of ideas and should start with a simple statement of the key findings and whether they are consistent with the study objectives enunciated in the last parag h of the introduction. the strengths and the limitations of the research and what the study adds to current knowledge should then be addressed42.
through logical arguments, the authors should convert the relations of the variables stated in the results section into mechanistic interpretations of cause and effect using the present tense as these relations do exist at present35. in addition, they should describe how the results are consistent or not with similar studies and discuss any confounding factors and their impact.
they should avoid excessive wordiness and other commonly made errors such as38: (i) including information unrelated to the stated purpose of the article; (ii) repeating detailed data previously presented in the results section; (iii) not interpreting and not critically analysing results of other studies reviewed and cited but rather just repeating their findings; (iv) presenting new data or new details about techniques and enrolment criteria, and (v) overstating the interpretation of the results.
another common mistake is to forget to criticise the research described in the manuscript by highlighting the limitations of the study. the value of a scientific article is enhanced not only by showing the strengths but also the weak points of the evidence reported in the paper.go to:conclusion
the conclusion is a separate, last parag h that should present a concise and clear “take home” message avoiding repetition of concepts already expressed32. the authors should also avoid excessive generalizations of the implications of the study and remember that except for rct there can only be testable hypotheses and observed ociations, rather than rigorous proof of cause and effect42. possible implications for current clinical practice or recommendations should be addressed only if appropriate.
finally, the areas for possible improvement with future studies should be addressed avoiding ambiguous comments such as “there is a need for further research” and if there is a real need for further studies on the topic it is strongly advisable to be specific about the type of research suggested.go to:acknowled ents
all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an acknowled ents section9. the authors should, therefore, add a statement on the type of istance, if any, received from the sponsor or the sponsor’s representative and include the names of any person who provided technical help, writing istance, editorial support or any type of participation in writing the manuscript.
in addition, “when submitting a manuscript authored by a group, the corresponding author should clearly indicate the preferred citation and identify all individual authors as well as the group name. journals generally list other members of the group in the acknowledgments. the nlm indexes the group name and the names of individuals the group has identified as being directly responsible for the manuscript; it also lists the names of collaborators if they are listed in acknowledgments”9.go to:references
the first suggestion is to follow the journal’s policies and formatting instructions, including those for books and web-based references. other general considerations related to references, including the following ones, can be found in the uniform requirements9.
references to review articles are an efficient way to guide readers to a body of literature but they do not always reflect original work accurately. papers accepted but not yet published should be designated as “in press” or “forthcoming” and information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be cited in the text as “unpublished observations”.
avoid using abstracts as references and citing a “personal communication” unless it provides essential information not available from a public source. in this case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text. do not include manuscripts “in submission”
in addition it is important to remember that “authors are responsible for checking that none of the references cite retracted articles except in the context of referring to the retraction. authors can identify retracted articles in medline by using the following search term, where pt in square brackets stands for publication type: retracted publication [pt] in pubmed”9. last but not least, remember that if a reviewer does not have access to any references he or she can ask the author for a full (pdf) copy of the relevant works.go to:tips for successful revision of a manuscript
most papers are accepted after some degree of revision. in some cases, a manuscript may be rejected after internal and editorial review only.
the process of revising a manuscript and successfully responding to the comments of reviewers and editor can be challenging. little has been published addressing the issue of effectively revising a manuscript according to the (minor or major) comments of reviewers. this topic was recently extensively and pragmatically covered by james m. provenzale46. the ten principles for revising a manuscript suggested by the author are reported in table iv.table ivten principles for revising a manuscript suggested by james m. provenzale46.go to:conclusion
many manuscripts are not published simply because the authors have not followed the few simple rules needed to write a good article. we hope that this paper provides the reader with the basic steps to build a draft manuscript and an outline of the process needed for publishing a manuscript. however, in table v we summarise the ten principles we strongly recommend to comply with in order to improve the likelihood of publication of a scientific manuscript47.table vten principles to improve the likelihood of publication of a scientific manuscript, suggested by james m. provenzale47.go to:footnotes

the authors declare no conflicts of interest.
go to:references1. audisio ra, stahel ra, aapro ms, et al. successful publishing: how to get your paper accepted. surg oncol. 2009;18:350–6.[pubmed]2. singer aj, hollander je. how to write a manuscript. j emerg med. 2009;36:89–93.[pubmed]3. scherer rw, langenberg p, von elm e. full publication of results initially presented in abstracts. cochrane database syst rev. 2007;2:mr000005.[pubmed]4. sprague s, bhandari m, devereaux pj, et al. barriers to full-text publication following presentation of abstracts at annual orthopaedic meetings. j bone joint surg am. 2003;85-a:158–63.[pubmed]5. murphy mf, brunskill s, stanworth s, et al. the strength and the weaknesses of the evidence base for transfusion medicine. isbt sci ser. 2007;2:204–8.6. dalziel k, round a, stein k, et al. do the findings of case series studies vary significantly according to methodological characteristics? health technol ess. 2005;9:1–202.[pubmed]7. kronick da. a history of scientific and technical periodicals: the origins and development of the scientific and technical press 1665–1790. 2nd ed. metuchen, nj: scarecrow; 1976. 8. barron jp. the uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals recommended by the international committee of medical journal editors. chest. 2006;129:1098–9.[pubmed]9. international committee of medical journal editors. uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. [last accessed on 24/10/2012]. updated april 2010. available at: http://www.icmje.org/urm_full.pdf.10. rennie d. consort revised: improving the reporting of randomized trials. jama. 2001;285:2006–7.[pubmed]11. moher d, fortin p, jadad ar, et al. completeness of reporting of trials published in languages other than english: implications for conduct and reporting of systematic reviews. lancet. 1996;347:363–6.[pubmed]12. junker ca. adherence to published standards of reporting: a comparison of placebo-controlled trials published in english or german. jama. 1998;280:247–9.[pubmed]13. chan aw, altman dg. epidemiology and reporting of randomised trials published in pubmed journals. lancet. 2005;365:1159–62.[pubmed]14. lai ty, wong vw, lam rf, et al. quality of reporting of key methodological items of randomized controlled trials in clinical ophthalmic journals. ophthalmic epidemiol. 2007;14:390–8.[pubmed]15. hopewell s, dutton s, yu lm, et al. the quality of reports of randomised trials in 2000 and 2006: comparative study of articles indexed in pubmed. bmj. 2010;340:c723. [ free article][pubmed]16. moher d, hopewell s, schulz kf, et al. consort 2010 explanation and elaboration: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. bmj. 2010;340:c869. [ free article][pubmed]17. consort. transparent reporting of trials. [accessed on 27/10/2012]. available at: http://www.consort-statement.org/home/18. po sj, collier tj, dandreo kj, et al. issues in the reporting of epidemiological studies: a survey of recent practice. bmj. 2004;329:883. [ free article][pubmed]19. tooth l, ware r, bain c, et al. quality of reporting of observational longitudinal research. am j epidemiol. 2005;161:280–288.[pubmed]20. guyatt g, schünemann hj, cook d, et al. applying the grades of recommendation for antithrombotic and thrombolytic the y. chest. 2004;126:s179–87.[pubmed]21. von elm e, altman dg, egger m, et al. the strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (strobe) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. plos med. 2007;4:e296. [ free article][pubmed]22. strobe statement. strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology. [accessed on 27/10/2012]. available at: http://www.strobe-statement.org/index.php?id=strobe-home.23. holmes dr, jr, hodgson pk, nishimura ra, simari rd. manuscript preparation and publication. circulation. 2009;120:906–13.[pubmed]24. gasparyan ay, ayvazyan l, blackmore h, kitas gd. writing a narrative biomedical review: considerations for authors, peer reviewers, and editors. rheumatol int. 2011;31:1409–17.[pubmed]25. green bn, johnson cd, adams a. writing narrative literature reviews for peer-reviewed journals: secrets of the trade. j chiropr med. 2006;5:101–17. [ free article][pubmed]26. oxman ad, cook dj, guyatt gh. users’ guides to the medical literature, vi. how to use an overview. jama. 1994;272:1367–71.[pubmed]27. mulrow cd. the medical review article: state of the science. ann intern med. 1987;106:485–8.[pubmed]28. wieseler b, mcgauran n. reporting a systematic review. chest. 2010;137:1240–6.[pubmed]29. moher d, liberati a, tetzlaff j, altman dg. prisma group. preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the prisma statement. plos med. 2009;6:e1000097. [ free article][pubmed]30. higgins jpt, green s. cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. 2011. [accessed on 24/10/2012]. available at: http://www.cochrane-handbook.org/31. chernick v. how to get your paper accepted for publication. paediatr respir rev. 2012;13:130–2.[pubmed]32. veness m. strategies to successfully publish your first manuscript. j med imaging radiat oncol. 2010;54:395–400.[pubmed]33. wager e. recognition, reward and responsibility: why the authorship of scientific papers matters. maturitas. 2009;62:109–12.[pubmed]34. committee on publication ethics. guidelines. [accessed on 24/10/2012]. available at: http://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines.35. o’connor tr, holmquist gp. algorithm for writing a scientific manuscript. biochem mol biol educ. 2009;37:344–8.[pubmed]36. rosenfeldt fl, dowling jt, pepe s, fullerton mj. how to write a paper for publication. heart lung circ. 2000;9:82–7.[pubmed]37. johnson tm. tips on how to write a paper. j am acad dermatol. 2008;59:1064–9.[pubmed]38. manske pr. structure and format of peer-reviewed scientific manuscripts. j hand surg am. 2006;31:1051–5.[pubmed]39. mckay m. strategies to successfully publish your first manuscript [letter] j med imaging radiat oncol. 2011;55:101–2.[pubmed]40. jacques ts, sebire nj. the impact of article titles on citation hits: an analysis of general and specialist medical journals. jrsm short rep. 2010;1:2. [ free article][pubmed]41. liberati a, altman dg, tetzlaff j, et al. the prisma statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. plos med. 2009;6:e1000100. [ free article][pubmed]42. chipperfield l, citrome l, clark j, et al. authors’ submission toolkit: a practical guide to getting your research published. curr med res opin. 2010;26:1967–82.[pubmed]43. blood transfusion. instruction to authors. [accessed on 24/10/2012]. available at: http://www.bloodtransfusion.it/linee.aspx.44. neill us. how to write a scientific masterpiece. j clin invest. 2007;117:3599–602. [ free article][pubmed]45. world medical ociation declaration of helsinki. ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. oct, 2008. [accessed on 24/10/2012]. available at: http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/17c.pdf.46. provenzale jm. revising a manuscript: ten principles to guide success for publication. ajr am j roentgenol. 2010;195:w382–7.[pubmed]47. provenzale jm. ten principles to improve the likelihood of publication of a scientific manuscript. ajr am j roentgenol. 2007;188:1179–82.[pubmed]introductionthe anatomy of a paper: from origin to current formatconsolidated standards of reporting trialsstrengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiologyreviewseditorialscommentariesnarrative reviewsqualitative systematic reviewsquantitative systematic reviewspreparing to write a manuscript background informationtarget journalauthorshipethical issueswriting the manuscripttitle, keywords and abstractintroductionmaterials and methodsresultsdiscussionconclusionacknowled entsreferencestips for successful revision of a manuscriptconclusionfootnotesreferencesarticles from blood transfusion are provided here courtesy of simti servizi================ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov//



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a nced analytics feature makes use of predictive analytics to predict the likelihood of failures,
bottlenecks and load balancing issues in the tape infrastructure. it has unique capabilities of analytics
around drive health and life as well as cartridge health and life.
tape ure a nced is well integrated into hpe command view tl software for a single pane of
gl mana ent, monitoring and analytics. hpe tape ure a nced software provides a
dashboard display with pie charts, live and historical g hs for performance, health and utilization
data, and highlights issues in the tape infrastructure.
note: commandview tl is a required pre-requisite for tape ure a nced.
easy installation the msl tape libraries are shipped as a rack-ready unit. the rack mount hardware included with the
library allows installation in a variety of hpe racks. for more information on the hpe rack offerings,
please see the following url:
http:/www.hpe.com/info/rackandpower.html
partitioning the msl tape libraries now include the ability to be configured as a partitioned library. msl libraries
may be configured with up to one partition per drive; four partitions if four drives are installed.
partitioning allows each partitioned library to be presented to the host as an independent library,
separate from other partitions in the library. hosts for each partition own independent sets of media
and can use isv software that is different from the other partitions allowing maximum flexibility and
utilization of the msl library.
proven reliability with a rating of 2,000,000 robot load/unload cycles, the msl tape libraries provides necessary high
reliability for today's demanding environment. to improve reliability and longevity, all hpe ultrium
products feature data rate matching (drm). this allows the tape drive to dynamically and
continuously adjust the speed of the drive, to match the speed of the host or network. this increases
performance, reduces mechanical wear on the tape drive and extends tape life.
disaster recovery and
security
removable media also has the a ntage that data is held 'offline' which means that archive data on
tape has the additional level of protection from the threats to on-line data from viruses, ers and
cyber-attacks. lto-6 ultrium tape drives include hardware based data encryption to prevent
unauthorized access to data at rest and cartridges are available with write-once-read-many (worm)
capability to prevent accidental overwriting of data archived on the tape. both worm and hardware
data encryption features help organizations to comply with increased data security regulations
data encryption the hpe msl tape libraries offers multiple options for data encryption, depending on the
requirements for policy, regulation, compliance, and centralized key mana ent.
protect the confidentiality and integrity of your data:
the hpe 1/8 g2 & msl encryption kit provides a library-enabled encryption solution that greatly
enhances data privacy, confidentiality, and integrity of your critical business data while supporting
compliance requirements. while there are a wide range of encryption solutions available, the hpe
1/8 g2 & msl encryption kit is intended to be an easy and affordable library-enabled solution for
small businesses. 
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
product highlights
page 4
the encryption kit includes two usb key server tokens, product documentation, and firmware
support. one encryption kit is needed per library or autoloader and it must be physically accessible
so that the usb token can be inserted into the automation device. one of the two tokens will plug
into the usb port in the autoloader or library and will generate and maintain encryption keys for the
lto-7, lto-6, lto-5 and lto-4 drives/libraries. the usb key server token uses a hardware
random number generator, p word authentication, and digital envelopes for strong encryption
keys and security operations. the encryption kit provides a self-contained solution for autoloaders
and msl libraries with no additional software, pcs, or servers required or involved.
protect critical data across an enterprise:
to meet requirements for larger scale encryption key managers, the hpe msl tape libraries
supports kmip 1.2 compliant key managers. with the purchase of the kmip encryption license, the
1/8 g2 tape autoloader and msl libraries will be able to request encryption keys from kmip 1.2
compliant key managers, for data encryption and key mana ent.
for more information on all supported key mana ent servers, please visit:
http://www.hpe.com/storage/buracompatibility
serviceability modular in design, the msl tape libraries has easily replaceable components minimizing the meantime-to-repair
on the unit. replaceable components include the tape drive, the magazines, the power
supply and the controller board. hpe library and tape tools (l&tt) provides easy access to thee msl
error log, generates support tickets, and enables firmware s. l&tt can be ed for
free at: http://www.hpe.com/support/tapetools.
lto ultrium technology hpe lto (linear tape open) ultrium tape drives use best of breed technology. by taking the best
features from other tape technologies and combining them into a single new technology, ultrium tape
drives are in a league of their own. inclusion of innovative features such as adaptive tape speed (ats)
ensure that ultrium drives can meet the performance and reliability demands of a library environment.
lto technology is an open industry standard format; thus data written on hpe ultrium tape drives
can be interchanged directly with ultrium tape drives from other vendors.
hpe lto tape drives and automation products are founded on the lto open standard and adhere to
the published lto format roadmap to generation 8 at 32tb of compressed capacity per cartridge by
generation 8. with in-built two generation backwards compatibility, lto customers can be ured of
investment protection.
data rate matching data rate matching combines sophisticated buffer mana ent with variable tape drive motor speeds
to match the tape drive transfer rate to the host output. . this feature ensures that the tape drive
continues to stream data regardless of the environment, and brings three big a ntages:
• it optimizes performance and maximizes overall efficiency, allowing the drive to respond
immediately to any data speed changes from the host.
• it minimizes rewinding and repositioning of the tape, significantly reducing physical wear and
increasing reliability.
• it minimizes the power requirements for the drive by reducing the number of repositions
needed.
lto ultrium tape drive ats data transfer rate range (native)
hpe lto-7 ultrium 15000 101 to 300 mb/s
hpe lto-6 ultrium 6250 54 to 160 mb/s
hpe lto-5 ultrium 3280/3000 47 to 140 mb/s
hpe lto-4 ultrium 1840 40 to 120 mb/s
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
product highlights
page 5
hpe lto-4 ultrium 1760 35 to 80 mb/s
hpe lto-3 ultrium 920 26 to 60 mb/s
hpe ultrium worm critical to the success of data retention policies in highly regulated environments is the ability to store
and manage data in an unalterable state. following stringent guidelines set forth by regulatory
agencies such as the sec and hippa, it organizations must now integrate new solutions and policies
that can verify the integrity of stored data for periods that can extend well beyond seven years.
every generation of lto ultrium since lto-3 tape drives feature the ability to archive and store data
in a read-only, non-rewriteable format that meets the most stringent regulatory guidelines. using a
combination of integrated fail-safe features in the drive firmware, cartridge memory, and tape
formatting, lto ultrium provides the ability to archive large amounts of data for periods of up to 30
years in a secure, untampered state. ultrium tape drives include support for both rewritable and worm
media providing for a secure, long-term archiving solution into any data protection strategy. lto
ultrium worm provides the following a ntages:
• a single drive to support all backup and archiving needs
• two distinctive tape cartridges to easily distinguish and manage both rewriteable and worm
data cartridges
• a specially designed worm data cartridge with multiple integrated fail-safe features to
prevent accidental or intentional overwriting of data
• high-capacity, low-cost hpe worm media that can store up to 6.25 tb (2.5:1 compression)
of data on a single data cartridge
• support from many backup and archiving software vendors, providing the most
comprehensive and mainstream support in the industry
• the lto open standard that offers greater choice and compatibility across all third- and
fourth-generation ultrium products
note: while all hpe lto-7, lto-6, lto-5, lto-4, and lto-3 ultrium tape drives support lto
ultrium worm media, some lto ultrium tape drives from other manufacturers may not include
read and write support for lto ultrium worm media. for non-hpe lto ultrium tape drives, please
check the manufacturers' specifications to ensure this support is provided if you are using your
worm media. if worm support is not provided, the drive will eject the worm tape cartridge
immediately upon insertion into to the tape drive
hpe data protector
software
hpe data protector software automates high performance backup and recovery, from disk or tape,
over unlimited distances, to enable 24x7 business continuity and improve it resource utilization. data
protector software responds to the pressure for lower it costs and greater operational efficiency by
offering acquisition and deployment costs which are 30 - 70 % less than competition. the license
model is very simple and easy to understand, helping to reduce complexity. extensive scalability and
features for continuous backup and recovery operations enable growth with a single product. a superb
solution, no other software can integrate better with the hewlett packard enterprise market-leading
line of disk and tape family of products, as well as with other heterogeneous storage infrastructures. as
an integral component of the fast-growing hewlett packard enterprise software portfolio, which
includes storage resource mana ent, archiving, replication, and device mana ent software, data
protector software also fully integrates with the hpe mana ent solutions, allowing managing data
protection as an essential element of an overall it service. this solution offers the unique a ntage of
being able to source hardware, software, and award winning service offerings from a single, trusted
source.
data protector software simplifies the use of complex backup and recovery procedures with the fastest
installation, automated routine tasks, and easy-to-use features. the centralized multi-site mana ent
easily allows implementing multi-site changes, adapting in real time to changing business
requirements. appropriate for medium and large companies in any industry, data protector software is 
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
product highlights
page 6
the ideal solution to reduce it costs and complexity while remaining reliable and scalable to grow from
single server environments to the largest distributed enterprise infrastructures.
for further information, please visit our web page at: http://www.hpe.com/storage/dataprotector
hpe storeopen
automation
hpe storeopen automation is a free able application that extends the ltfs capability to
hpe autoloaders, hpe msl and esl tape libraries. by simply mounting the tape autoloader or library
as a file system, the intuitive hpe storeopen automation interface makes it easier to copy, rename,
create or move files. when a cartridge folder is selected for use, that tape is automatically moved to an
available tape drive.
when two drives are present, hpe storeopen automation supports tape-to-tape operations. hpe
storeopen automation takes a ntage of other standard hpe tape library features including data
encryption and hpe tape ure.
for more information, including user guide, s and compatibility, visit:
http://www.hpe.com/storage/hpstoreopen
hpe storeever archive
manager
80% of your data is rarely or never accessed after 90 days of creation. however, the business value of
much of this data means it still has to be retained and readily available over extended periods of time.
imagine the efficiencies and risk reduction you could achieve by moving this static data from your tier
1 production environment to an intelligent archive optimized for easy access, low cost and reliable
long-term retention? hpe storeever archive manager software solutions creates an intelligent archive
by combining the accessibility of flash with the economics, scalability and reliability of tape. it enables
you to easily save, search, and retrieve data directly from a cost effective and self-protecting hpe
storeever archive tier. hpe storeever archive manager software solutions lets you easily identify and
migrate inactive data from your primary storage and backup cycle automatically and based on policy.
you can maintain transparent access to your data, even after it has been archived. hpe storeever
archive manager software solutions stores data in the linear tape file system (ltfs) open standard,
supporting data transportability and long-term data accessibility.
for further information, please visit our web page at:
https://www.hpe.com/storage/archivemanager
hpe library and tape
tools
the msl tape libraries are supported on hp's industry-leading diagnostic tool - hpe library and
tape tools (l&tt). l&tt is a single, convenient program that is easy to install and simple to operate.
l&tt's intuitive user interface eliminates the need for training and deploys in less than five minutes.
this robust diagnostic tool is designed for both the experienced professional and the untrained
administrator. it ensures product integrity through self-diagnostics and fast resolution to device
concerns. additional information on l&tt plus information can be found at:
http://www.hpe.com/support/tapetools.
hpe storage media hewlett packard enterprise recommends that you use hp-branded cartridges in the msl tape
libraries to ure the highest level of protection for your valuable data. the test program for hewlett
packard enterprise media is the most thorough and comprehensive in the industry.
all hpe cartridges must isfy an exhaustive battery of additional tests that relate directly to real life
situations, where real data and real businesses are at stake. the benefit of the hewlett packard
enterprise brand specification for media is consistent quality. through the testing of thousands of hpe
drives and hpe cartridges, the ideal formulation for backup performance is defined and then
continuously monitored. this hugely resource-intensive process is unique to hewlett packard
enterprise and affords deep insight into the hp+hpe backup solution for a wide range of
environments and duty cycles. your best choice for ease of support and maximum dependability is to
use hp-branded ultrium cartridges at all times. correctly labeling your media will allow the library to
quickly determine media and drive compatibility. 
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
product highlights
page 7
factory express
portfolio for servers and
storage
hpe factory express offers configuration, customization, integration and deployment services for hpe
servers and storage products. customers can choose how their factory solutions are built, tested,
integrated, shipped and deployed. customization must comply with all relevant product specifications
and factory supported configurations. factory express offers service packages for simple configuration,
racking, installation, complex configuration and design services as well as individual factory services,
such as image loading, et tagging, and custom packaging. hewlett packard enterprise products
supported through factory express include a wide array of servers and storage: hpe integrity, hpe
proliant, hpe proliant server blades, hpe bladesystem, and hpe 9000 servers as well as msa,
va7 , eva, and xp disk arrays, rackable tape libraries and configurable network switches.
type of service support varies by platform and product family. for more information on factory
express services for your specific server model or storage device please contact your sales
representative or go to: http://www.hpe.com/info/factoryexpress.
compatibility hp's extensive compatibility testing program ures that your hpe msl tape libraries work with
leading servers, operating systems, and backup applications - and not just those sold by hp. the msl
libraries work seamlessly in many environments, making them especially suitable if you have a mixed
system environment. for the latest list of servers, workstations, operating systems, and backup
software that support the msl tape libraries, check the hpe data agile bura compatibility matrix
(formerly ebs) at: http://www.hpe.com/storage/buracompatibility.
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
service and support and warranty information
page 8
warranty msl2024: the warranty for this product consists of 1-year parts exchange, next business day
msl4048: the warranty for this product consists of 1-year parts exchange, next business day
note: the hpe msl tape libraries warranty includes support for customer self repair (csr). the
tape library cartridges, terminators, external cables, drives, magazines, controller board and power
supplies are mandatory customer self-repair parts. this means both the removal and replacement of
the above parts are designed for easy replacement; the on-site warranty does not extend to these
parts. however, customers may request hpe services to replace these replaceable units (rus) for an
additional charge. also, customers who purchase an hpe support agreement have the option to
perform csr or receive onsite support.
please refer to hewlett packard enterprise's limited warranty statement for further details:
http://h18006.www1.hpe.com/storage/warranty.html
protect your business beyond warranty with hpe support services
hpe technology services delivers confidence, reduces risk and helps customers realize agility and stability. our integrated
portfolio of services for storage help customers reduce costs, optimize data, streamline storage mana ent, and improve backup
and recovery. hpe support services enable you to choose the right service level, length of coverage and response time as you
purchase your new storage solution, giving you full entitlement for the support for need for your it and business.
recommended services hpe foundation care 24x7, three-year support service
hpe foundation care 24x7 gives you access to hpe 24 hours a day, seven days a week for istance
on resolving issues. this service includes need based hardware onsite response within four hours.
simplify your support experience and make hpe your first call to help resolve hardware or software
problems.
https://www.hpe.com/h20195/v2/getdocument.aspx?docname=4aa4-8876enw&cc=us&lc=en
related services hpe esl, msl tape libraries installation and startup
deployment of your hpe midrange storage library (msl) products in san environments:.
• system installation and setup by an hewlett packard enterprise technical specialist
• verification prior to installation that all service prerequisites are met
• delivery of the service at a mutually scheduled convenient time
• provides product installation according to the product specifications
• offers deployment activities that are designed to bring the fibre channel-based tape library
into operation
• helps improve performance
• makes the most of the value of the hpe esl, msl, and eml libraries in an it environment by
leveraging hewlett packard enterprise knowledge in implementing fibre channel-based
systems and solutions
• helps reduce implementation-related disruptions in the it environment
• helps increase system reliability and provides more effective data mana ent
http://h20195.www2.hpe.com/v2/getpdf.aspx/5981-7355en.pdf
hpe backup and recovery solution service
id recovery from system downtime can hinge on the efficiency of your backup and recovery
mana ent environment - and on how well that environment is integrated with your storage
infrastructure. but integration processes can be time-consuming and complex, and your it resources
are already stretched thin. where can you find the expert help you need?
for fast, effective integration of your backup solution into an existing or new storage infrastructure, 
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
service and support and warranty information
page 9
turn to the storage experts at hpe services. our backup and recovery solution service (brss)
provides end-to-end mana ent of your backup integration process. the brss team works with you
to analyze your business and it environment; develop a comprehensive integration plan and timetable;
design an architecture that suits your critical requirements; install backup software; implement your
solution; and validate your configuration.
• by engaging hewlett packard enterprise to implement hpe data protector, customers' it staff
can stay focused on their core tasks and priorities, resulting in less impact to your business
• professional backup and recovery planning that aligns with customer's business needs and
implementation that reduces project execution time and risk to the storage environment
• hp's expertise with backup and recovery helps ensure issues are avoided
http://h20195.www2.hpe.com/v2/getpdf.aspx/5982-7442en.pdf
esupport hpe esupport is a portfolio of technology-based services that ist you with managing your business
environment - from the desktop to the data center.
support portal
the hewlett packard enterprise support portal provides one-stop access to the information, tools and
services you need to manage the daily operations of your it environment.
features include:
• access to self-solve tools (including search technical knowledge base)
• efficient logging and tracking of support cases
• collaboration with other business and it professionals
• of patches and drivers
• access to diagnostic tools
• proactive notification of relevant information
access to certain features of the support portal requires a hewlett packard enterprise service
agreement. to access the support portal, visit: http://www.hpe.com/support
customer technical
training
consider education as an integral part of your strategy to get the best return on investment for your
hpe storage solution. hewlett packard enterprise offers a variety of training courses on storage
software, networking, archiving and disk storage systems. our cl es are available in many delivery
modalities from traditional instructor-led courses at one of our 80 training centers worldwide to on-site
training customized to your needs or online. http://www.hpe.com/learn/storage
hpe services awards hpe services continues to be recognized for service and support excellence by customers, partners,
industry organizations and publications around the world. recent honors and award reflect our services
team's dedications, technical expertise, professionalism and uncompromising commitment to customer
isfaction. for a list of all our awards, please visit:
http://h20219.www2.hpe.com/services/cache/433028-0-0-225-121.htm
additional services
information
for more information about hpe care pack services for storage, please visit:
http://www.hpe.com/services/storage
if you have specific questions, contact your local hewlett packard enterprise representative. contact
information for a representative in your area can be found at "contact hpe" http://www.hpe.com
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
configuration information
page 10
step 1 - select base library
hpe storeever msl tape
libraries
description part number
hpe storeever msl2024 0-drive tape library
note: includes 24 slots, zero drives.
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
ak379a
hpe storeever msl4048 0-drive tape library
note: includes 48 slots, zero drives.
ak381a
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
kit contents (for each library):
• one 2.5m pdu power cord, c13/c14, 10a (part number 142257-002)
• one rj-45 ethernet cable
• rack-mount hardware
• flyer for yosemite server backup software*
*note: yosemite server backup basic comes with 30 days of free
maintenance and support. after that time, customers have the option to
upgrade to a retail version with maintenance and support
factory racking factory integrate the msl2024 & 4048 tape libraries with other hpe products
such as hpe proliant servers
note: #0d1 will appear after the tape library part number on the sales order if
hpe factory integration is indicated
#0d1
step 2 - select generation & quantity of ultrium tape drives
select each option as required with quantities specified:
tape drives hpe storeever msl lto-7 ultrium 15000 fc drive upgrade kit
note: half height lto-7 fibre chanel tape drive. for use with the msl2024,
4048 or msl6480 libraries. drive kit includes a tape drive and documentation
note: #0d1 will appear after n7p36a on the sales order if hpe factory
integration is indicated
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
n7p36a
hpe storeever msl lto-7 ultrium 15000 sas drive upgrade kit
note: half height lto-7 sas tape drive. for use with the msl2024, 4048 or
msl6480 libraries. drive kit includes a tape drive and documentation
note: #0d1 will appear after n7p37a on the sales order if hpe factory
integration is indicated
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
n7p37a
hpe storeever msl lto-6 ultrium 6250 sas drive upgrade kit
note: half height lto-6 sas tape drive. for use with the msl2024, 4048 or
msl6480 libraries. drive kit includes a tape drive and documentation.
note: #0d1 will appear after c0h27a on the sales order if hpe factory
integration is indicated
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
c0h27a
hpe storeever msl lto-6 ultrium 6250 fibre channel drive upgrade kit
note: half height lto-6 fc tape drive. for use with the msl2024, 4048 or
msl6480 libraries. drive kit includes a tape drive and documentation.
note: #0d1 will appear after c0h28a on the sales order if hpe factory
integration is indicated
c0h28a
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
configuration information
page 11
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
hpe storeever msl lto-5 ultrium 3000 sas drive upgrade kit
note: half height lto-5 sas tape drive. for use with the msl2024, 4048 or
msl6480 libraries. drive kit includes a tape drive and documentation.
note: #0d1 will appear after bl540b on the sales order if hpe factory
integration is indicated
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
bl540b
hpe storeever msl lto-5 ultrium 3000 fibre channel drive upgrade kit
note: half height lto-5 fc tape drive. for use with the msl2024, 4048 or
msl6480 libraries. drive kit includes a tape drive and documentation.
note: #0d1 will appear after bl544b on the sales order if hpe factory
integration is indicated
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
bl544b
hpe storeever msl lto-5 ultrium 3280 fibre channel drive upgrade kit
note: full height lto-5 fc tape drive. for use with the msl2024, 4048 or
msl6480 libraries. drive kit includes a tape drive and documentation.
note: #0d1 will appear after bl535b on the sales order if hpe factory
integration is indicated
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
bl535b
hpe storeever msl lto-4 ultrium 1760 sas drive upgrade kit
note: half height lto-4 sas tape drive. for use with the msl2024, 4048, , or
6480 libraries. drive kit includes a tape drive and documentation.
note: this product is taa (trade agreements act) compliant.
ak383b
step 3 - select software licenses
tape ure a nced hpe storeever msl tape ure a nced ltu
a nced analytics feature makes use of predictive analytics to predict the likelihood
of failures, bottlenecks and load balancing issues in the tape infrastructure. it has
unique capabilities of analytics around drive health and life as well as cartridge health
and life.
note: one license needed per library and command view tl must be installed.
note: this is a paper license that will be mailed
tc406a
hpe storeever msl tape ure a nced e-ltu
hpe storeever tape ure a nced software provides a nced analytics for
predictive analysis the likelihood of failures, bottlenecks and load balancing issues in
the tape infrastructure. it has unique capabilities of analytic s around drive health
and life as well as cartridge health and life.
note: one license needed per library and command view tl must be installed.
note: this is an electronically delivered license.
tc406aae
encryption
options/licenses
hpe 1/8 g2 tape autoloader and msl tape library encryption kit
note: for use with new or installed lto-7, lto-6, lto-5 and lto-4 drives for
msl2024/4048/8048/8096 or msl6480 tape libraries. the encryption kit key
server token generate and retain encryption keys for above lto tape drives in
the library. does not require support from isv.
am495a
hpe storeever msl2024/4048/8096 kmip encryption ltu
note: for use with msl2024/4048/8048/8096 tape libraries using lto-6,
tc468a
quickspecs hpe storeever msl2024 and msl4048 tape libraries
configuration information
page 12
lto-5 tape drives. the license will enable secure connectivity with supported
kmip 1.2 compliant key mana ent servers. see the hpe data agile bura
compatibility matrix (formerly ebs) for the list of supported servers.
http://www.hpe.com/storage/buracompatibility
note: this license will be delivered via hard copy in the mail.
note: msl libraries now have the ability to connect to kmip complaint
encryption key managers in fips 140-2 secure mode with hh fc lto-7 tape
drives, which are fips 140-2 certified.
hpe storeever msl2024/4048/8096 kmip encryption e-ltu
note: for use with msl2024/4048/8048/8096 tape libraries using lto-6,
lto-5 tape drives. the license will enable secure connectivity with supported
kmip 1.2 compliant key mana ent servers. see the hpe data agile bura
compatibility matrix (formerly ebs) for the list of supported servers.
http://www.hpe.com/storage/buracompatibility
note: this license will be delivered electronically.
note: msl libraries now have the ability to connect to kmip complaint
encryption key managers in fips 140-2 secure mode with hh fc lto-7 tape
drives, which are fips 140-2 certified.
tc468aae
step 4 - select additional accessories
regional power cords note: one pdu power cord is shipped per library. if not using the included pdu cord mentioned
above (part number 142257-002) please select the correct power cord for your geog hical
location below.
quantity description part number
1 each hp c13 - nema 5-15p us/ca 110v 10amp 1.83m power cord af556a
1 each hp c13 - cee-vii eu 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af568a
1 each hp c13 - bs-1363a uk/hk/sg 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af570a
1 each hp c13 - dk-2.5a dk 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af566a
1 each hp c13 - sev 1011 ch 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af565a
1 each hp c13 - cei-23-50 it/cl 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af571a
1 each hp c13 - sabs-164 za 250v 10amp 2.5m power cord af567a
1 each hp c13 - cns-690 tw 110v 13amp 1.83m power cord af561a
1 each hp c13 - gb-1002 cn 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af557a
1 each hp c13 - jis c8303 jp 100v 12amp 2.0m power cord af572a
1 each hp c13 - as3112-3 au 250v 10amp 2.5m power cord af569a
1 each hp c13 - iram -2073 ar 250v 10a 2.5m power cord af558a
1 each hp c13 - nema 5-15p th/ph 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af559a
1 each hp c13 - ksc- 8305 kr 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af560a
1 each hp c13 - si-32 il 250v 10amp 1.83m power cord af564a
1 each hp c13 - is-1293 in 240v 6amp lv 2.0m power cord af562a
warning: this product can only be used with an hpe approved power cord for your specific
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مشاهده متن کامل ...

supreme leader's speech in meeting with government officials
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

supreme leader's speech in meeting with government officials

wednesday jul 16, 2014


mr.hamid irani / www.polir.orq.ir


the following is the full text of the speech delivered on july 7, 2014 by ayatollah khamenei, the supreme leader of the islamic revolution, in a meeting with government officials. the meeting was held in the imam khomeini (r.a.) hussainiyah on the ninth day of the holy month of ramadan.

in the name of allah, the beneficent, the merciful

all praise is due to allah, the lord of the worlds, and peace and greetings be upon our master and prophet, muhammad, and upon his immaculate household

first of all, i would like to welcome each and every one of you brothers and sisters and the dear and committed officials of the islamic republic. it is a very good meeting and by allah's favor, it will be full of divine blessings and guidance and the light of this month. the statements of mr. president were good and complete statements. i hope that by the blessedness of this month and the pure prayers of righteous people, believers and those who fast, what the officials of the country intend to do will produce the desired results.

the month of ramadan has been described as "auspicious". the reason why this month is auspicious is that it is a way to liberate oneself from the fire of hell and to achieve paradise. as we read in the prayers of the month of ramadan, "this is the month of liberation from hell and achieving paradise" [iqbal al-a'mal, volume 1, page 90]. divine paradise and the fire of divine hell exist in this world as well. what happens in the hereafter is the manifestation of this world: "indeed, hell surrounds the unbelievers on all sides" [the holy quran, 9: 49]. hell has surrounded unbelievers, oppressors, enemies and opponents, in this world and in this life. the same is true of paradise.

it is in our own hands to go from hell to paradise. this happens in this world and its concrete, hidden and real manifestation will be witnessed in the hereafter. we can take this trip and this path from the hell of misconduct, misgivings and doubts - which belongs to this world - to the paradise of good deeds, good thoughts, good behavior and good conduct. this path and movement is called "penitence" and "repentance". it has been said in a prayer that "[t]his is the month of penitence and this is the month of repentance" [iqbal al-a'mal, volume 1, page 25]. it is with penitence and repentance that one is liberated from hell and that one achieves paradise.

one of the blessings of the auspicious month of ramadan is the prayers of this month. these prayers teach us how to speak to god, how to ask him for help and how to pay attention to him. moreover, they teach us many lessons for which we cannot find an equal even in common moral narrations. i have chosen two prayers from this month which i would like to narrate in the beginning of my speech. the selection of these two prayers is because of our needs today.

today, we - as officials of our dear country and the islamic republic - urgently need serious and diligent work which is accompanied by purity and sincerity. these two prayers help us move toward this path. one prayer is the prayer of the first day of the auspicious month of ramadan. i have chosen this part from this prayer: "oh god, place us among those who do something while they have willed it. do not place us among those poor people who suffer from indolence and among those who rely on things other than action" [iqbal al-a'mal, volume 1, page 23].

the first sentence says, "oh god, place us among those who do something while they have willed it". this action should be purposeful, one that enjoys intention and one that is clear in a nce where it is leading to. the second sentence is "do not place us among those poor people who suffer from indolence". "kisalat" means laziness and idleness. it says, "god, do not place us among these people". this is what the prayer teaches us. the third sentence is: "and among those who rely on things other than action".

it says, "do not place us among those who day dream, rant and fabricate issues in a meeting without taking any action". notice that this is the lesson of this prayer. in the first day of the month of ramadan, believers enter the divine feast with this spirit. this is one of the great servings of this feast. this is one prayer.

the second prayer is one that is said on each day of this auspicious month. it says, "and save me from drowsiness, laziness, exhaustion, carelessness, inflexibility, ignorance and deception" [iqbal al-a'mal, volume 1, page 26]. it asks god to save us from these characteristics: the first is drowsiness. the second is laziness. the third is exhaustion. it means getting sick and tired of something. the next one is carelessness. it means doing things in a careless way and ignoring precision. the next one is hardness of heart, fossilization and inflexibility. the next one is ignorance and confusion about our position and about what is happening and what is ahead of us. and the last one is deception and arrogance.

it asks god to save us from these characteristics. notice what lessons these prayers are. well, the function of these concepts - which are lofty and outstanding concepts - is much more important for officials in charge of public affairs than for ordinary individuals. when we say, "oh god, do not make us suffer from laziness, inflexibility and ignorance", we are making this request from two perspectives: one is from a personal perspective. we make this personal request so that we do not make a mistake and so that we do not face problems.

another is from the perspective of our responsibilities. you are like a captain who is steering a ship. you are like a pilot who is flying a plane. the issue is not only the issue of your lives. you are different from a person who is driving his car on a road alone. his responsibility is to protect his own life. but you are not like him. a group of people are with you. these are the things that make your responsibilities and commitment - on the issues that were discussed - heavier.

in our religious literature, the month of ramadan is the month of confronting shaitan and anic behavior on the one hand and behaving in a kind way, obeying god and worshiping him on the other hand. on the one hand, it is said that shaitan is tethered in the month of ramadan and on the other hand, it is said that the month of ramadan is the month of obeying and worshiping god. the shortest and most meaningful word to describe this month is the word "piety": "fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you, that you may show piety" [the holy quran, 2: 183].

the issue is the issue of confrontation between shaitan and piety. shaitan's job is to tempt. what does tempting mean? it means creating disruption in your calculation system. this is shaitan. the opposite point is piety's role. shaitan's effort is to tempt you. that is to say, he tries to make our minds, our nature and our calculation system - which has been installed inside man - stop working. he wants to make us make a mistake in calculation.

piety's job is the opposite of this: "if you fear allah, he will grant you a criterion to judge between right and wrong" [the holy quran, 8: 29]. piety gives you a criterion. that is to say, it gives you the awareness to separate truth from falsehood. in another holy ayah, god says, "so, fear allah for it is god that teaches you" [the holy quran, 2: 282]. with piety, allah the exalted opens the gates of knowledge, awareness and wisdom to you.

shaitan influences our calculation system with threats and temptations. on the one hand, he frightens us. a holy ayah from sura aal-e imran says, "it is only shaitan that suggests to you the fear of his disciples: be not afraid of them, but fear me if you have faith" [the holy quran, 3: 175]. on the issue of the battle that happened after the battle of uhud - there was a rumor saying that the enemy is coming to destroy muslims and that muslims are going to lose everything - the holy prophet (s.w.a.) said, "those of you who be e wounded in the battle of uhud today should carry their swords and accompany me. if none of you comes, i will go alone".

the holy prophet (s.w.a.) set out to go. those who had been wounded in uhud on that day took their swords and accompanied the holy prophet (s.w.a.). with a surprise attack, they went and destroyed the enemy who had lain in ambush near madina, who had started these rumors and who had decided to attack. and then they returned: "and they returned with grace and bounty from allah and no harm ever touched them" [the holy quran, 3: 174]. then the holy quran says, "it is only shaitan that suggests to you the fear of his disciples".

so, one of the things that shaitan does is to cause fear. "shaitan threatens you with poverty" [the holy quran, 2: 268]. he frightens us with poverty. according to an interpretation of this holy ayah, this was a threat. on the other hand, one of the things that he does is to tempt. shaitan gives certain promises which are deceitful: "shaitan makes them promises, and creates in them false desires, but shaitan's promises are nothing but deception" [the holy quran, 4: 120].

he gives promises and awakens desires in people's hearts. he paints a colorful, fake and imaginary future - like a mirage - for the eyes of believers. "but shaitan's promises are nothing but deception". his promises are hollow. on the one hand, he makes threats and on the other hand, he tempts. this is like america's behavior in the present time. this is like the behavior that arrogant powers always show. on the one hand, they make threats and on the other hand, they tempt. these temptations are not only personal. they temp in general ways. they say, "we do this, we do that". but they do not and they lie. this is what shaitan does.

all the things that shaitan does - including tempting and making threats - are for the sake of making our calculation system stop working so that we make wrong calculations. when one's calculation system stops working, things go out of order. making wrong calculations is one of the greatest dangers. it sometimes threatens man's life and it sometimes threatens his fate. this is because man's power and capabilities are under the domination of his will and his will is under the influence of his calculation system. if his calculation system does not work properly, his will makes a decision and moves towards the direction which is wrong.

in such circumstances, all his power and capabilities move in this wrong direction. this is what we should be careful about. as i said, for a person who does not have a responsibility, taking care has a certain meaning and for you and i who have a responsibility, it has a different meaning. we should take care not to let our calculation system witness a disruption by human and jinn shaitans. we should take care not to misunderstand issues. shaitan is not only from among jinns. he is not only iblis: "likewise, did we make for every messenger an enemy - shaitans among men and jinns, inspiring each other with flowery discourses by way of deception" [the holy quran, 6: 112].

shaitans among men and jinns help one another. i would like to stress that one of the mistakes in the area of calculation is that we remain confined to visible and purely materialistic factors. one of the mistakes is to ignore spiritual factors, divine traditions - those which god has informed us about and those that are invisible. this is one of the great mistakes in the area of calculation. god has said, "if you help the cause of allah, he will help you and make firm your stance" [the holy quran, 47: 7].

can this be said in a clearer way? if you move on the path of god and if you help god's religion, god will help you. this is unchangeable: "you shall not find any change in the course of allah" [the holy quran, 33: 62]. if you move on the path of reviving the divine religion and if you preserve this path, god will help you. this has been said by the holy quran with such clarity. this is the divine promise. we have experienced this in practice.

you should know that this era of the history of the revolution will be one of the most prominent historical eras in the history that will be discussed by future generations. in this materialistic world, in the world of the domination of superpowers and in the world of widespread hostility towards islam and towards islamic teachings and values, a system has been created based on islam and in an area where the agents of deviating powers had exerted more influence than any other area in the world.

this is a strange event. you and i have gotten used to it. this is the same as "if you help the cause of allah, he will help you and make firm your feet". you will not falter, as we did not. the people of iran did not falter. there have been so many pressures, so many plots, so many cruelties and so much unfairness, but the people of iran did not change their minds. this is one of the divine traditions.

a holy ayah in the holy quran says, "have you not considered how allah sets forth a parable o ood word being like a good tree, whose root is firm and whose branches are in heaven, yielding its fruit in every season by the permission of its lord? [the holy quran, 14: 24-25]. a good word, a good action and a pure deed - one that is for god - prevails. it will grow roots, it will become strong and it will yield fruits. the islamic republic is that good word. it has been preserved like the good tree and it has become stronger. today, the islamic republic - as a system, government and a political entity - is not comparable with 30 years ago.

in the second ayah after these ayahs, god says, "allah will establish in strength those who believe, with the word that stands firm, in this world and in the hereafter" [the holy quran, 14: 27]. he will re-establish the same strength. these factors should be seen and they should be counted in our calculations. not all the factors in achieving happiness, sinking into misery, making progress, suffering from backwardness, achieving success and witnessing defeat are confined to the common worldly factors that materialistic people rely on. these spiritual factors exist alongside worldly factors as well.

what i want to say in this part of my speech - which is the main part - is that today, we should not make a mistake in our calculations. you should not let the enemy influence your calculation system. you should not let him tempt you. you should not let him influence you with his temptations or threats.

today, the battle between the islamic republic - which began with the victory of the revolution and which is continuing with the same strength - is the same battle that existed between the prophets and the shaitans of the time, who were from among men and jinns. we are after lofty ideals. we are after forming an islamic community, an islamic government, an islamic country and an islamic ummah. we are after achieving the goals that great prophets, saints and martyrs pursued.

and the anic regimes of the time have formed one front and they are naturally opposed to such a movement. this is why they create obstacles and make threats. despite the glamour of this front and its superficial and material splendor, this divine and prophet-like movement is taking its path and moving forward. it is exerting influence and it is expanding and developing on a daily basis.

today, what we witness in the behavior of global arrogance is this. its goal is to create disruption in our calculation system. in other arenas, arrogance has failed. it has failed to do anything. in real arenas, only two material factors have been available to the p of arrogance: one is military threats and another is sanctions. arrogance has nothing except for these two things. the hands of arrogance are tied in terms of the power of reason and logic and the capability to prove its legitimacy. it can only carry out two tasks: one is to issue military threats - this is a task that it constantly carries out - and another is to impose sanctions.

and there are two cures for these. sanctions can be counteracted with diligence in the area of the economy of resistance. the points that the honorable president raised today had been raised by him before and they are completely true. economic plans should be prepared, pursued and implemented with the umption that sanctions will remain there.

imagine that sanctions will not be lifted at all. well, this is what they themselves are saying as well. they too say that sanctions will not be touched. even from this moment, they have begun saying, "even if we reach a deal on the nuclear issue, it does not mean that all sanctions will be lifted. there are still other issues to be resolved".

this is what we have always said. i have repeatedly said in this meeting and different other meetings that the nuclear issue is an excuse. even if the nuclear issue did not exist, they would make other excuses. for example, there is the issue of human rights and the issue of women. they fabricate many different issues. fabricating and making excuses is not a demanding job. moreover, the propaganda apparatus and empire is in their hands. therefore, the cure for the issue of sanctions is the economy of resistance. later on, i will discuss a few points in this regard.

as for the issue of military threats, there are very few people in today's world who take these military threats seriously. of course, the americans say, "the iranians do not take it seriously". but it is not only us who do not take it seriously. there are many people in the world who do not take this threat seriously. global spectators do not believe that this threat is a serious one because the opinion of global spectators and those who have a political awareness is that if it were economical for america to launch an attack, it would not hesitate even for one moment.

will these people be sad if some people are killed and if a crisis arises somewhere? are these people - who wholeheartedly supported a wolf named "saddam" for eight years, who hit a p enger plane while it was on air and while they had no excuse, and who destroyed and shed the blood of several hundred people including innocent and uninformed women, men and children - afraid of killing people? which of those people who created crises wherever they could and who staged color uprisings - as they say, color revolutions - are not led by arrogant powers? and these arrogant powers are headed by america.

they create crises inside countries and it does not matter to them whether these crises lead to murder and domestic wars or not. are those who attacked afghanistan and iraq, those who killed hundreds of thousands of people in iraq and those who killed people one by one in iraq and other cities of iraq under the command of intelligence services and mercenary and terrorist companies - such as blackwater which we spoke about once - afraid of killing people? are they afraid that other people may be killed? do they care about such things?

the issue is not that they make military threats because they do not want to [attack]. they constantly say, "israel issues military threats, but america prevents them from waging a war". well why does america prevent it from doing so? if this claim is true, what is the reason? is their conscience pricked if a country is attacked and a number of people are killed? the answer is no. the reason is that they do not consider waging a war to be economical. i firmly say that launching a military attack against the islamic republic of iran is not economical for any country.

today, the americans themselves criticize their attack on iraq. the important and noteworthy point is that they do not criticize it because it was a crime. rather, they say that it was not to the a ntage of america. that is to say, if it had been to the a ntage of america, it would have been alright. they do not say, "we made a mistake by killing people. we made a mistake by attacking innocent people. we made a mistake by letting our soldiers kick people's doors in. we made a mistake by letting them kill women and children in front of the eyes of people". they do not say such things.

in the present time, their soldiers suffer from psychological problems because of the crimes that were committed there, but they do not acknowledge this officially. rather, they say that the attack was not economical. so, the enemy is empty-handed both in the area of sanctions and in the area of military threats: "so, lose not heart, nor fall into despair for you must gain mastery if you are true in faith" [the holy quran, 3: 139]. if we believe in god, the enemy cannot do anything in real and practical arenas.

now that it cannot do anything in real arenas and now that his hands are empty in the area of influence, what is the enemy's cure? the cure is that it creates disruption in the calculation system of the other side - our calculation system. they are pursuing this task through propaganda, political work and different contacts. they know that the islamic republic is capable of achieving its goals. from their viewpoint, the islamic republic must not want this. if it wants it, it can achieve it. they want to do something to make us stop wanting. today, this is the effort of the world of arrogance which is headed by america. this is the same soft war that we have been speaking about since a few years ago. other people have spoken about, written and discussed it as well.

they cannot change our calculations. from the first day, the calculations of the islamic republic have been based on reason and logic. the elements that have formed these calculations are these: the first one is trust in god and the traditions of creation. the second one is distrusting the enemy and knowing him. one of the factors in reliance on god and the traditions of creation is trust in the people and their faith, trust in affection and kindness, trust in pure motives, trust in the people's honesty - our magnanimous imam (r.a.) was the manifestation of this kind of trust - belief in self-confidence and the fact that we can, reliance on action, avoidance of idleness, trust in divine istance, reliance on responsibility and effort on the path of responsibility.

from the first day until today, these have been the things that have formed the basis and the infrastructure of the elements of the reasonable islamic republic. you should refer to imam's (r.a.) statements. his statements are imbued with these concepts and teachings: benefitting from experience - including the way arrogant powers have behaved towards weak nations - and diligence for the sake of independence, remaining independent and living in an independent way.

what does independence mean? some people find faults with the essence and meaning of independence? they ask, "what does such independence mean?" independence means freedom from the will of foreigners and other people. this is the meaning of independence. can any reasonable mind deny this? the meaning of independence is that a people should be able to determine their own fate.

this country did not enjoy independence for many years. the quasi-independence that existed was political. but the key of the government and the country was in the hands of other people. it was they who made the decisions. it was they who did everything. there were some people inside the country some of whom were attached to them and some of whom were not very attached to them, but they had to follow them. independence is resistance against such a condition.

well, arrogance is opposed to this reason. if someone thinks that the name of islam makes them oppose the islamic republic, they should know that this is not the case. the name of islam and islamic practices and obligations do not make anyone show opposition.

once, imam (r.a.) said in one of his speeches, "when the english entered and occupied iraq in the second decade of the 20th century, an english commander saw someone shouting and raising his voice. he be e nervous. someone was saying adhan from a minaret. he asked, "what is this noise?" they said, "he is saying adhan". then he asked, "is it against us?" someone replied, "no, it is not". he said, "ok, let him say whatever he wants". he did not care for the kind of adhan which was not against him and the kind of "allahu akbar" which did not humiliate him.

so, the issue is not the issue of islam and islamic obligations. today, some countries carry the name of islam and they observe islamic obligations more or less, but their oil, their supplies and their vital resources are in the hands of arrogance. and the enemies do not show any opposition to such countries. on the contrary, they have friendly relations with them.

recently, i read something interesting somewhere. an american expert has said, "reconciliation between iran and america is possible, but it is not possible between the islamic republic and america". he is right. not only is reconciliation with the kind of iran that is led by the pahlavi family - which makes everything available to the americans - possible, but it is also necessary. it is even necessary to do something beyond reconciliation for this kind of iran. the issue is the issue of the islamic republic. the islamic republic means independence, freedom, commitment to islamic faith, movement on the path of islam, refusal to give in to the enemies' impositions and invitation to the unity of the islamic ummah.

this is the exact opposite of what they want. of course, they are unfriendly towards this kind of iran. well, this was the main issue that i wanted to discuss: we should not forget about self-confidence, faith and action. we should not forget about resistance against laziness, carelessness, idleness and exhaustion. these are the lessons of the month of ramadan.

i would like to offer some pieces of advice. one piece of advice is addressed to all officials. taking a look at the political conditions of the world and the region shows us that we are at a sensitive point. you should know that today, there is a historical turn in the real sense of the word. if you are not strong, you will be bullied not only by america and the west but also by a creature named saddam. if you are not strong, you will be bullied and you will suffer from their impositions. you should be strong.

what are the elements of strength? how can we understand and accept that we are strong? these are the elements of strength: high morale, hopefulness, hard work and diligence, identifying economic, cultural and security rifts - you should identify and see these rifts - cooperation between different organizations in charge of affairs and cooperation between these organizations and the people. this is one piece of advice which is addressed to everyone.

the second piece of advice is that you should work as hard as you can and as long as you have opportunities. opportunities are limited. all of us are individuals who are moving towards death. we have limited time. we should work as hard as we can and as long as we are alive. you should not say, "they do not allow us to do things". this "they do not allow us" is not an acceptable statement. many people used to say, "they do not allow us". now too, some people say this. what does "they do not allow us" mean? you have certain capabilities and resources in the majlis, in the administration, in the judiciary branch, in the armed forces and in the different sectors which are affiliated with the administration. you should benefit from these resources and work as hard as you can. you should not even allow one single moment to be wasted.

the third piece of advice is that you should coordinate your moves with the principles of the revolution. you should avoid creating uproar and you should attend to solving the problems of the people. the fourth piece of advice is that you should consider departmental convergence and convergence with other branches to be important.

i always advise the honorable officials in charge of the three branches of government to hold meetings with one another. many issues are resolved in these joint meetings such as meetings between the administration and the majlis, meetings between the judiciary branch and the administration and meetings between the judiciary branch and the majlis. these meetings and these exchanges of opinion lead to convergence. another issue is the issue of jihadi mana ent. this piece of advice is related to everyone.

i would like to offer a piece of advice to the administration and the executive branch in particular. first, everyone should know that i support the administration, as i supported all previous administrations. i trust the high-ranking executive officials. all the administrations that held office after the revolution have been elected by the people and since i have been entrusted with the task of leadership, i have supported all these administrations.

all administrations have certain strong points and certain weak points. there is no administration that says, "i have only strong points and i do not have any weak point". and there is no one who says, "all its activities are negative". this is not the case. all administrations have a combination of strong and weak points.

of course, compared to previous administrations, it is better to make criticisms in a well-informed way. it is not appropriate to make criticisms in public. the criticisms that we level at the administration should be fair, respectful and sympathetic. criticism should not mean catching someone red-handed and creating obstacles for them.

second, i would like to say to executive officials that they should take the economy of resistance seriously. well, the honorable president said that he will do this. other officials too have said this more or less, but it there should be action: "and among those who rely on things other than action". it should not be the case that we say, "we will do this", but we act slowly. the focus of the economy of resistance is on increasing domestic production and strengthening the domestic economy. this leads to economic progress. economic progress is achieved with production. it is achieved by activating the domestic capacities of the country. it is not achieved with anything else.

an important piece of advice on the issue of the economy of resistance is addressed to banks. banks should play their roles. they should coordinate their activities with the policies on the economy of resistance and with the administration's plans in this area. they can play their roles - positive roles. of course, they can play a negative role as well.

i would like to offer a very important piece of advice to the industrial sector. the officials in charge of this sector should make efforts. they should increase their efforts and they should identify the capacities. there are many capacities in the country and they should activate them.

as for the agricultural sector, agriculture has a vital significance. it is necessary for the administration and governmental policies to adopt a supportive outlook towards the agricultural sector. this supportive outlook exists all over the world. the agricultural sector is supported by governments. therefore, the existing problems in the area of agriculture should be removed. the problems of farmers and stockbreeders should be resolved. sometimes, we receive certain complaints in this regard. one becomes upset and sad about the problems that they have.

the third piece of advice for the administration: the administration's slogan is moderation. moderation is a very good slogan. we too stress moderation. extremism is condemned by us and it is bad. the piece of advice that i would like to offer is that you should take care not to let certain people sideline religious orientations with the slogan of moderation. some people are doing this and i see it on the political scene of the country. some people are trying to sideline those religious orientations that are prepared to face danger sooner than everyone else. they are doing this with the slogan of moderation and avoidance of extremism. it is these religious orientations that support administrations - in the real sense of the word - during problems.

islam is the manifestation of moderation: "and those who are with him are strong against unbelievers, but comp ionate amongst each other" [the holy quran, 48: 29]. this is moderation. "fight the unbelievers who gird you about" [the holy quran, 9: 123]. this is moderation. enjoining to do good and forbiudding evil is moderation as well. moderation is comprised of such things. the meaning of moderation is not that we prevent religious individuals, orientations and groups from doing things that they are responsible for.

another piece of advice is addressed to political orientations and the press. i have a piece of advice for the brothers and officials in charge of political organizations and the press. you should be careful. a tumultuous environment is not to the a ntage of the country. some individuals should not get on the people's nerves. one witnesses that these people do such things. psychological security is important for the people. they should not reinforce the environment of quarrels and differences. they should not repeat the enemies' statements either.

i read many newspapers every day, as i read many other things. sometimes, there are certain statements and headlines in newspapers that are perfect for such and such an american newspaper. surprisingly, such statements exist in american and non-american newspapers as well and these newspapers are sent for us. you should be careful. such statements and headlines are not appropriate.

a sensitive issue that exists in the present time is the nuclear issue. the statements that the honorable president made today were very good and correct. the other side has offered us two options: death or fever. it wants to force us into accepting the latter. for example, on the issue of enrichment, their goal is to make the islamic republic isfied with 10,000 swus. but they have begun from 500, 1000. approximately, 10,000 swus are the product of 10,000 centrifuges - the ones that we already have. this is their goal. officials tell us that we need about 190,000 swus. it is possible that we will not need this number of swus this year and in two, five years from now, but this is the definite need of the country. and the needs of the country should be met.

the statements that the americans make on this issue are untruthfull. a country needs nuclear energy. it has managed to achieve this science and technology on its own, with its own efforts and follow-up, without stealing it from others and without colluding with other people. now, they are persisting that we should not have it. well, why? what are the reasons behind this "we should not".

they say that they are afraid of a nuclear bomb. first, non-proliferation has its own ways and this is alright. second, if someone is supposed to be concerned about the issue of nuclear weapons, that someone is not america. america itself has several thousand nuclear warheads and nuclear bombs and it has used them. well, what is it to you? who are you to be concerned whether a country will have access to a nuclear weapon or not? however, we can give guarantees to those organizations that are in charge of such affairs. of course, these guarantees have already been given. that is to say, it is clear that we are not after nuclear weapons. perhaps, they themselves know this as well. so, the essence of what they are saying is untruthfull.

of course, we believe in our negotiating team. we are sure that they will not be isfied with transgression against the rights and dignity of the country and the people. we are sure that they will not allow this to happen. the issue of enrichment is an important issue. moreover, the issue of research and development should definitely receive attention. another issue is preserving the organizations and sites that the enemy cannot destroy. they place emphasis on fordo because it is not accessible to them. they say, "you should not have a site that we cannot destroy and harm". is this not ridiculous?

the last issue is the issue of the region and iraq which is, in fact, a fitna. by allah's favor, the religious people of iraq will manage to extinguish and destroy this fitna. by allah's favor, regional nations will move towards growth and material and spiritual transcendence on a daily basis.

dear god, by the blessedness of muhammad (s.w.a.) and his household (a.s.), make what we said and heard serve you and your path. accept from us what we said and heard. dear god, help us succeed in making efforts, showing diligence and doing sincere work.

dear god, by the blessedness of muhammad (s.w.a.) and his household (a.s.), bestow on us the requirements for isfying you. do not deprive us of your mercy and forgiveness in this auspicious month. ociate the pure souls of martyrs and the immaculate soul of our magnanimous imam (r.a.) with your saints.

dear god, by the blessedness of muhammad (s.w.a.) and his household (a.s.), make us be among your thankful and patient servants.

greetings be upon you and allah's mercy and blessings



مشاهده متن کامل ...
هوش هرچی باشه اندازه گیریش مهمتر....................
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

ارزش و اهمیت هوش هیجانی در کل برای همه مردم معلوم شده است . با توجه به اهمیت آن ارزشی از آن با توجه به علوم الهی برای آن ضروری به نظر می رسد .مثل تمام بررسی های علمی باید ابزاری برای جمع آوری شواهد وجود داشته باشد . پس اگر این گرایش داریم باید بفهمیم که خدا در مورد عواطف چه چیزهایی برای هدایت بشر نازل کرده است .

i find what god says, in the word of god as expressed in the bible. my interpretation will be from a pentecostal perspective.

i will undertake to evaluate emotional intelligence by identifying certain theological principles concerning people and their emotions. i will then identify certain characteristics (external behaviour) ociated with the mixed model of emotional intelligence. these are self-control, empathy in relationships, self-awareness and constructive thinking. these are the abilities that are prevalent within the behaviour of a person when they exercise emotional intelligence. i will evaluate these abilities and compare them to the application of these also within the bible. if these are biblical principles that god has ascribed for people, then the behaviour ociated with emotional intelligence then is biblical too. thus, the church would be able to identify and apply emotional intelligence so as to produce this behaviour.

4.2 presuppositions of both theology and emotional intelligence

4.2.1 people are weak

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the problem from the very beginning of time has seemed to be the fact that at certain stages of people’s lives, they have the inability to cope with their environment, their personal life and with others. from an emotional intelligence perspective, people live in a stressful society. they are weak in the fact that they cannot control their emotions in a stressful situation. they are unable to cope because they are unable to control their emotions (goleman 1995). goleman identifies the fact that people need to stop their destructive way of behaviour within their stressful situation. they therefore need to apply self-control produced by emotional intelligence (1995: x). salovey and mayer (1990: 185) will say that people’s inability to behave appropriately is due to them not identifying, managing and expressing their emotions cognitively first (see chapter two). they are many times not aware of what or why or how they are feeling and this is why they cannot control their emotions.

from a theological perspective people cannot control their emotions in stressful situations because they try to live in their own strength. from the very beginning people were created and made to live in relationship with god (their maker). this relationship has never been on an equal footing. god has always been the maker, the father and people (in dependence) have always been his children (genesis chapter one and two).

however, with the introduction of sin into the world by an, sin caused rebellion within people’s hearts (genesis 3). people no longer have the desire to live in relationship with god, let alone depend on him. people undergo a transformation in which their heart, mind and body are so riddled with sin and its selfishness, that their desire to please and depend upon him has become null and void. they no longer accept god’s sovereignty. they now are god themselves. “the fall of man and all subsequent sins boils down to a denial of god’s dominion” (möller 1998: 27).

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a quote from möller clearly portrays this theological perspective, “the initial relationship is one between god and man. through the fall, this wonderful relationship was destroyed. instead of living from, through and unto god, man was cut off. man’s mind be e clouded, his heart lost its sensitivity and he e under the power of futility, suffering death and jud ent” (1998: 13).

i agree with salovey and mayer that people should use their emotional intelligence of identifying, regulating, managing and expressing their emotions. this would enable them to effectively control their emotions. however, theologically (in answer to goleman) people fail to control their emotions, not just because of a lack of self-control, but also because of their ruling p ions and desires. their selfishness drives them to strive to be the best and to beat the rest. “it is the disposition with which man disregards god in his thoughts and actions, boasts, considers himself superior to his fellow-man and where he wants to be his own redeemer and author of his salvation” (1998:28). so, a person’s selfishness must be dealt with along with their emotions, in order to produce self-control.

mayer portrays the interaction of emotional intelligence and our inner motives/p ions in his book “emotional intelligence in everyday life” (2001: 10). emotional intelligence is needed to control our emotions but also could aid to identify and control our selfish motivations/p ions, interacting with our emotions. a theological evaluation proposes an accurate identification of our selfish motivations (causing us/ fueling us to feel emotionally angry) along with the application of emotional intelligence. this will also enable us to deal with the real culprit (theologically), our selfishness (motivations/p ions) and not merely our anger (emotions). thus, identifying what motivation/p ions have contributed to the anger and in such a way allow emotional intelligence to function effectively within all areas of our personality (our p ions and our emotions).

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4.2.2 people are interconnected and effect their environment

people function as holistic beings. by this i mean that they consist out of spirit, body and soul and therefore function accordingly. the bible has different references to human beings as body, soul and spirit. one such scripture is 1 thessalonians 5:23. in 1 thessalonians 5:23 we see paul telling the people that he prays god will sanctify them completely, so that their “body, soul and spirit” be kept blameless on the day of christ’s return. his concept of human beings and their existence includes their body, soul and spirit and that each “part” should equally be taken care of and sanctified. the greek word used here for body is “soma” which refers to a person’s physical existence. the greek word here for soul is “psuche” which includes our emotions and thinking and our spirit (“pneuma”) is the spiritual aspect of human beings. so, theologically, people are physical (because they have bodily functions), emotional (they think, feel and experience emotions) and are also spiritual beings. “man is a unity where the one exists in and through the other” (möller 1998: 69).

the important thing here is that these aspects of people are not autonomous, but are interrelated and make up the whole human being. paul clearly shows us this when he prays that every part of their existence be sanctified, so as to produce a sanctified human being on the day christ returns. human beings don’t only function as spirit, but simultaneously as spirit, soul and body. in this scripture we also see that there is an effect or link each aspect has on the state of each human being. paul did not merely pray for the sanctification of our body, but every aspect. this is because each aspect affects the other and all make up the state of each individual. when our physical body is ill, our emotions are also effected (forgas 2001: 46, taylor 2001: 67, bagby 2000: 40). when we are spiritually ill, our physical body and emotions are not well (covey 1998: 3). this is evident with psychosomatic disorders within the medical field (bagby 2000: 43). this is also why the application of emotional intelligence is useful within any area of our functioning.

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if our emotions affect our physical and spiritual life, then our spiritual state will effect our emotions and our physical well being. “we cannot think of the spirit of man without also thinking of his soul. the spirit is revealed through the soul, even as the soul is revealed through the body. each experience of the spirit is experienced by the soul and also the body” (möller 1998: 76).

mayer highlights the effect our selfish motivations (intentions) can have on our emotions and how this interaction between the two can reformulate our emotions (2001: 14). this interaction he sees as part of the process within emotional intelligence. because our spirit, soul and body are connected and influence one another, what we feel, can influence how we think and behave. thus, our application of emotional intelligence should enable us to deal with our emotions, but could also shed light on our (spiritual) selfishness and enable us to deal with this spiritual state at the same time.

theologically, our selfish motivations are a characteristic of our sinful spiritual state (möller 1998: 28, matt 16:25-26, phil 1:21, 3:7). this causes us to live for our own interests and not those of others. this sinful spiritual state effects our emotions (soul) and the way we think and thus, behave (rom 7:15-23). within this scripture paul is speaking about himself and how he feels that there seems to be a war inside him. this war entails two entities: that which he knows is the right thing to do, he doesn’t do and that which he knows is the wrong thing to do, he does. so he ends up doing what he knows he shouldn’t do. he refers to this as a war against his mind (his good intentions) and his sinful nature (selfish desire/motivations to do wrong). this sinful nature working within him is identified by paul as the “flesh”. when we study the fruits of this flesh, we notice in galatians 5:19-22 that it is behaviour ociated with selfishness. so, the intentions of paul in romans 7 many times, in terms of his flesh, are selfish. this selfishness is in constant battle with what paul knows god wants.

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paul needs to live for what god wants and not what he wants, because what he wants is for his own benefit. however, this selfish intention is a form of sin and representative of our sinful spiritual state (möller 1998: 28). because our spiritual state affects our soul and body, it will affect our desires; our thinking and will eventually then take place in our emotions and behavior (rom 7:21-24). verse 24, shows that paul immediately experiences emotions due to this battle. thus, our emotions are effected. an important aspect of how to counteract this selfish intention would be found when paul exhorts us to renew our thinking (eph 4:23) and also to change our spiritual state of sin into a spiritual state of communion with god. this is done in chapter 7:25 by recognizing that christ’s death on the cross has made it possible for humans to once again be reconciled to god (to rid their spiritual existence of the effect of sin). ephesians 4:23 explains the process of how we as humans are able to also use what we are thinking, rethink it according to our good intentions of selflessness (which our renewed spiritual state contributes to), and in so doing change the way we feel and behave.

we also do not only exist in relationship with ourselves, but god intended us to exist in relationship to others and not to be alone (gen 2:18). within this text we can see that god did not want people to be alone, but created another human being to be in relationship and to provide companionship for each other. we exist within a relationship-based society. whether it be marriage or friendship, we are relational beings. we also exist, (because we are spirit) in a relationship with god (who is spirit) and in relationship with others (lev 19:18) and creation (gen 1:28), which we are called to look after (gen 1:28). god intended us to be social beings. he wanted us to have company or a companion. (gen 1:27) thus, people are holistic beings in terms of their existence (body, soul and spirit) and also their relationships with god, each other and their environment.

it is theologically, correct then when we say that an aspect of our purpose is to have transactions and interact with everything god created, with whom ever we encounter. this interaction entails a spiritual, physical, cognitive and emotional

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relationship. this is because we are not autonomous, but exist in a relationship with ourselves, others and the environment around us. we are therefore inter-dependant and interconnected.

4.2.3 people as emotional beings

from a theological perspective, because we were created holistically, we can say that god created and intended people to interact emotionally with their environment. to do so, god (as provider) would give us the ability to feel, identify and express emotions. god also intended us to use these emotions within our interaction everyday. thus, god would most certainly provide us with the capacity of emotional intelligence.

emotional intelligence and its development within humans show how awesome god created us (salovey and sluyter 1997: 102). god enabled our brain to evolve and to grow and develop our emotional capacity at specific times, in which we needed to function emotionally (see chapter 3, salovey and sluyter 1997). from the age of infancy we have the capacity and the mental capacity according to salovey, to identify and express emotions (salovey and sluyter 1997: 10).

theologically, god created us with this capacity for emotional regulation so we can function effectively according to our emotional needs. god also does this for the well being of people. in psalm 139 god is depicted as creating us and weaving us together in our mother’s womb. every part is woven together for our functioning. this includes our emotional development and faculties that regulate this development. god identifies the need for people to regulate their emotions effectively so as to produce intelligent good behavior, uplifting for all (john 15:12). god created people with the capacity to cry, feel and express their emotions. god also identifies appropriate ways for us to behave and use these abilities so as to be beneficial for everyone. according to goleman this is

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emotional intelligent behaviour. “to behave appropriately with one’s emotions” (1995: xiv).

this is also evident with the functioning of our brain regions and the emotional centers and rational centers of our brain (salovey and sluyter 1997, mayer 2001, bar-on and parker 2000). it is our responsibility to effectively use these abilities for the effective functioning within our relationships and to produce appropriate behaviour. appropriate behaviour theologically can be summed up in the greatest commandment (deut 11:13) that god had given: to act in love towards god and our neighbours. we must use every facility god has given us, emotionally to be responsible with our emotions.

thus, a theological perspective clearly sees the use for emotional intelligence and its necessity due to the presupposition that god created people for a purpose, enabling them to live productively. providing them with hope for the future (jer 29:11) and will endow people with whatever they need to fulfill that purpose (rom 8:28-30). emotional intelligence is possibly one of the many abilities god has given people to live successfully emotionally, despite the turmoil they are surrounded with.

4.3 an evaluation of emotional intelligence according to a mixed and an ability model

it has been noted that when we act with emotional intelligence our behaviour will produce certain characteristics (goleman 1995). salovey and mayer and particularly goleman have identified a number of characteristics emotional intelligence will produce. goleman however has identified these characteristics as emotional intelligence. while salovey and mayer (chapter 2) identify it as the results/fruits of being emotionally intelligent.

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these are:

• self control

• self awareness

• constructive thinking

• empathy

• good interpersonal relationships

4.3.1 self control

people were created with emotions and with the responsibility to effectively control these emotions. but, as seen with emotional intelligence and the bible, people behave destructively sometimes and seem to loose this self-control (gal 5:19-20). the concept of self-control is central to emotional intelligence. according to goleman, emotional intelligence exists to produce self-control. “if there are any two moral stances that our times call for, they are precisely these, self-restraint and comp ion” (1995: xii).

biblically, we see that self-control is extremely important for our life. this is because people are selfish (effect of sin) and thus fall prey to self-gratification. galatians 5:22-23 says, “but the fruit of the spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness and self control”. the bible sees self-control as essential for our well being. self-control is seen as fruitful behaviour essential for responsible behaviour. if we look at gal 5:19-21 (fruit of the flesh), we see the types of destructive behaviour that oppose self-control.

the bible identifies the behaviour of the flesh with destructive selfish, sinful behaviour and the fruit of the spirit as our behaviour when restored back to god (galatians 5:24). being restored back to god implies that our original relationship with god is restored (genesis 1). people now accept that they are unable to be god and so allow god to be god. this entails surrender by people of their selfish

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motivations (psalm 139:23-24) and a dependence on god to give them the strength to defeat selfishness through the power of the holy spirit (john 14: 16-20).

the bible sees self-control as the result of “living in the spirit” (gal 5:22). this means living the way god wants us to live and relying on him. this life is lead by the holy spirit’s guidance (john 14:16-20). in contrast to this would be living in the flesh. living in the flesh is when we live for ourselves, according to our sinful spiritual nature (as paul described in roman 7:17-25-see 4.2.2). this is characterized by a selfish heart motivation for you and you alone (gal 5: 19-21).

the bible clearly shows us that when someone lives in the flesh, in their own selfishness they will produce the fruit of the flesh, which is not self-control (gal 5: 19-21). according to gal 5:19-21 this fleshly behaviour is hatred, selfish ambition, fighting, adultery etc. it is interesting to note that this fleshly behaviour is exactly what is prevalent in society and precisely the result of our inability to control our selfishness. it is also what emotional intelligence seeks to prevent. goleman sees emotional intelligence producing a delay in gratification (1995: 8).

jesus christ dealt effectively with his stressful situations and environment, by delaying self-gratification. he experienced emotions and identified and expressed them in a controlled manner. in this regard we think of the famous quote of aristotle. “anyone can become angry that is easy. but to be angry with the right person, to the right degree, at the right time, for the right purpose, and in the right way, this is not easy” (goleman 1995: v). jesus portrays this in his behaviour towards the moneychangers in the temple (mathew 21:12-16; mark 11:15-19; luke 19:45-47; john 2:13-16). jesus effectively controlled his anger. he acted emotionally intelligently even in the fact that he took time off to think first, before he reacted (john 2:25).

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he also controlled his reactions by controlling his emotions with the way he dealt with the jewish leaders. he simply did not answer them out of anger, but thought first before he spoke (matt 12:14, 15:1,16:1). this is good emotional intelligence concerning an ability model of emotional intelligence. jesus used his cognitive ability first. many times our behaviour doesn’t necessarily need to be physical behaviour. we react in words as well. this behaviour is many a time also destructive (james 3:2-12). james clearly warns us of the destructive behaviour produced by what we say and gossiping. he likens the tongue to a fire that can spread and cause destruction. anyone who controls the tongue can control the whole body.

on the cross jesus was able to control his emotions (matt 27: 37-50). when we look at the way in which he died, jesus could have come down from the cross when told to do so (möller 1998). he was innocent and didn’t deserve this crucifixion and he was god, able to perform miracles. but, he had the self-control necessary to control his emotions because he controlled his motivations. we even see that he prayed for strength in the garden of gethsemane (luke 22:39-46) because of the emotional turmoil he underwent (matt 26:36-46). so much so that the anxiety he experienced was so great he perspired blood. but, he knew, somehow he needed god’s guidance and aid. if he had done it for himself, then yes he would have come down from the cross and would never have submitted to god’s will in the garden. this we see with his statement, “father take this cup from me, nevertheless, not my will, but thine be done” (matt 26:42).

this ability to control the motivation of his heart (and not just the thoughts and emotions) from selfishness of sin to selflessness for god resulted in his death on the cross, which theologically saved the whole world (john 3:16-17). we see how he was tempted in every way by the devil in the wilderness. the wilderness journey is the common example of how his self-control was tested and yet he did not succumb (matthew 4:1-11). why?

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if christ had lived for himself and his gain, he would have given up his self-control. the reason why he succeeded in self-control every time was because he was able to control his selfish heart motivation too. this was done by identifying, regulating and managing his emotions, while being aware of the selfish motivation fueling his emotions. he very often did this with the aid of prayer (luke 22:39-26).

emotional intelligence and the bible identify the importance of self-control for our behaviour. one of the reasons for our irresponsible behaviour is caused by our heart motivation (often fuelled by our sinful spiritual state) which many times fuels or interacts with our emotions. if we are to identify these emotions and manage them effectively, we will also need to identify the heart motivation fueling our emotion and so prevent selfish behaviour and deal with our sinful spiritual state. this will then produce self-control.

theologically, jesus was able to deal with his stressful environment using emotional intelligence. as a result, he exercised self-control under the most difficult circumstances. many times the reason for our loss of self-control is our inability to also identify our heart motivation. the reasons why we are angry and to then think whether it is a good proposition. this is emotional intelligence. but, there is a better chance of not reacting in anger if (according to emotional intelligence) we check what and why we are feeling and to then see if it is appropriate. this will be more effective when at the same time we deal with the selfish motivation fuelling the anger.

4.3.2 thinking differently

according to goleman, one of the ways we produce self-control is to challenge our thought patterns, before we react on our emotions (goleman 1995: 79, epstein 1998: 10). this stalls the hormone surge to the emotional brain and decreases the chances of it hijacking the rational. “actively generating such

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thoughts may prime the circuitry that can inhibit the limbic driving worry; at the same time, actively inducing a relaxed state counters the signals for anxiety the emotional brain is sending throughout the body” (1995: 69). goleman sees the inability of our self-control as a result of our emotional brain hijacking our rational brain. but, thinking before we act, can enable us with enough time to produce self-control.

this makes sense, but we cannot account for our bad behaviour as being the result of our emotional hijackings. there are many times in which we think before we act, but still produce bad behaviour. this therefore is not only the result of a possible hijacking but also rather the result of the motivation of our hearts interacting with the way we think and feel. ironically, goleman admits this a little later, when he says, “the train of angry thoughts that strokes the anger is also potentially the key to one of the most powerful ways to defuse this anger: undermining the convictions (motivations of our hearts) that are fueling the anger in the first place” (1995: 60).

goleman agrees that our “convictions”, what we believe/motivations with our hearts fuels our emotions. many times our motivations fuel our thoughts, which interact with our emotions. theologically, our selfish motivations (sinful spiritual state) are the cause for us to think selfishly and feel selfishly and so react selfishly (prov 23:7). emotional intelligence can aid us in identifying our emotions but more importantly the fuel for our emotions, which will lead, to the selfishness of our motivations/convictions. emotional intelligence could not only aid in the identification of our emotions but also that, which is fueling our emotions.

the bible is extremely clear on the way our thoughts affect our behaviour (phil 2:3-5, 4:7, eph 4:23). goleman agrees. “brooding fuels anger’s flames, but seeing things differently douses those flames”. (1995: 60). the bible says, “as a man thinks so is he” (prov 23:7). we must carefully note the link the bible makes between thought and action. what and how you think produces action. what and

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how you feel also produces action. how you think combines with how you feel producing action (forgas 2001, epstein 1998). the bible clearly sees thinking differently and challenging the destructive thought towards action, as intelligent behaviour.

the bible talks about challenging our thoughts and the way we think (eph 4:23). this process has to take place daily. this is referred to as “renewing our mind/attitude” and not allowing our mind to be “conformed to the way the world (society) thinks (selfishly)”. to continually remind ourselves of how we think and why (our heart motivation) and then weighing it up to how we should think and what our motivation should be, will enable us to live prosperously. in the wilderness jesus had to renew his mind all the time, as an was enticing him to follow his own selfish desires (matt 4:1-11). an offered jesus all the kingdoms and wealth there was. if he were to follow selfishness, then he would have fallen into the devil’s temptation.

we see that emotional intelligence and the aspect of challenging our thoughts is the advice that god gives us to follow also. but, we are yet again challenged by god to go deeper and deal with the real underlying problem: the motivation of our heart from selfishness towards selflessness. thinking constructively is a theological principle and an emotionally intelligent one.

4.3.3 empathy and interpersonal relationships

empathy produced by emotional intelligence is extremely important for successful relationships and for individual success (flury 2001). empathy is being aware of the feelings and emotions of others, so we can effectively deal with others. the effects of empathy in the workplace (in terms of emotional intelligence) are seen in the fact that its application is sought after by companies and corporations (caruso 2001, goleman 1995). they see their success in

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healthy relationships with their colleagues. people are relational beings and need to know how to effectively deal with their relationships.

empathy however is also the advice god gives us in the bible. it would also be expected, as god has created us to be in relationship not only with him, but also with others and creation. the biggest biblical motivational principle for empathy is embedded in the ten commandments (ex 20:1-17). according to jesus, all ten are based on two. if we are to keep these two we automatically keep all ten (matt 23:40). we are to love god and our neighbours. if we loved both we would not steal, commit adultery or murder. the commandments were given to people as guidelines to cope and keep the peace (produce intelligent behavior) (möller 1998).

these two commandments (matt 23:34-40) are not mere do’s and don’ts. they deal more (once again), with the motivation (convictions) of our hearts (love for others like we do ourselves). once again they go deeper than mere practical things to do in order to help our society. they look deep into the hearts of people for what drives them. love is not conditional, it is unconditional. it seeks the good of others first and not of ourselves. love is not selfish. we see this clearly in 1 cor 13, when paul is speaking to the people to display love in the church services. according to the scripture, love is not to be selfish and try to show how “spiritual” you are by not giving others a chance to speak within the service. they must allow others to share too. that is why love is “kind, patient, does not boast or is not envious”. god is love (1 john 4:8). god is not selfish, thus selfishness opposes god. if sin opposes god then selfishness is a characteristic of sinfulness.

according to the bible, jesus death on the cross is the ultimate love shown. (somebody laying his life down-john 15:13). god shows us that the recipe for successful and peaceful relationships is the concept of love (jn 15:12). when we look at the life of jesus we see that he had empathy and comp ion towards

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people. with the prostitutes, widows, tax collectors, homeless, he cared more for them than the jewish leaders of his day did. he unconditionally accepted them with a love that only selfless love could give. with his own friends, even lazarus (jn 11), we see that he cried tears of sorrow at his death, before raising him to life. jesus healed, raised from the dead, accepted and helped all those who crossed his path. why was he this successful? he lived for god and others, not for himself. thus, the bible agrees with emotional intelligence on the importance of empathy, but links the success of empathy with the selfless motivation of humanity’s heart towards god and others.

it’s not just jesus that portrays empathy, but also the apostles. particularly paul in his writings exhorts people to stand together, being built up by one another, carrying each other (heb 3:13, 10:25, rom 15:20). the ability of empathy is surely a biblical principle and a needed one. a great deal of empathy is driven by love. “the roots of morality are to be found in empathy, since it is sharing in someone’s distress that moves people to act and help” (goleman 1995: 105). the central aspect of empathy, illustrated by hoffman in goleman, shows that empathy is build from love. love regulates the moral jud ent and decrees. (this we see with the ten commandments - love regulates all that).

4.3.4 self awareness

being aware of our emotions and the danger many times in their application is another aspect within emotional intelligence (mayer 2001). we cannot show empathy, without first being aware of ourselves (flury 2001). being aware of who you are, how you react in many situations and your emotions, brings you back to the first and primary aspect for self-awareness. knowing who you are as person and your strengths and weaknesses.

this is also however, an aspect concerning god’s guidance to us. we need to realize who we are and how we were created to be (ps 139:23-24). people need

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to be aware of the fact that they are not perfect, that they all have weaknesses and temptations (1 cor 7) and therefore they must not think too highly of themselves. theologically, if people would just realize how dependent they should be on god, then they would realize that their strength lies in their creator (ps 147, ps 118). but, because of their pride and arrogance they are continually trying to be better than everyone else (prov 8:13). we see this also with paul’s exhortation to love in 1 corinthians 13. it becomes a competition, in which we need to win and not merely cope. our pride causes us to fall and naively think, “we are”. we need to be aware that we are selfish and this is causing us to react the way we do. emotional intelligence directs people to look deeply into themselves and people need to take it further to their heart motivation.

our self-awareness of who we are enables us to realistically live in relationship with ourselves, our creator and our relationship with others. theologically we should get to the fact where we realize that we should be living for god (rom 12:1) along with others and creation. we have been created in his image (gen 1:27) meaning god has placed attributes of himself within us. the reason why we are comp ionate, loving and caring is due to god’s characteristics he has placed and given to us to live for him and others (möller 1998). it is part of our god given make up to be empathetic. but, because of sin’s selfish effect on us, it is difficult for us to naturally display these god given attributes. sin has made us selfish and we would rather live for ourselves, than be kind to others (rom 6:19).

4.4 the current scenario

currently, i feel society has not contemplated fully the enormous impact our selfishness has on our thinking, emotions and ultimately our behaviour. society is currently preoccupied with “managing” the crisis. it is about managing our emotions and our destructive thinking and behaviour. theologically, i believe society will need to go further than mere mana ent and reach for a more

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desirable outcome. one, which will cause our selfishness to become less and our selflessness to become more (phil 3:7-13).

emotional intelligence enables me to know what to do practically to “manage” in situations where my emotions can lead to destructive behaviour. but, i need to realize the reason for and the prevention of this inability to control my emotion lies also with the motivation of my heart (my sinful spiritual state) that needs to be changed. this goleman refers to as “convictions/p ions”. i do believe that emotional intelligence can offer more than a mere identification of our emotions and their regulation. i believe that emotional intelligence can also aid us in identifying our heart motivations too (mayer 2001).

however, research done on intelligence recently (zohar 2000, covey 1998, wolman 2001), shows society has not been naive to the fact that we also have a spiritual aspect to our being. with gardner’s definitions of multiple intelligences and the development of the concept of intelligence towards a more holistic approach to people and their abilities (sternberg 1985, gardner 1983), clearly paves the way for what researchers identify as ”spiritual intelligence”. although there are many differences in opinion concerning the definition of the word ”spiritual”, there is consensus that humanity has a spiritual aspect to their being. the problem as to why there is such difference in definition is the fact that science cannot accurately measure the spiritual aspect of humanity. scientist’s still say it is something that belongs to the intra aspect of humanity (gardner: 1983). but, the fact that people have a spiritual aspect to themselves is no longer denied.

from a theological perspective this is correct. theologically, humanity does have a spiritual aspect. they were created by god and exist as spirit, soul and body (1 thess 5:23). what is interesting to note is the fact that there is a valuable link between the success of a person’s emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence (zohar 2000). the more a person is tuned into spiritual intelligence

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coupled with emotional intelligence, the greater their ability to deal effectively with their interpersonal relationships (wolman 2001).

theologically, the question would be could spiritual intelligence provide us with a better awareness of our selfishness (our spiritual state)? this linked with emotional intelligence could produce greater results needed (wolman 2001). spiritual intelligence being a recent topic of discussion is very premature and primitive in its definition and practice. but, the primary umption would be the fact that in order for people to function productively, we would also need to develop this spiritual aspect of our being.

spiritual intelligence combined with emotional intelligence could produce desired results and behaviour in terms of individual benefits and peace with those around us (dalai lama 2003). this is an outcome society has longed for and g pled with from the very beginning, but something the bible speaks about (matt 23:34-40). there is definitely more research that needs to go into the development of spiritual intelligence. but, as the concept progresses, so will the development of its research possibilities and implications for society.

4.5 conclusion

society has realized the turmoil it is in and seeks an answer to this problem. the answer (or part of it) seems to be in emotional intelligence. as we see in the application of it in schools, corporations and individuals, its value is deemed extremely high and the need for it even more so. god did not create humanity, to die in self-destruct mode and be riddled with the inability to cope. god wants humanity to be fruitful and successful in all they do (jer 29:11-12, gen 1:28).

theologically, the value of emotional intelligence is not disputed and truly is an effective method and preventative strategy for society’s irresponsible behaviour. however, theologically we would say that the underlying problem with humanity

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is the fact that sin has caused us to be extremely selfish. so much so, that we simply want to live for ourselves, not for god and not for others. because of this, our way of thinking, emotions, our motivation and our behaviour therefore is selfish. humanity has emotions, but because of our selfish thinking, our behaviour concerning these emotions combined with the selfish motivations of our heart lead us to behave and react selfishly. we will be angry, unforgiving, hurtful, murderous, and adulterous, because we want what we want. people don’t matter and when people don’t matter – who cares about god? god doesn’t even exist.

what goleman does not highlight is this aspect. the fact that part of the cause for our destructive behaviour is the inability to deal with our emotions many times fuelled by our selfish p ions. this is due to the fact, (not only to brain function) that our emotions are driven and motivated by the combination of our selfish motivation of heart and our selfish thinking, caused by the ultimate culprit: sin in general. the only way we can effectively deal with this root cause of our destructive behaviour is to deal with our selfish hearts (phil 2:3-8) effected by sin. thus, ultimately our spiritual nature.

emotional intelligence and its characteristics are definitely not seen as an ineffective method, because it is actually what god expected from us and gives us as guidelines for effective living within the bible. but, this has to be motivated by selfless motivation (love). this must happen on a daily basis (eph 4:23). this is why emotional intelligence is important because it will aid us to deal with our underlying selfish motivations on a daily basis. having much of its roots and principles in the bible, from a biblical perspective, it is a method of practical living required for daily success. combined and seen through a bigger picture of how it fits in with the general problem of humanity, it is effective. the possibility is there that it will be even more effective (for our spiritual condition) as an instrument of aid, when practiced within a theological framework for humanity’s problem of selfishness brought by sin.

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so, there is a vaccine for this vast epidemic. it reaches deep down to humanity’s heart, rids it of the impurity of selfishness, pumping it towards a selfless living with the creator while infiltrating humanity’s thinking. this is all fueled by a constant application of emotional intelligence within our daily lives. a person can come into a situation, in which their emotions interact with their heart motivation, this will enable them to challenge the selfish thoughts and motivations, thus equipping them to (in using emotional intelligence) react emotionally intelligently and at the same time deal with their spiritual sinful state. in essence this is true emotional intelligence to its fullest potential. we are dealing with our emotions, identifying them and regulating them, at the same time this is fueled to even more flame, when regulating and identifying our heart motivation at the same time.

the findings revealed that emotional intelligence and its behavioural characteristics are, actually, biblical guidelines god gave people to live by from the beginning. this we see with the references in the bible to renewal of our thinking (eph 4:23); self-control (gal 5:22); self-awareness (psalm 139) and empathy (matt 22:36) in relationship with others. the characteristics of an emotional intelligent way of living are prescribed by god in the bible.

it doesn't matter how much we use our emotional intelligence. many times we will still fail to produce the behaviour we should. this is because of our own selfishness we need to deal with. although jesus exercised emotional intelligence, it was the emotional intelligence and the unselfishness of his heart that allowed him to live in freedom. we can exercise emotional intelligence, but if our heart is selfish, our behaviour will be selfish. thus, a murderer can still exercise emotional intelligence and produce behaviour that will enable him to hurt because his heart’s motive is hurt. emotional intelligence can also be manipulated by people to produce evil. the church has the responsibility to teach

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emotional intelligence, but with the emphasis on the fact that our heart’s motive must be made right. this can only happen when we surrender fully to god

it is not emotional intelligence that is a solution to our destructive behavior; it is rather our surrender to a god who gave us emotional intelligence to deal with our selfish environment, in an unselfish way. scientifically, emotional intelligence is correct, it is humanity’s responsibility and provision to behave properly. the cause of this destructive behaviour rightly so, is humanity’s inability to control its emotions. but, the cause of this inability to control is not only attributed to the emotional brain reacting too quickly. it is rather our motivation, which will lead us to our heart, leading us to our treasure (matt 6:21).

cobb, c. d., & mayer, j. d. (2000). emotional intelligence: what the research says. educational leadership, 58(3), 14 .

elias, m. j., (1993). social decision making and life skills development guidelines for middle school educators. gaithersburg, md: aspen.

elias, m. j., ubriaco, m., reese, a. m., gara, m., rothbaum, p. a., & haviland, m. (1992). a measure for adaptation to problematic academic and interpersonal tasks of middle school. journal of middle school psychology, 30, 41-57.

gardner, h., (1993). multiple intelligences. the theory in practice. new york: harpercollins.

goleman, d. (1995). emotional intelligence. new york: bantam.

goleman, d. (1996). emotional intelligence. why it matters more than iq. learning, 24(6), 49-50.

jensen, e. (1998). teaching with the brain in mind. alexandria, va: ociation for supervision and curriculum development.

richardson, t. l. (2000). emotional intelligence as a mediator of transition trauma in students progressing from elementary to middle school. unpublished doctoral dissertation. florida state university, tallah ee, fl.

schilling, d., (1996). 50 activities for teaching emotional intelligence. level i, elementary school. torrance, ca: interchoice.



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conversion and "brainwashing" in new religious movements -3
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brainwashing vs. totalitarian influence: summary of empirical conflicts

as we have shown, the cia brainwashing model which had been disconfirmed by lifton and others, as well as the body of research on nrms described above, provides the claimed theoretical foundation for all statements of brainwashing theory, including cultic brainwashing formulations such as zablocki’s. consequently, zablocki’s cultic brainwashing theory, like the earlier second stage statements of cultic brainwashing theory, such as those of singer and ofshe, is contradicted by its own claimed theoretical foundation, that is the research of schein and lifton. anthony’s 1990 article demonstrated that eight variables differentiated singer’s and ofshe’s second stage brainwashing theory from schein’s and lifton’s research. anthony’s 2001 article demonstrated the same set of conflicts between zablocki’s approach and generally accepted research on communist thought reform, and this article has demonstrated similar conflicts between all brainwashing formulations, including zablocki’s, and a large body of contemporary research on nrms.

as anthony argued in his 1990 article, schein’s and lifton’s research on communist forceful indoctrination practices disconfirmed the cia model with respect to 8 variables. these are: 1) conversion; none of schein’s and lifton’s subjects be e committed to communist worldviews as a result of the thought reform program. only two of lifton’s 40 subjects and only one or two of schein’s 15 subjects emerged from the thought reform process expressing sympathy for communism and none of them actually be e communists. communist coercive persuasion produced behavioral compliance but not belief in communist ideology (lifton, 1961, 117, 248-49; schein, 1958, 332, 1961, 157-166, 1973, 295.) 2) predisposing motives; those subjects who were at all influenced by communist indoctrination practices were predisposed to be so before they were subjected to them (lifton, 1961, 130; schein, 1961, 104-110, 140-156; 1973, 295); 3) physical coercion; communist indoctrination practices produced involuntary influence only in that subjects were forced to participate in them through extreme physical coercion. (lifton, 1961, 13; 1976, 327-328; schein 1959, 437[26], 1961, 125-127); 4) continuity with normal social influence; the non-physical techniques of influence utilized in communist thought reform are common in normal social influence situations. (lifton, 1961, 438-461; schein, 1961, 269-282, 1962, 90-97, 1964, 331-351 ) 5) conditioning; no distinctive conditioning procedures were utilized in communist coercive persuasion (schein, 1959, 437-438, 1973, 284-285; biderman, 1962, 550); 6) psychophysiological stress/debilitation; the extreme physically-based stress and debilitation to which imprisoned thought reform victims were subjected did not cause involuntary commitment to communist worldviews. (hinkle and wolff, 1956; lifton, 117, 248-49; schein, 1958, 332, 1961, 157-166, 1973, 295. moreover, no comparable practices are present in new religious movements (anthony, 1990, 309-311); 7) deception/defective thought; victims of communist thought reform did not become committed to communism as a result of deception or defective thought. (schein, 1961, 202-203, 238-39) 8) dissociation/hypnosis/suggestibility.those subjected to thought reform did not become hyper-suggestible as a result of altered states of consciousness, e.g. hypnosis, dissociation, disorientation, etc. (schein, 1959, 457; biderman, 1962, 550)

the primary basis for zablocki’s “exit costs” third stage brainwashing perspective is the notion that the research of lifton and schein had demonstrated that communist thought reform could bring about a conversion to the communism worldview that: 1) did not result from predisposing motives to respond favorably to communist ideology; 2) resulted rather from disorientation, suppression of critical thought, hyper-suggestibility, and the resulting inability to resist propaganda advocating an alternative worldview; 3) persisted once the thought reform process had been completed; 4) was difficult for the convert to communism to repudiate even at the point at which he or she desired to do so

as anthony demonstrates in various publications, however, (1990, 1996, 2001) all of these propositions were disconfirmed by schein’s and lifton’s research. none of their subjects be e communists at any point and only a very small number of them showed any degree of increased sympathy for communist ideas. those few who be e more sympathetic to communism did so because of predisposing motives to respond favorably to communist ideology rather than because of a disoriented state, decreased cognitive ability, hyper-suggestibility and a resulting inability to resist ideas to which they were not naturally attracted. furthermore, there was no evidence that those few subjects felt t ped or mentally imprisoned by their sympathy for some communist ideas.

it would seem that like singer’s and ofshe’s account of the brainwashing paradigm, zablocki’s “exit costs” brainwashing theory conflicts in fundamental ways with its claimed theoretical and empirical foundation of generally accepted research upon communist thought reform. if there is any scientific support for zablocki’s brainwashing perspective, it would it would have to come from sources other than its alleged relationship to communist thought reform. the abundant and methodologically sound research on nrms discussed in this article has also disconfirmed zablocki’s, as well as the other versions of the brainwashing idea.

in our earlier discussion on the history of the conversion concept, we showed that in western history the concept typically has been interpreted as the transformation of person’s identity to a form that embodies a deeper commitment to a religious worldview to which he was already superficially committed. it is only in relatively recent times that conversion has been seen as necessarily involving switching to a different religious worldview or organizational commitment.

the “conversion” or “born again” experience, common in western religious history from english and american puritanism to contemporary american revivals such as the ones conducted by billy graham, has typically not involved religious switching in the sense umed by some versions of cultic brainwashing theory. adopting a new worldview and changing one’s religious affiliation may or may not be as aspect of religious conversion, but it is the adoption of a “new” self and a “new” more religiously committed way of life that is the essence of conversion concept.

zablocki’s reinterpretation of the brainwashing concept as a coercively imposed transformation of identity and a dramatically enhanced degree of commitment to a pre-existing religious worldview is compatible with conversion in this traditional sense of the term. in terms of the scientific evaluation of the brainwashing idea, it is not really significant whether such coercive conversion to a different self and a deeper level of commitment to a religious worldview is conceptualized as occurring at the beginning of an attachment to a religious worldview, or whether such a conversion to a new self is coercively imposed after the initial commitment to the worldview has already begun. in either case, this transformation involves “conversion” in the sense of a religiously significant transformation of the self.

the key issue relative to the scientific standing of brainwashing theory is whether the transformation of self and commitment (whether to a new or to a pre-existing worldview) has been coercively imposed in a way that contradicts the free will of the individual, and whether that claim of coercive influence has been confirmed or disconfirmed by scientific research. as we have shown, in its major dimensions and empirical claims, zablocki’s “exit costs” formulation of the brainwashing idea is the same as the earlier versions of brainwashing theory that he claims to be repudiating as unscientific. zablocki’s formulation, like all other brainwashing formulations, is essentially a minor, cosmetically altered versions of the same basic theory. that core brainwashing theory has been conclusively disconfirmed in all of the realms in which it has been scientifically evaluated.

conclusion

this paper has achieved its purpose if it has raised some doubts about the simplistic extrinsic “brainwashing” model of participation in new religions or other social movements and suggested a more nuanced interactive model. those who undergo a conversion experience whether in their pre-existing or in a new religion tend to be “seekers” who experiment with the transformation self to a deeper and more religiously committed form.

notwithstanding some deception and manipulation in the self-presentation of some groups, there is generally some “elective affinity” between the group and the recruit, which commences a process of interaction in which certain types of individuals and certain types of groups jointly create a religious milieu. the group may strongly influence the devotee and play a necessary but not sufficient condition in the nature of his/her conversion to a new self, but devotees also influence the evolution of groups, especially when a group attracts many unstable persons or when participants’ orientations entail an expectation of strong, charismatic leadership.

recruits frequently defect when they perceive that a group does not meet their needs, is less ideologically or otherwise congruent with their predispositions, or is evolving in a problematic direction. the selectivity of potential recruits and potential defectors would appear to limit the application of the extrinsic model. moreover, contrary to the exit costs” interpretation of the brainwashing idea, the members of relatively totalitarian groups, which have high defection rates, are more apt to defect than members of more democratic groups. this would seem to indicate that so-called cults have lower rather than higher exit costs when compared to more democratic groups. there appears to be little evidence that people are confined in formally voluntary totalistic groups against their will, or that the “new self” resulting from a conversion experience in such groups is imposed in a way that is ego-alien and independent of the nature of their pre-conversion selves.

this paper has a subtext. the realities of recruitment, defection and authoritarianism in even totalistic “cults” cannot fully explain the fixation of the anticult movement on the use of “mind control” and allied constructs to characterize and stigmatize conversion/commitment processes in “cults.” elsewhere we have documented a latent or concealed concern with the content of cultic beliefs on the part of the fiercest critics of “destructive cults” (anthony, 1990; anthony and robbins, 1995b). as noted in our introductory section, through various “disestablishments” (hammond, 1992), american culture and religion has evolved in a direction in which personal autonomy, religious diversity and lifestyle choices have continually expanded. the proliferation of esoteric movements may reflect the emergence of a new “postmodern” cultural stage.

the authors believe that the anticult movement is a kind of revitalization movement for a “modern” (as opposed to postmodern) culture in which there has been considerable spiritual diversity yet less than the current disorientating explosion with its challenge to the dominant utilitarian individualist ethos. an additional dimension of the mind control fixation is related to the problematic quality of autonomy in the postmodern world in which an expansion of apparent diversity and choice co-exists with both a cultural celebration of individualism and latent anxieties over hidden threats to personal autonomy emanating from m advertising, state surveillance, new technology, the “iron cage” of bureaucratic rationalism, currents of fanaticism, etc. as james beckford suggested in cult controversies (beckford, 1985), the symbolic and social issues raised by controversies over cults may ultimately be more significant than the movements themselves.

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endnotes

[1] for summaries of conversion research in the 1970s and 1980s, see snow and machalek (1984) and robbins (1988, 63-99). see also machalek and snow (1993) and richardson (1993). for an overview of cult/brainwashing discourse, see dawson (1998, 102-127). see also zablocki and robbins, ed (2001) for several papers representing different perspectives on cult/brainwashing issues.

[2] see particularly flo conway and jim siegelman’s popular volume (1978. 2nd ed., 1986) snapping: america’s epidemic of m personality change.

[3] political and the utic ideologies such as marxism and freudian psychoanalysis may also qualify as varieties of self-estran ent theory.

[4] on suicidal/homicidal collective violence ociated with alternative religions, see robbins and palmer (1997), dawson (1998, 128-157), hall et. al., (2000), wessinger (2000), richardson (2001), anthony et. al., (2002). it is not the view of the present writers that there are no objectionable, disruptive or even pathological and dangerous elements ociated with some deviant religious movements (cf anthony et. al., 1991; robbins, 1997).

[5] conversion has often been thought of as something that happens to or is done to a more or less p ive recipient, e.g., saint paul being converted by a divine voice on the road to damascus. richardson (1985, 1993) argues that conversion is often a dynamic active endeavor on the part of the convert and particularly with regard to converts to new movements.

[6] majority opinion of judge stanley mosk, et. al., david molko and tracy leal vs. the holy spirit for the unification of world christianity. 762 p. 2d 46 (cal. 1988), p. 52.

[7] schein (1961, 125-127). elsewhere schein (1959) has suggested that elements of coercive persuasion may be found in many conventional institutions such as reputable religious orders, college fraternities, etc. this latter view expands the coercive persuasion idea beyond the setting of physical constraint but still affords little basis for separating “cults” from other institutions as distinctively coercive, i.e., coercive persuasion becomes nearly ubiquitous. see anthony and robbins (1992).

[8] lifton employs the term “brainwashing” a number of times in his book (1961), but generally puts the term in quotation marks. moreover, he demystifies the term, rejecting “an image of ‘brainwashing’ as an all-powerful, irresistible, unfathomable and magical method of achieving total control over the human mind.” such misleading and sen ional usage “makes the word a rallying point for fear, resentment, urges toward submission. justification for failure, irresponsible, accu ion and for a wide gamut of emotional extremism” (1961, 4). we would argue that lifton is not really writing in the brainwashing tradition of sargent, meerloo (1956) and others. he has been interpreted in this connection in part because of the cold war context, and partly because of the harsh conditions which the chinese officials imposed on his subjects and which he describes.

[9] darrow and simon were particularly predisposed or susceptible to manipulation by totalitarian captors because, as lifton notes, they lacked the strong beliefs and integrative totalist centre of their fellow captive, fundamentalist bishop barker. darrow and simon thus “responded very strongly to the opportunity to merge with the chinese people,” and through their embrace of new values and their evident “sincerity,” cope with their guilt feelings. “both achieved a greater harmony with their prison environment than with any they had previously known . .” (lifton, 1961, 218).

[10] this is not to say that the brutal treatment of their subjects by the chinese communists wasn’t atrocious or didn’t “cause” the conversions by compelling subjects to remain accessible to their captors. theorists in the crusade against cults maintain that deception employed by some cult recruiters (which appears to us as basically a foot-in-the-door tactic) is the functional equivalent of the raw physical constraint employed by totalitarian officials in initially bringing and keeping subjects in an indoctrination setting (delgado, 1977). it has also been claimed that the subtle and purely psychological (i.e., non-physical) persuasive methods of cults more potent and destructive than the crude tactics of communist totalitarians (ofshe and singer, 1986). of course, the use of physical coercion may well reduce the amount of authentic, persisting orientational shift (as opposed to short-term behavioral compliance), but simply because non-physically coercive methods may be more effective than crude constraint doesn’t mean that “subtle” non-physically coercive methods are more involuntarist.

[11] it is worth noting that the authoritarian personality (adorno, et. al., 1950) represents, in part the culmination of an initially european tradition of theorizing about the appeal of fascism that involved scholars such as hannah, arendt, william reich and erich fromm. as the cold war developed and concern shifted from fascism to communism the focus of inquiry shifted from the types of persons who are attracted to totalitarianism to the manipulative indoctrination methods employed by sinister communist regimes to remold followers (anthony and robbins, 1984). see erikson (1942) for an early contribution to the original european tradition of inquiry into the appeal of totalism which anticipates some of the ideas developed here.

[12] dr. barker’s book (1984) received the distinguished book award from the society for the scientific study of religion. in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the unification church (“moonies”) was in its heyday and was generally considered the most controversial and stigmatized “destructive cult.”

[13] barker’s analysis of the on-site intensive indoctrination process really picks up where zimbardo and hartley’s discussion of preliminary contacts with cult recruiters leaves off.

[14] levine (1984ab) claims to have heavily studied 15 groups and several hundred individuals. these are part of a larger group of about 1000 individuals who, as a the ist and consultant, he has had some contact with (or with their relative). the 1970s and 80s may have been the heyday of youth culture alternative religions.

[15] see reimer and reimer (1982), bromley (1987), wright (1988), rochford et. al., (1989) and wright and ebaugh (1993).

[16] see solomon (1981), wright (1984) and lewis (1986).

[17] this pattern is evident in a study of a racist christian identity group (young, 1990). “identity members engage in self-idealization” (1990, 150) and project defects and weaknesses on to outsiders. “to perceive oneself as pure, impure feelings and impulses must be projected into a world where they become embodied in others” (young, 1990, 157). the racist leader legitimates recruits’ existing pent-up hostility and directs it toward designated ideological scapegoats. “as a transitional object, the cult leader helps members express hostile impulses . . . when the cult leader initiates an antisocial act . . . cult leaders become free to act in a guiltless and violent way” (1990, 157). see also wright and wright (1980), an important theoretical piece on leaders of solidarity groups as parental surrogates and “transitional objects.”

[18] for evidence of elitism, paranoia and conspiracy theories in the church of scientology, see (surprisingly) the scientology handbook (1994), and official publication based on the writings of founder, l. ron hubbard. for discussions of elitism, volatility and antinomianism in various groups, see anthony, eckard and wilber (1988).

[19] in an unpublished but provocative study (jones, et. al.,) a hare krishna sample scored the highest among eleven samples of (mainly but not entirely unconventional) religious groups to whom was administered a revised authoritarianism (f. scale) measure in berkeley in 1980 under the supervision of r. nevitt sanford, one of the original co-authors of the authoritarian personality (adorno, et. al., 1950).

[20] the “dogmatism” construct and “d” scale were developed by milton rokeach in an attempt to refine the earlier “authoritarian personality” construct into a pure measure of cognitive style.

[21] anthony’s approach has served as the primary basis for legal briefs (motions in limine, summary judgment motions, appeal briefs) designed to convince judges to exclude cultic brainwashing testimony because of the unscientific character of the brainwashing formulations upon which it is based. (as a legal consultant and expert witness anthony has both testified against the scientific standing of cultic brianwsing testimony and has also helped lawyers in applying this approach to the legal issues and facts of specific cases.) see anthony 1990 for the original statement of the argument which has become the primary basis for legal briefs and testimony arguing the unscientific character of cultic brainwashing testimony; see anthony, 1996, 2000, and anthony and robbins, 1992, 1995a for elaborations of this basic argument and descriptions of its effects upon cultic brainwashing legal cases.

[22] on 223 zablocki quotes lifton as arguing that cults produce “doubling” in their converts. the quote from lifton is the following: “intense milieu control can contribute to a dramatic change of identity which i call ‘doubling’: the formation of a second self which lives side by side with the former one, often for a considerable period of time.” lifton, 1991, 2). i am not sure what lifton intended his readers to understand by this statement, but he could not accurately be claiming, as zablocki interprets him as claiming, that his “doubling” concept is equivalent to the brainwashing notion of a false or shadow self. lifton developed the concept of doubling, by which he meant the simultaneous existence of two radically dissimilar selves in the same person, which would express themselves in contradictory manners in different social contexts, to account for the behavior of nazi doctors who engaged in inhumane medical research in their nazi professional context, but who were during the same period humane and decent individuals with their families. (lifton, 1986; 1987, 195-208)
doubling as lifton defines it may be seen as an extreme example of the very different interpersonal styles which people in modern industrialized nations express in their professional and their personal lives. in the former they may be highly competitive (and metaphorically bloodthirsty) capitalists whereas in the personal context they may be humane and loving. the differences in ethical and interpersonal character of the same people in the economic vs. the personal spheres in a much remarked upon characteristic of modern societies which has served as a central organizing principle of major sociological theories, e.g. those of parsons and habermas.
on the other hand, zablocki’s and other brainwashing theorists conception of the false or shadow self, is very different than the concept of doubling in that it involves the notion of a new but inauthentic self which replaces the original and authentic self rather than living side by side with it at the same time in the same person. if the brainwashed person as described by zablocki, singer, and other cult brainwashing theorists were characterized by doubling they should be able to move smoothly back and forth between the cult and the pre-cult or familial contexts without apparent difficulty. but zablocki and his cohort describe the brainwashed person as being unable to this except with great difficulty. see for instance zablocki’s discussion of what he refers to as the “shadow self imbued with the cult ideology” on pgs. 236 and 237 of his 1998 article. see also west and martin, 1994)
doubling as lifton defines it, no matter how extreme, could not reasonably be interpreted as implying the involuntary, compulsive or addictive attachment to a false self that zablocki imputes to it. according to lifton, doubling is the normal means by which people choose to engage in immoral activity. as such it is voluntarily chosen by the person rather than being imposed upon him/her by an external agent or institution. in addressing the involuntariness issue relative to the doubling concept, lifton says:

in sum, doubling is the psychological means by which one invokes the evil potential of the self. that evil is neither inherent in the self nor foreign to it. to live out the doubling and call forth the evil is a moral choice for which one is responsible, whatever the level of consciousness involved. by means of doubling, nazi doctors made a faustian choice for evil: in the process of doubling, in fact, lies an overall key to human evil. (1986, 423, 424; lifton repeats the same quote in his 1987 article, 201)

[23] disorientation has an accepted and well-defined scientific meaning in only in two inter-related scientific field, i.e. psychiatry and neurology. in those fields, disorientation refers only to the specific lack of awareness of one’s identity, the time and date, and one’s geog hical location. see pbell, 1981, 180, 434. see also, webster’s unabridged dictionary, 1996, “disorient psychiatry. to cause to lose perception of time, place or one’s personal identify. in these definitions, personal identity refers only to literal awareness of one’s name and of one’s status as a specific psychological/physical entity with a specific physical and social history. it does not refer to the subtler and more controversial discontinuities in selfhood which are alleged to be a consequence of brainwashing. testing for “orientation” with respect to personal identity, place and time is generally the first test conducted in a standard psychiatric interview of mental status exam. disorientation in this sense is considered to indicate that the patient is suffering from a neurological rather than a psychological disorder, e.g. one of the senile dementias, or a toxic brain conditioned induced by drugs or physical disease.
in defining brainwashing as a process that is accomplished primarily by means of disorientation, zablocki appears to be giving the disorientation term a more metaphorical and less precise meaning than its scientific meaning in psychiatry, as a way of disputing the allegedly transcendent or mystical character of the altered states of consciousness in which religious influence often occurs. in this less precise form, however, disorientation is an evaluative rather than a scientific term, as it is unfalsifiable. that is, thus used, the term has no clear operational definition such that its presence could be disconfirmed in research on the conversion process. in discussing this issue with zablocki, he was unable to provide me with a precise scientific definition for his usage such that its absence in a specific instance could be empirically determined, and he questioned whether the term has the restricted meaning in psychiatry which i have specified above. however, he was unable to provide me with a citation to any other well-accepted and falsifiable usage in psychiatry or any other science.
indicated, in psychiatry or neurology, lack of orientation with respect to person place and time is considered to be diagnostic or some form of organic brain dysfunction, as opposed to the sorts of mental disease that have social environmental and psychodynamic causes. in the latter part of his 1998 article, -- zablocki claims that brainwashing has an organic basis (neuroendocrinological or neurophysiological) and is thus distinguishable from other forms of social influence on this basis. in using the term disorientation rather than hypnosis or trance, zablocki may have been implying this speculative organic basis for brainwashing. as i will discuss below, he bases his hopes that the brainwashing concept will some day be falsifiable on the umption that it has a distinctively organic basis. however, as he admits in that section, he cannot provide any scientific or empirically falsifiable basis for this speculation, and his vague and unfalsifiable use of the disorientation term seems consistent with this admission.

[24] zablocki does supply a scientific citation for his use of the term “hypnotic suggestibility” which he uses as an apparent synonym for the meaning he gives to the disorientation term in the p ages quoted above. on page 237 of his 1998 brainwashing article he claims that orne’s 1972 article reports research that demonstrates that people “can be hypnotized to do things against their will”. as we will discuss below, however, orne’s article demonstrates findings which are exactly the opposite of the conclusion that zablocki imputes to it, that is, orne’s research demonstrated that hypnosis cannot be used to get people to do things against their will. in zablocki’s case as is typical for brainwashing theorists, the terms for primitive consciousness viewed as essential for brainwashing are either so vaguely defined that they unfalsifiable, or when they are defined through a claimed basis in scientific research, that research is typically misinterpreted, as with zablocki’s and other brainwashing theorists’ claim that the brainwashing thesis is based upon lifton’s and schein’s research.

[25] in his 1980 book zablocki describes the disorientation and cognitive deficiency which he believes to be characteristic of the imposition of the brainwashed state thusly:

the cognitive disorder ociated with type 5, or absolute, charisma is submissiveness. the common manifestations of this among cult members, the gl y eyes, the hollow beaming smile, are too well known to need examples here. as many accounts of cult experiences have indicated a(e.g. edwards, 1979), these exaggerated symptoms of extreme cognitive submissiveness (turning off the mind) are a conditioned response, among cult members, to any challenge to the absolute truth of the cult reality. (zablocki, 1980, 332, emphasis mine)

on the next page zablocki describes the transition o roup from being a legitimate christian group to a brainwashed cult:

it was at this time also that the gl y-eyed, frozen smile look began to appear on the faces of the waystation members. in terms of our model this was a symptom of a crisis of self-estran ent. a sense of legitimate total commitment to the charismatic leader had given way to an artificial forced total commitment, maintained only through adherence to the mind-emptying discipline of submissiveness. (zablocki, 1980, 333, emphasis mine)

in his 1998 article zablocki acknowledges that research has demonstrated that such disorientation and defective cognition are not characteristic of allegedly brainwashed member so so-called cults (pg. 232), but he attempts to get around this by claiming that these qualities are only essential characteristics of cult converts during the process of brainwashing rather than after they have been successfully brainwashed. “the popular ociation of brainwashing with zombie or robot states comes out of a confusion between the physical characteristics of people going through the brainwashing process and the characteristics of those who have completed the process.” (232, emphasis his) in his earlier book however, he appears to be saying that such cognitive defects are continuing characteristics of cult members, i.e. “an artificial forced total commitment, maintained only through adherence to the mind-emptying discipline of submissiveness”. it is likely that this shift (from viewing disorientation and extreme cognitive defects as essential to the ongoing maintenance of brainwashed “forced total commitment” to the cult, to viewing disorientation and extreme cognitive defects as characteristic only of the process of brainwashing but not of continuing commitment to the cult), is an example of tactical ambiguity in the face of disconfirming evidence.

[26] schein states: “the coercive element in coercive persuasion is paramount (forcing the individual into a situation in which he must, in order to survive physically and psychologically, expose himself to persuasive attempts).”(1959, 437)



مشاهده متن کامل ...
extracellular vesicles-it’s gdna content as an additional biomarkers
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

extracellular vesicles-it’s gdna content as an additional biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and mana ent of pca

edited by:mohammad hezarkhani md,urologist

board-certified of urology,tehran university ,the member of iranian urological ociation

madaen hospital tehran iran

tehranclinic hospital tehran iran

[email protected]

www.hezarkhani. hosted in washington dc, united states

august 29. 2014

extracellular vesicles (evs) are heterogeneous populations of membrane vesicles released by cells into their microenvironment and blood circulation. evs are important mediators of intercellular communication and disease progression, and they are considered to play a fundamental role in many physiological and pathological processes.

evs are considered to play a key role in cell-to-cell communication since they may transfer the genetic cargo of their parental cells, and thus modulate the biological functions of their recipient cells. it is known that evs contain proteins, lipids, mrna and microrna fragments but the presence of dna has not been systematically reported so far.

presently, a broad consensus cl ifies evs into three main cl es based on the differences in their size, formation mechanism, and content. apoptotic bodies (abs) are the largest evs, with a size range of 1–4 µm. they are released by all cell types during the late stages of apoptosis. it is widely known that abs contain nuclear material from the dying cells, being able to participate in the horizontal transfer of oncogenes. microparticles or microvesicles (mvs) are plasma membrane-derived vesicles defined as 0.2–1.0 µm in size, which are formed by outward shedding of the plasma membrane.

exosomes (exos) are the smallest membranous vesicles, between 40 and 100 nm in diameter. they are first secreted into the endosome-derived multivesicular bodies and then liberated by the fusion of the multivesicular body with the plasma membrane.

functions of cell-derived vesicles

a. intercellular signaling

to summarize and present the extensive literature on exosome-mediated signaling, we have decided to review their functions and processes rather than the cl es of molecules involved. as it is increasingly unclear what type of vesicles has been investigated in many studies, we will use the term as mentioned in the original work unless indicated otherwise.

1. immune suppression.

by transporting ligands and receptors ,exosomes can orchestrate cell growth and development, and modulate the immune system. activated t cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells release vesicles exposing fas ligand (fasl), a death receptor ligand, suggesting that these vesicles play a role in cell death during immune regulation ,these vesicles are likely to be exosomes because fasl is stored in mves in t cells .the sorting of fasl to mves and exosomes is regulated by phosphorylation and monoubiquitination ,and the secretion of fasl-exposing exosomes is mediated by diacylglycerol kinase-α .int ritoneal injection of fasl-exposing exosomes triggers apoptosis of macrophages in vivo .

the ability of vesicles to modulate the immune response is likely to play a role in normal growth and development. for instance, the invading trophoblast is a semiallograft and should in theory be rejected by the mother as “foreign” material. during normal pregnancy, the trophoblast evades the maternal immune system by killing activated t cells that have been sensitized to paternal alloantigens. first-trimester trophoblast cells release exosomes exposing fasl, which are capable of inducing fas-mediated t-cell death, suggesting that exosomes contribute to this immune privilege .because sera from pregnant women exhibit higher levels of fasl- ociated with exosomes at term compared with preterm, it is thought that immune suppression by exosomes may contribute to normal pregnancy and delivery .placenta-derived exosomes also expose several ligands of the natural killer (nk) cell receptor nkg2d, ul-16 binding proteins 1–5, and major histocompatibility complex (mhc) cl i chain-related protein, which all down-regulate nkg2d on nk cells, cd8+ cells, and γδ t cells, thereby all potentially contributing to fetal immune escape .

the ability of exosomes to mediate cell killing at a distance is also used by tumor cells to evade the immune system. fasl is present in mves of melanoma cells and a prostate cancer cell line, and fasl-exposing vesicles from these tumor cells kill jurkat t cells in vitro. therefore, tumor-derived vesicles may provide an important front-line defense mechanism by inhibiting the homing and antitumor activity of immunocompetent cells. in addition, epithelial ovarian cancer cells from ascites release fasl-exposing microvesicles that are capable of inducing t-cell apoptosis .likewise, fasl-exposing microvesicles isolated from sera of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma induce t-cell apoptosis, and in these patients, there is a correlation between the microvesicle- ociated levels of fasl and tumor burden, suggesting that vesicle-mediated immune suppression (indirectly) promotes tumor growth and development in vivo .fasl is not the only mediator of tumor-induced suppression of the immune system, because exosomes from human tumor cell lines and mouse mammary tumor cells inhibit (interleukin-2-induced) proliferation of nk cells, illustrating that tumor-derived exosomes suppress the cytotoxic response to tumor cells .

the loss of nkg2d, an activating receptor for nk, nkt, cd8+, and γδ+ t cells, in cancer is also one of the key mechanisms of immune evasion. exosomes from cancer cell lines or isolated from pleural effusion of patients with mesothelioma down-regulate nkg2d expression of nk cells and cd8+ cells via a transforming growth factor (tgf)-β-dependent mechanism, indicating that nkg2d may be one of the targets for exosome-mediated immune evasion .in addition, the high incidence of relapse and fatal outcome in many blood malignancies such as leukemia and lymphoma has been ociated with the expression of several nkg2d ligands on exosomes .alternatively, differentiation of myeloid cells to myeloid-derived suppressor cells, immature myeloid cells that have the ability to suppress t-cell activation and thereby promote tumor progression, induce the expression of tgf-β and prostacyclin e2 within tumor-derived exosomes .in another study, tumor-derived exosomes from mouse cell lines were shown to inhibit immune surveillance by binding to myeloid-derived suppressor cells, thereby increasing the immune suppressive activity of these cells. this interaction was mediated by the exposure of hsp72 on exosomes. further evidence that tumor-derived exosomes contribute to immune suppression in vivo comes from the observation that inhibition of exosome production by a drug to treat high blood pressure, dimethyl amiloride, enhances the antitumor efficacy of the chemothe utic drug cyclophosphamide in mouse tumor models .finally, local immune responses are inhibited by high levels of extracellular adenosine, which prevent t-cell activation. exosomes from several cancer cell lines expose potent atp and 5′amp-phosphohydrolytic activity, thereby contributing to locally high concentration of adenosine. exosomes from pleural effusion of patients with mesothelioma contained 20% of the total atp-hydrolytic activity, indicating that exosomes may contribute to inhibition of t cells in the tumor environment by this mechanism .taken together, exosomes are likely to orchestrate the efficacy of the immune system by a whole set of different mechanisms important not only for normal development but also for tumor development.

besides healthy and tumor cells, viruses and parasites exploit the ability of exosomes to kill immune cells at a distance to evade the immune system. the latent membrane protein-1 (lmp-1) of epstein-barr virus (ebv), which is exposed on exosomes from ebv-infected cells, inhibits the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. this mechanism is thought to be relevant in development of ebv- ociated tumors, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma and hodgkin's disease, by allowing tumor cells to evade the immune system .cells infected with the intracellular parasite leishmania donovani secrete exosomes that contain and deliver parasite proteins to host target cells, and suppress the immune response by preventing the activation of human monocytes .exosomes from plasma of mice immunized to keyhole limpet hemocyanin specifically suppress a keyhole limpet hemocyanin delayed-type hypersensitivity inflammatory response, which is partially dependent on exosomal fasl .

although considerable evidence thus suggests that cell-derived vesicles are involved in immune suppression, there are also studies showing that exosomes may exhibit opposing activity or do not contribute to suppression. for example, exosomes from synovial fibroblasts of rheumatoid arthritis patients expose tnf- α, which delays t-cell activation-induced cell death and thus contributes to apoptosis resistance .in addition, soluble factors but not the microvesicles from patients with non–small-cell lung carcinoma (nsclc) were shown to induce t-cell apoptosis .furthermore, exosomes from human pancreatic tumor cells inhibit tumor progression by counteracting constitutively active survival pathways, thereby inducing apoptosis of tumor cells rather than apoptosis of immune cells .in sum, the exact role and contribution of microvesicles or exosomes to immune suppression depends on the models studied and is likely to be complex.

2. antigen presentation.

vesicles are used by cells not only to suppress the immune system but also to present antigens .for example, intestinal epithelial cells endocytose dietary proteins, and serum obtained from mice fed with a particular protein can suppress hypersensitivity reactions when this serum is administered to other mice before exposure to this protein. processing of the antigen in the gut is required to achieve oral (immune) tolerance via serum transfer. although the true nature of the “tolerogen” in serum is unknown, exosomes are likely candidate tolerogens, because human and mouse intestinal epithelial cells release exosomes exposing mhc cl i and mhc cl ii molecules at both the apical and basolateral sides, suggesting a possible involvement of exosomes in the transcellular transport of antigens from the lumen of the gut to immune cells .to test the ability of vesicles to deliver “transcellular information” to the immune system in vivo, mice received peritoneal injection with exosomes from epithelial cells that had been incubated with pepsin/trypsin ovalbumin hydroly e (hova) to mimic luminal digestion. exosomes from intestinal epithelial cells treated with hova and interferon-γ, which is added to increase the secretion of exosomes ,expose abundant mhc-cl ii/ova complexes. these exosomes, however, induce a specific humoral immune response in vivo, suggesting that these exosomes trigger an immunogenic rather than a tolerogenic response .because these exosomes preferentially interact with dendritic cells (dcs), they can strongly facilitate antigen presentation to t cells, thereby providing luminal antigenic information to local immune cells and thus facilitating immune surveillance at mucosal surfaces .

in a mouse model of allergic asthma, serum or isolated exosomes from serum of donor mice fed with ovalbumin were transferred to mice followed by intranasal exposure to ovalbumin. mice receiving serum or isolated exosomes from ovalbumin-fed mice showed tolerance to ovalbumin exposure, because these mice had a reduced concentration of airway eosinophils, lower serum levels of total ige and ovalbumin-specific ige, and an increased concentration of activated t cells with a regulatory phenotypethan control animals. thus, exosomes have the ability to prevent allergic sensitization .

exosomes, isolated from conditioned medium of b-cell lines originating from patients with birch pollen allergy and loaded with t-cell-activating peptides from a major birch allergen, induce a dose-dependent t-cell proliferation and increase the production of interleukin 5 and 13 by t cells, indicating that b-cell exosomes may contribute to and worsen allergic immune responses .in contrast, exosomes from bal fluid of mice exposed to an olive pollen allergen inhibit the ige response, cytokine production, and airway inflammation, all signs of allergy, upon exposure to the allergen, showing that these exosomes induce tolerance rather than allergic immune responses .

the initiation of t-cell-mediated antitumor immune responses requires uptake, processing, and presentation of tumor antigens by dcs. exosomes from mouse tumor cells transfer tumor antigens to dcs in vitro. the binding of these intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (i -1)-exposing exosomes to dcs, which express lymphocyte function- ociated antigen-1 (lfa-1) and macrophage 1-antigen as the two major ligands of i -1, is mediated only by lfa-1. because both mature (cd8+) and immature (cd8) dcs expose lfa-1, it has been suggested that the interaction between i -1 and lfa-1 plays a role in the exosome-mediated transfer of antigens to dcs .after binding and uptake of tumor-derived exosomes, dcs are capable of inducing cd8+ t cell-mediated antitumor effects on established mouse tumors in vivo, indicating that tumor-derived exosomes can present tumor antigens to elicit an antitumor immune response .

after uptake of antigens, dcs also secrete exosomes that expose both mhc complexes and t-cell costimulatory molecules. although an antigen-specific cd4+ t cell activation is induced by injection of antigen- or peptide-exposing exosomes from dcs in vivo, this response only occurs in the presence of mature dcs in vitro, suggesting that the exchange of functional peptide-mhc complexes between (subsets of) dcs by dc-derived exosomes may be a prerequisite to induce an efficient and antigen-specific t-cell response in vivo. as such, this exosome-mediated mechanism may amplify the initiation of the primary adaptive immune response. indeed, dc-derived exosomes transfer functional mhc cl i/peptide complexes to other dcs, but the presence of mature dcs is essential to efficiently prime cytotoxic t cells in vivo.

mature dcs express mhc cl ii to present peptide antigens to t cells. immature dcs, however, have only low surface levels of mhc cl ii because the peptide-loaded mhc cl ii complexes are ubiquitinated and predestined for lysosomal degradation. activation of immature dcs inhibits ubiquitination of the mhc cl ii-antigen complexes, which results in an increased cell surface exposure of these complexes. in turn, exosomes exposing mhc cl ii-antigen complexes are secreted from antigen-loaded dcs when these cells contact antigen-specific cd4+ t cells. this secretion is preceded by accumulation of intraluminal vesicles exposing both mhc cl ii and cd9 in mves. the sorting of mhc cl ii molecules to these intraluminal vesicles requires incorporation into cd9-containing detergent-resistant membrane domains but is independent of ubiquitination, indicating that different intracellular pathways exist for trafficking of mves predestined for either lysosomal degradation or secretion .it should be pointed out that exosomes from dcs may also be internalized by epithelial cells, which will then produce and release cytokines and chemokines. thus, exosomes from dcs play a role not only in adaptive immunity but also in innate immunity .

exosomes may also present antigens from microorganisms and allergens. toxoplasma gondii can cause severe sequelae in fetuses of mothers who acquire infection during pregnancy as well as life-threatening neuropathy in immunocompromised patients. exosomes from a mouse dc cell line incubated with t. gondii-derived antigens trigger a strong systemic humoral immune response in vivo and conferred good protection against infection, suggesting that dc-derived exosomes can be used for immunoprophylaxis. exosomes produced by dcs loaded with protozoan parasite leishmania major antigens provide an effective vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis ,and infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis primes macrophages to release increased numbers of exosomes and microvesicles exposingm. tuberculosis peptide-mhc cl ii complexes and hsp70 that enhance antimicrobial t-cell responses. finally, intramuscular immunization of chickens with exosomes from dcs incubated with eimeria tenella (avian coccidiosis) antigens induces protective immunity against avian coccidiosis. in these examples, presentation of antigens by exosomes induces immune tolerance rather than immune responses. taken together, presentation of antigens by exosomes affects the immune response at various levels in vitro as well as in vivo. nevertheless, although exosomes are involved in presentation of specific antigens, they may also play other roles in host defense, for instance, exosomes from human tracheobronchial epithelial cells expose epithelial mucins that immobilize human influenza virus by binding viral α-2,6-linked sialic acid .

3. transfer of signaling components.

cell-derived vesicles also play a role in the intercellular exchange of signaling components. treatment of microvesicles from platelets and erythrocytes with nonpancreatic secretory phospholipase a2, which is inactive toward whole cells, generates lysophosphatidic acid, which in turn triggers platelet aggregation. because secretory phospholipase a2 and lysophosphatidic acid-containing microvesicles are both present in synovial fluid of inflamed joints, the formation of lysophosphatidic acid is likely to occur in vivo .likewise, treatment of microparticles from activated platelets with secretory phospholipase a2 produces intravesicular arachidonic acid, which is transferred and then metabolized by platelets to thromboxane a2 by cyclooxygenase-1, and by endothelial cells to prostacylin by cyclooxygenase-2 .the ability of platelet microparticles to increase adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells is due to the presence of intravesicular arachidonic acid .vesicles can evidently transfer lipids between cells for further metabolization, and thus lipid transfer may play a role in atherosclerosis and inflammation.

an elegant example of vesicle-mediated transfer of other signaling elements comes from studies on progesterone-induced ca2+ signals, which play a key role in sperm motility. the progesterone-induced ca2+ signals require fusion with prostasomes, which transfer progesterone receptors, cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose-synthesizing enzymes, ryanodine receptors, and other ca2+-signaling tools to the sperm. inhibition of cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose-synthesizing enzymes or depletion of ryanodine receptors from prostasomes reduces sperm motility and fertilization rates, showing that sperm motility and fertilization may depend on the acquisition of ca2+-signaling tools from prostasomes .

another example comes from the wnt-signaling pathway in dcs. the wnt pathway plays an important role in both normal development and cancer. wnt signaling activity, however, is suppressed by secretion of β-catenin in exosomes, revealing that exosomal packaging and release of cytosolic proteins can affect cellular signaling pathways .exosomes can also contain proteins involved in the apoptotic signaling pathway. for instance, survivin, an inhibitor of caspase activation that promotes proliferation, survival and tumor cell invasion, is also secreted by exosomes .thus, it is clear that cells can exchange functional signaling components between cells.

4. inflammation.

cell-derived vesicles can trigger the production of tissue factor (tf) and proinflammatory cytokines by activating target cells for instance, microparticles from n-formyl-met-leu-phe-stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmns) activate endothelial cells by increasing tyrosine phosphorylation of the 46-kda c-jun nh2-terminal kinase (jnk) 1. this activation results in expression and production of tf and interleukin-6. because these vesicles, called “ectosomes,” are released at sites of inflammation in vitro and in vivo and expose the complement receptor 1 required for binding to opsonized bacteria, these vesicles have been suggested to represent an “ecto-organelle” designed to focus antimicrobial activity onto opsonized surfaces .on the other hand, the effects of microparticles from pmns may be strongly cell-type-dependent, because human macrophages are inhibited upon incubation with pmn-derived microparticles, resulting in production of tgf-β and inhibition of the inflammatory response of macrophages to zymosan or lipopolysaccharide (lps). this inhibition requires binding of microparticles to macrophages but is independent from their phagocytosis. furthermore, pmn-derived microparticles contain the anti-inflammatory protein annexin-1, and intravenous delivery of these microparticles blocks recruitment of pmn in an inflammatory model in an annexin-1-dependent mechanism in vivo, suggesting that pmn-derived microparticles may have both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties at sites of inflammation .

cell-derived vesicles have the ability to affect inflammation by transferring transport receptors and inflammatory mediators. microvesicles or exosomes are a major pathway for fast secretion of interleukin 1β, which lacks a signal peptide. interleukin 1β was recently shown to be one of the key mediators within microparticles from monocytes, together with other components of the inflammasome, responsible for activation of endothelial cells .likewise, mouse macrophages, stimulated with atp, release exosomes with ent ped interleukin-1β, caspase-1 and other components of the inflammasome .in addition, microvesicles from p2x7 receptor-stimulated mature dcs contain interleukin-1β .furthermore, microparticles contain platelet-activating factor and can expose the soluble (non–cell-bound) but full-length 55-kda form of tnf receptor 1, which is also found in human serum and lung epithelial lining fluid .

proteins are not the only biologically active component of vesicles that play a role in inflammatory responses, because the lipid fraction of microvesicles activates macrophage toll like receptor (tlr) 4. because the ability of these microparticles to activate tlr4 is impaired by preincubation with an inhibitor of phospholipase d, which does not affect the release of microvesicles but inhibits hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidic acid, this further supports the lipid nature of the active component .in addition, exosomes from dcs and macrophages, and microvesicles from human plasma, contain functional enzymes for synthesis of leukotrienes, which are potent lipid inflammatory mediators .

the ability of vesicles to modulate the inflammatory response is not limited to blood. autologous vesicles from synovial fluid and microparticles from t cells, monocytes, and platelets trigger the production and release of interleukins 6 and 8, matrix metalloproteases, monocyte-chemotactic proteins 1 and 2, vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf), and i -1 by synovial fibroblasts, indicating that these vesicles enhance the destructive activity of these fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis. one of the mechanisms by which microparticles activate synovial fibroblasts is transfer of arachidonic acid from leukocytes to synovial fibroblasts via microparticles .furthermore, synovial microparticles expose tf and are extremely procoagulant, which could explain the presence of fibrin deposition within inflamed joints. in addition, microparticles from human airway epithelial cells stimulate the production of proinflammatory mediators, thereby possibly enhancing the inflammatory airway response .

peripheral blood of patients with preeclampsia contains elevated concentrations of placenta-derived vesicles compared with normal pregnancy. these vesicles, often called syncytiotrophoblast microparticles, bind to monocytes and the endothelium, thereby triggering the production of proinflammatory mediators. this suggests that syncytiotrophoblast microparticles contribute to the increased systemic inflammatory responsiveness in preeclampsia.

microparticles from human atherosclerotic plaques have been shown to mediate the functional transfer of i -1 to endothelial cells, thereby promoting the adhesion of monocytes and trans-endothelial migration. the transfer of i -1 from microparticles to endothelial cells results in increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 after i -1 ligation .thus, plaque mps may further facilitate atherosclerotic plaque progression.

exosome-like vesicles released from adipose tissue are taken up by peripheral blood monocytes after intravenous injection, which then differentiate into macrophages producing increased levels of tnf-α and interleukin-6. injection of these vesicles into wild-type c57bl/6 mice results in development of insulin resistance, whereas injection into tlr-4 knockout b6 mice results in much lower levels of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, pointing to a role for tlr4 in the induction of inflammatory mediators by exosome-like vesicles from adipose tissue. evidently, exosomes and other vesicles can influence the inflammatory response in several ways.

5. tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis.

exosomes can transfer the metastatic activity of highly metastatic bl6–10 melanoma tumor cells to poorly metastatic f1 melanoma tumor cells in vitro. mice develop lung metastatic colonies when f1 cells are injected together with exosomes from bl6–10 exosomes, whereas mice injected solely with f1 cells develop no metastatic colonies .the ability of exosomes to promote metastasis and angiogenesis can be increased when exosomes are released under hypoxic conditions (i.e., conditions that many tumors encounter when growing) .

one of the molecular mechanisms underlying the intercellular transfer of metastatic activity is the transfer of an oncogenic growth factor receptor or their ligand .the truncated form of the egfr viii is transferred from glioma cancer cells by microvesicles to glioma cells lacking this receptor, in a mechanism involving detergent-resistant membrane domains (lipid rafts). the transferred receptor is fully functional and results in a full transfer of the oncogenic activity, including activation of the transforming signaling pathways (mitogen-activated protein kinase, akt), changes in expression of egfrviii-regulated genes (vegf, bcl-xl, p27), morphological transformation, and increase in anchorage-independent cell growth capacity. on the other hand, human breast and colorectal cancer cells release exosomes containing full-length, signaling-competent egfr ligands, and the invasive potential of colon cancer cell lines is related to the concentration of exosomes containing amphiregulin, one of the egfr ligands, suggesting that ligand exchange contributes to cancer invasiveness and metastasis .

vesicles can also contribute to tumor growth and development via several other mechanisms. for instance, cancer cells can release vesicles containing the fas- ociated death domain, a key adaptor protein that transmits apoptotic signals and becomes lost in many cancer cells .in

addition, exosomes may protect tumor cells from entering or accumulation of antitumor drugs, thereby possibly contributing to (multi)drug resistance. for instance, exosomes from her2-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines, or exosomes present in serum from patients with breast cancer, capture the humanized antibody trastuzumab, thereby reducing the effective concentration of this anticancer drug .vesicles may also contribute to drug resistance by exchanging drug transporters between cells. one of the most important drug transporters is p-glycoprotein, a transmembrane protein and member of the atp binding c ette superfamily, which can be exchanged between cells via vesicles .p-glycoprotein, a key protein involved in multidrug resistance, is widely expressed at pharmacological interfaces such as the blood-brain barrier, blood-testis barrier, and along the gastrointestinal track (where the influx of carcinogens and harmful chemicals is prevented). overexpression of p-glycoprotein by cancer cells correlates with anticancer drug failure in many types of cancer. there is also evidence that drugs are sorted, concentrated, and removed from cells via secretion of exosomes (e.g., cisplatin in drug-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells) .

vesicles can also promote vascular development, which is highly relevant for tumor growth. for instance, notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that plays an essential role in vascular development and angiogenesis. δ-like 4 (dll4) is a notch ligand that is up-regulated during angiogenesis by endothelial cells and regulates the differentiation between tip cells and stalk cells of the neovasculature. dll4 is incorporated into exosomes of endothelial cells and tumor cells, and it can be transferred to endothelial cells, where it is incorporated into the plasma membrane. once incorporated, dll4 inhibits notch signaling and induces the loss of notch receptor, which results in a tip cell phenotype and increases branch formation of vessels .

there are other ways in which vesicles promote tumor growth, including the release of active matrix-degrading enzymes ,stimulation of angiogenesis (taverna et al., 2011), and production of tf ,but these mechanisms have been summarized excellently elsewhere

6. morphogens.

the morphogen wnt is important in development of the mature nervous system. wnt is transported in vesicles across synapses in drosophila melanogaster larval neuromuscular junctions .however, the transport of morphogens is not limited to d. melanogaster; it also occurs in higher organisms. for instance, microvesicles from t cells or human blood contain functional hedgehog proteins, which play a role in development, and these vesicles are capable of inducing differentiation of pluripotent erythroleukemic cells in vitro .

7. genetic information.

bacteria exchange genetic information via outer membrane vesicles .in 2007, it was described that eukaryotic cells can exchange functional genetic information by vesicles as well .exosomes from mouse and human mast cell lines as well as exosomes from primary bone marrow-derived mouse mast cells were shown to contain mrna and mirna .the mrna of approximately 1300 genes was detectable, many of which were below the detection limit in the cytoplasm of the donor cells. in vitro translation showed that mrna could be translated, and transfer of mouse exosomal rna to human mast cells induces expression of mouse proteins. thus, exosomes have the capacity to facilitate the intercellular exchange of functional genetic information. exosomes from t cells transfer mirna to antigen-presenting cells ,and exosomes from dcs contain different mirnas depending on the maturation stage of the dcs. fusion of these exosomes with acceptor dcs results in the transfer of functional mirnas,as shown by the reduced expression of target mrna. thus, intercellular exchange of mirnas by vesicles can affect post-transcriptional regulation .in addition, exosomes from glioblastoma cells transfer functional mrna, mirna, and angiogenic proteins to brain microvascular endothelial cells, thus stimulating tubule formation and proliferation of glioma cells .several mrnas and mirnas characteristic of gliomas were detected in some but not all sera of patients with glioblastoma, suggesting that exosomes contain diagnostic information. likewise, microvesicles from a colorectal cancer cell line contain mrna, including 27 mrnas encoding cell-cycle related proteins. these exosomes triggered proliferation of endothelial cells, again confirming that vesicles can induce angiogenesis and thus promote tumor growth and metastasis .

exosomes from astrocytes and glioblastoma cells also contain mitochondrial dna ,and microvesicles from several tumors and tumor cell lines have been shown to contain elevated levels of specific coding as well as noncoding rna and dna, mutated and amplified oncogene sequences, and transposable elements .in addition, serum-derived exosomes from tumor-bearing mice contain the amplified oncogene c-myc, suggesting that the genetic information in tumor-derived vesicles can potentially be a unique tumor biomarker .it is to be expected that vesicles in biological fluids will contain genetic information, and therefore it is not surprising that exosomes from, for example, human saliva, plasma, and milk all contain detectable levels of rna, including mrna .

pathogens have “hijacked” cell-derived vesicles as a transport vehicle to exchange genetic information between cells without the risk of being recognized by the immune system. exosomes from nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells harboring latent ebv contain viral mirnas, some of which are enriched compared with intracellular levels. this increased concentration of viral mirnas may help to manipulate the tumor microenvironment to influence the growth of neighboring cells .in addition, human herpes virus 4 or ebv encodes mirnas that can be transferred from infected to uninfected cells by exosomes. again, transferred mirnas are functional because they down-regulate target gene expression in recipient cells. the mirna-mediated gene silencing is a potentially important mechanism of intercellular communication. several components of rna-induced silencing complexes are present in exosomes, suggesting that this complex may be involved in the sorting of mirnas into exosomes .taken together, the role of vesicles in the exchange of functional genetic information between cells is not limited to prokaryotes but may also contribute to physiological and pathological processes in eukaryotes.

8. prions.

prion diseases are infectious and fatal neurodegenerative disorders due to accumulation of, for example, abnormally folded prion protein (prp) s ie (prpsc) in the central nervous system. prpsc catalyzes the further conversion of normal cellular prp into prpsc. both forms of prion protein, prp and prpsc, have been found in exosomes. because exosomes containing prpsc are infectious, they are likely to contribute to the spreading of prions. likewise, a fraction of β-amyloid peptides is ociated with exosomes in alzheimer's disease. because exosomal proteins accumulate in plaques of patient brains, exosomes are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of alzheimer's disease .

9. viruses.

viruses use vesicles for infection and survival .microparticles transfer receptors that are essential for entry of hiv to cells lacking these receptors. for instance, transfer of the chemokine receptors ccr5 and cxcr4 makes recipient cells susceptible to entry of hiv. in addition, uptake of hiv by cells results in ouflage of the virus. capture of hiv by immature dcs produces viral particles that expose characteristic exosomal proteins as cd63 and cd9, and the presence of such proteins is thought to help the virus particles to escape from recognition by the immune system. these viral particles are more infectious to cd4+ t cells than cell-free viral particles .this ouflage can be further improved by coating with host-derived glycoproteins, thereby making viral particles even more closely resembling t-cell-derived vesicles .because virus particles and cell-derived vesicles are of similar size and have many similarities in composition, this has caused major problems with isolation and purification of the virus particles .one of the earliest and most abundantly expressed viral proteins is nef. nef is present in the serum of patients with hiv and interacts with cxcr4, thereby inducing apoptosis and depletion of cd4+ t cells, which is one of the hallmarks of aids . nef stimulates its own export via secretion of exosomes or cd45-exposing microvesicles. in addition, lmp-1, the major oncogene of ebv, is detectable in serum of infected patients. lmp-1 inhibits t cell proliferation and nk cytotoxicity, although other proteins, such as galectin 9, may be involved as well, thereby facilitating escape from the immune system .

viruses also have other strategies to escape from the immune system. for instance, cells infected with hepatitis b virus, pox viruses, or herpes simplex virus, release empty viral particles exposing viral glycoproteins in concentrations up to 10,000 fold higher than that of the infectious particles, suggesting that these vesicles may act as potential decoys to distract the immune system .viruses may use the ability of exosomes to kill immune cells at a distance. lmp-1, which is exposed on exosomes and in microvesicles from ebv-infected cells, inhibits proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. this could be relevant in ebv- ociated tumors such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma and hodgkin's disease, because it allows tumor cells to escape from immune eradication .

the underlying sorting mechanism of lmp-1 to exosomes is unknown, but the presence of lmp-1 in exosomes is independent from ubiquitination or detergent-resistant membrane domains .expression of lmp-1 also changes the composition of exosomes by increasing the concentrations of important signaling molecules in cancer, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, egfr, and fibroblast growth factor-2, suggesting that ebv 1) manipulates and uses the exosomal pathway for tumor growth and development and 2) protects the exosomes from degradation .the uptake of exosomes from ebv-infected cells by epithelial cells indeed results in activation of growth-stimulating signaling pathways, showing that transfer of lmp-1 and other signaling molecules can manipulate the growth characteristics of neighboring cells .exosomes from an ebv-infected b cell line have been shown to bind preferentially to b cells in blood, whereas exosomes from milk, dcs, or noninfected b cells bind to monocytes. the interaction between exosomes from ebv-infected b cells and b cells is mediated by cd21 on the b cells and glycoprotein 350 on the exosomes. it has been hypothesized that exosome-based vaccines can be developed that interfere with this interaction .

because retroviruses and exosomes have many similarities, including lipid composition and the presence of host-cell proteins, retroviruses have been proposed to have hijacked the pathway of exosome biogenesis for their production to escape from immune detection (i.e., the trojan exosome hypothesis) .although the finding that an inhibitory domain of the hiv gag protein interferes with the sorting of both viral and exosomal proteins, such as cd63, supports this hypothesis ,inhibition of exosome release by blocking ceramide synthesis does not interfere with the release of hiv, suggesting the existence of different routes .

exosomes also have anti-hiv-1 activity ,and the human cytidine deaminase apobec3g, which is a part of a cellular defense system against hiv-1 and other retroviruses, is secreted in exosomes and is actually the major exosomal component explaining the anti-hiv-1 activity of exosomes .furthermore, vesicles from virus-infected cells can present antigens to activate the immune system .

b. cell adhesion

cell-derived vesicles can function as mediators to promote adhesion of a cell to a substrate. for example, microparticles from platelets bind to the endothelial cell matrix at sites of vascular injury in vivo; in turn, the surface-immobilized microparticles support platelet adhesion to that surface, suggesting that the binding of microparticles facilitates thrombus formation at the site of vascular injury .in addition, b cell exosomes mediate anchorage to the endothelial cell matrix .

c. waste mana ent and protection against stress

exosomes from reticulocytes contribute to removal of the redundant transferrin receptor from their surfaces .although it is unknown to what extent cell-derived vesicles contribute to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis by waste removal, it is tempting to speculate that vesicles protect cells from extracellular and intracellular stress ,thereby contributing to cellular survival. this would also explain why most cells release vesicles into their environment and is supported by similar findings from prokaryotes .platelets incubated with the complement c5b-9 complex, a form of external stress, release vesicles enriched in the c5b-9 complex, presumably to protect the platelets from complement-induced lysis. in addition, cancer cells release microvesicles enriched in anticancer drugs.

furthermore, exosomes and microvesicles from different types of cells, as well as microvesicles from human plasma, contain substantial amounts of active caspase 3 (one of the main executioners of programmed cell death) that is not detectable in the releasing cells ,suggesting that caspase 3, a form of internal stress, is removed from the cytosol to ensure cellular survival. this hypothesis is further strengthened by the observation that caspase 3-enriched vesicles from endothelial cells are virtually devoid of the vitronectin receptor (i.e., integrin αvβ3), despite the fact that this receptor is the most abundant endothelial receptor and plays a key role in the generation of adhesion-dependent survival signals. apparently, endothelial cells are using vesicles to selectively remove the harmful caspase 3, whereas a survival receptor is maintained on the cells. likewise, exposing b cell lines to heat stress is ociated with a marked increase of hsps in exosomes, suggesting that “alterations in exosome phenotype are a hitherto unknown component of the cellular response to environmental stress” .

d. coagulation

as mentioned, since the 1940s, microvesicles have been ociated with the coagulation process because vesicles can expose ps, a negatively charged phospholipid to which (activated) coagulation factors can bind and emble in the presence of calcium ions, thereby promoting coagulation .in the 1980s, it had already been demonstrated that cell-derived vesicles from tumors are strongly procoagulant .this activity was due to the exposure of tf, the initiator of coagulation .more recently, tumor-derived vesicles exposing tf were shown to be present in peripheral blood of patients with cancer, where they have been ociated with the increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (vte) .an increased concentration of microparticles is ociated with an increased incidence of thrombotic events, for instance in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, who are extremely sensitive to complement-induced lysis because of the absence of complement inhibitors ,and in patients with acute coronary syndromes .conversely, a decreased concentration of microparticles, combined with a defect exposure of ps on activated platelets, is ociated with a bleeding tendency, as in patients with scott syndrome .coagulant tf-exposing vesicles have shown to be present in several body fluids and in different clinical conditions, including pericardial blood from patients undergoing open heart surgery or in the circulation of patients with meningococcal septic shock ,in joint fluid of inflamed joints from patients with arthritis ,and in saliva and urine of healthy subjects .tf-exposing vesicles trigger thrombus formation in vivo ,are abundantly present in human atherosclerotic plaques, and may be deposited at a site of vascular injury by binding to activated platelets. in addition, blood from healthy subjects contains cell-derived vesicles, but these vesicles do not expose coagulant tf and are ociated with an anticoagulant rather than procoagulant function.

direct evidence for involvement of exosomes in coagulation is lacking. nevertheless, several lines of circumstantial evidence suggest that this may be the case. first, exosomes were reported to expose ps ,although others found no asymmetrical distribution of anionic phospholipids or exposure of ps on exosomes .second, biological fluids such as urine and saliva contain exosome-sized vesicles exposing coagulant tf .third, “tf-bearing microvesicles” from a monocytic cell line were shown to be transferred to activated platelets .the microvesicles in this study, however, were isolated at 200,000g and may therefore have been contaminated with exosomes. fourth, blood from patients with sickle-cell disease was shown to contain tf-exposing microvesicles from monocytes and endothelial cells .because these vesicles were isolated at 100,000g (i.e., a condition known to pellet exosomes) and these tf-exposing vesicles were not detected in a parallel study in which microvesicles were isolated at 18,000g (i.e., a condition unlikely to pellet most exosomes but only most of the larger microvesicles), exosomes exposing tf may be present and contribute to coagulation in vivo .

although exosomes may be too small to be observed as single vesicles by most laboratory methods presently available, the ays used to quantify the coagulant properties of cell-derived vesicles in biological fluids usually measure the overall coagulant activity of all vesicles present. thus, the contribution of microvesicles versus exosomes in the coagulation process cannot be distinguished with those activity ays.

e. vascular function and integrity

apoptotic endothelial cells were shown to release not only apoptotic vesicles but also “nanovesicles.” the release of nanoparticles was dependent on caspase 3 activity,and these nanoparticles may contribute to vascular repair because they trigger an extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-dependent antiapoptotic phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cells. in contrast, vesicles from lps-activated monocytes trigger apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells by a caspase 1-dependent mechanism ,suggesting that vesicles may have beneficial as well as adverse effects on vascular integrity. in addition, several studies have shown that microparticles from plasma of preeclamptic women, endothelial cells, lymphocytes of patients with diabetes or hiv, and t cells all impair endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in vitro, suggesting that microparticles may also affect vascular function .

the oncogenic alteration of cancer cells is known to influence both the number of secreted evs and direct the inclusion of tumor-related molecules into the ev cargo. the presence of cancer markers in evs combined with their release into body fluids, such as blood, urine or semen, highlights their potential use as non-invasive biomarkers.

messenger rnas (mrnas) of pca3 and tmprss2-erg genes have previously been discovered in exos from urine of both prostate cancer (pca) patients and mice grafted with human pca. it has also been demonstrated that prostasomes, exos derived from the seminal fluid, contain chromosomal dna . in addition, the transfer of the tumor suppressor pten through exos conferring tumor-suppression activity to acceptor cells has been recently proven.

the enrichment of mrnas and micrornas in evs suggests that nucleic acids may be selectively packaged into them. however, it is still unclear if the cargo is randomly packed in evs, or whether it is sorted among different ev subpopulations, making some ev types more likely to carry certain material than others.

the researchers investigated if the diverse ev subpopulations from different sources contained gdna fragments. to test this hypothesis,researchers extracted gdna from abs, mvs, and exos derived from different malignant pca cell lines and from plasma of both pca patients and healthy donors. the researchers proved that the ev subpopulations from the cell culture supernatants and plasma contained different gdna fragments, and in some cases dna harboring tp53 and pten mutations.

mitochondrial dna was found in astrocyte- and glioblastoma-derived exos, and single-stranded dna and transposable elements were described in glioblastoma-derived mvs. in the present study, we show that the pca evs contain double-stranded gdna fragments in all the different ev subpopulations: abs, mvs, and exos. just recently, the presence of gdna was first reported in the exos of patients with pancreatic cancer which our findings accordingly complement.

the presence of a part of both tp53 and pten genes in the ev subpopulations was investigated as they are the only genes significantly mutated in both localized and castration-resistant pca tumors, with a broad role in cancer initiation, progression and treatment resistance. on the other hand, mlh1 germline mutations were researched since they are very rare in prostate tumors. in this preliminary study, researchers could detect different gdna cargos in diverse ev subpopulations, which indicate that the molecular content of the evs is dependent on both the cellular source and the specific vesicle subtype.

further, studies also demonstrate that the ev-derived dna has the same mutations in tp53 and pten genes as in their parental tumor cells. the concept of ev subpopulation and cell type-dependent packing of molecular cargo is further supported by our finding of differential total protein content within the ev subtypes, despite the similar concentrations of the pca cell-derived mvs and exos.

moreover,rsearchers also provide evidence as a proof of concept that human plasma-derived evs also carry double-stranded gdna fragments, and that plasma-derived evs are more abundant in pca patients than in healthy donors, as has been previously reported in other cancer types. however, the previously described mutations for the lncap-derived evs were not detected from the plasma ev populations.

the inability to detect specific mutations in patients' samples could be due to the heterogeneous origin of evs in the blood circulation, since evs are also released from other non-cancerous cells. alternatively, it could reflect that these specific mutations were absent in this patient cohort. further studies are required to develop techniques to selectively enrich and isolate tumor ev subpopulations from the total ev pool in plasma.

the ev-mediated education of hematopoietic cells within the bone marrow has been suggested to be a fundamental step in the formation of pre-metastatic niches.the researchers propose that by the secretion of evs, part of the gdna content of the cell can vesicle-specifically be sorted and travel around the body as a ev-protected circulating dna, which contributes to both pre-metastatic niche formation and tumor metastasis. as the ev cargo also likely represents the dynamic molecular changes in the tumor and its progression, evs make a promising candidate for diagnostic biomarkers.

as dna is intrinsically more stable than rna, the analysis of genomic mutations may also be a more robust and sensitive marker of dynamic changes.the researchers consider that the horizontal transfer and uptake of dna mediated by abs, mvs, and exos could be one possible mechanism for the generation of genetic instability and diversity in cancer. altogether, these preliminary results warrant further research to use tumor evs and their gdna content as an additional biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and mana ent of pca.

references:

1- cl ification, functions, and clinical relevance of extracellular vesicles edwin van der pol, anita n. böing, paul harrison, augueste sturk and rienk nieuwlandmark p. mattson, ociate editor/departments of clinical chemistry (e.v.d.p., a.b., a.s., r.n.) and biomedical engineering and physics (e.v.d.p.), academic medical centre of the university of amsterdam, amsterdam, the netherlands; and oxford haemophilia & thrombosis centre, churchill hospital, oxford, united kingdom (p.h.). june 21,2012

2- different gdna content in the subpopulations of prostate cancer extracellular vesicles: apoptotic bodies, microvesicles, and exosomes/elisa lázaro-ibáñez msc1, andres sanz-garcia phd1, tapio visakorpi md2, carmen escobedo-lucea phd1, pia siljander phd1,3, ángel ayuso-sacido phd1,4,* andmarjo yliperttula phd1,* doi: 10.1002/pros.22853/11 aug 2014/pharmacological review/copyright © 2014 by the american society for pharmacology and experimental the utics



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multiple gl options offer customized ways to suit different building needs
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different buildings have differing needs for aesthetics, performance, and functional operations. few building materials have as great an impact on all three of these areas as gl since it plays a unique and important role in building design and the environment. the use of gl in buildings affects design, appearance, thermal performance, and occupant comfort. historically, gl was used mainly for windows to admit air and light, but with a nced manufacturing options and the need for high-performance buildings, it is now integral to interior and exterior architecture. from facades, skylights and walkways to revolving doors and gl box extensions, gl is being used to do much more than just let light in. therefore the selection of the right types of gl is a crucial element of the design process to create solutions that address thermal control, energy efficiency, views, and lighting quality as well as light quantity. architects who understand the full range of possibilities available from gl manufacturers are able to use them as a complete palette to create designs that excel in all areas.

gl and glazing overview

the main ingredient of gl is sio2 (silica sand). during the first half of the 1900s the predominant gl manufacturing technology was to create plate gl from molten sio2 which moved along rollers while still heated. this created imperfections in the surface of the gl that needed to be ground and polished to produce parallel surfaces that were optically clear. during the 1950s and 60s sir alastair pilkington invented and perfected the process of creating float gl which has become the current world standard for the production of high-quality gl . float gl is manufactured by melting sand, soda ash, dolomite, and limestone, along with other minor batch materials to produce a continuous gl ribbon. the molten gl flows from the furnace and “floats” over a bed of molten tin where it spreads out to form a level sheet with virtually parallel surfaces. it is then carefully cooled to anneal the gl —a process that minimizes the internal stresses enabling it to be cut.


common terms and performance criteria relevant to gl include:

u-factor: the thermal conductance of a material. the lower the number the better the insulation or thermal control. u-factors are often measured at various points in a window unit including the center and the edge of the gl .

r-value: the thermal resistance of a material. r-values are the reciprocal of u-factors (r= 1/u) meaning a higher number represents higher thermal resistance.

solar heat gain coefficient (shgc): the ratio of solar heat gain through gl relative to the amount of incident solar radiation. the lower the number the greater the solar control.

visible light transmittance (vlt): the percentage of light in the visible spectrum that is transmitted through the gl . the higher the number, the greater the amount of light that p es through the gl , regardless of its color. visible light makes up about 47 percent of the solar spectrum, with wavelengths from 380 to 780 nanometers.

ultraviolet light (uv): about 2 percent of the solar spectrum with wavelengths ranging 300 to 380 nanometers. although ultraviolet light is invisible to the human eye, long-term uv exposure contributes to fading and aging of organic based materials. 40 percent of fading comes from visible light other than uv.

infrared (ir): about 51 percent of the solar spectrum, with wavelengths ranging from 790 to 3,000 nanometers.

low emissivity: emissivity is the ability of a surface to reflect or emit heat by radiation. the lower the number, the more efficiently the object reduces radiative heat gain or heat loss, which means a lower u-factor and better insulation.


p o courtesy of pilkington north america

a nces in gl technology give architects a wide variety of choices to meet design requirements for performance, aesthetics, and comfort.

variations in the float gl manufacturing process or additional actions immediately after allow for the creation of different types of gl and glazing. each general type is produced to create different properties of light transmission, thermal characteristics, or other inherent structural properties. several of the common types can be briefly summarized as follows:

coated gl

during float gl manufacturing, pyrolytic coatings are incorporated into the gl by depositing microscopically thin layers of metallic oxides using a process known as chemical vapor deposition (cvd). having this type of hard pyrolytic surface fired on at over 640°c (1,200°f) make pyrolytic products more durable than sputter coating which is a low pressure technique that deposits coatings using physical vapor deposition, typically without applied heat. the pyrolytic process creates extremely durable coated products that can easily be handled, transported, and processed. these products typically combine low emissivity, solar control, low reflection, and self-cleaning properties. in addition, because the pyrolytic surface doesn’t degrade like a sputtered coating, it can be warehoused locally for availability, reducing project lead times across the country and around the world.

heat strengthened

annealed gl is subjected to a special heat-treatment in which it is heated to about 680°c (1256°f) and afterwards cooled. when it is cooled slowly, the gl is twice as strong as annealed gl . if it does break the fragments of the broken gl may remain in the frame but are large. heat strengthened gl is not recognized as a “safety gl ” by typical building codes.

tempered gl

tempered gl is at least four times stronger than annealed gl . when broken, it shatters into many small fragments which reduces the potential for major injuries. this type of gl is intended for gl facades, sliding doors, building entrances, bath and shower enclosures, and other uses requiring superior strength and safety properties.

laminated safety gl

laminated gl comprises two or more layers of gl bonded together with a plastic or resin interlayer. if broken, the interlayer is designed to hold the gl together. virtually all gl types can be laminated and the thickness and types of interlayer can be varied to provide ballistic, bomb or physical attack resistance. laminated gl also provides attenuation of sound and can typically be cut and further processed.

image courtesy of pilkington north america

pyrolytic coatings are applied during the gl manufacturing process to create a product that provides high performance and durability.

low-e gl

this type of coated gl provides thermal control and enhanced insulation, as well as control of solar heat gain when combined with a solar control gl in either a monolithic or insulating gl unit. low-e coatings reduce the emissivity of the gl surface meaning the gl provides greater insulation by reflecting heat back towards its source and can also be designed to absorb or reflect solar energy. as such, low-e coatings are useful for reducing both solar heat gain and heat loss. for a sense of context, uncoated gl has a typical emissivity of 0.84 while a low-e coated gl could have an emissivity of 0.15. this means only 15 percent of heat is absorbed and re-emitted while the rest is reflected. different combinations of low-e coatings can be used in an insulated gl unit to provide the desired performance.

insulating gl units

insulating units are two or more panels of gl bonded to a perimeter spacer material with a hermetically sealed airspace. the primary benefit is to improve thermal performance with better u-factors as well as solar control by influencing the solar heat gain coefficient (shgc). most types of processed gl can be incorporated into an insulating gl unit to adjust and fine tune its overall properties accordingly. double glazed units are the most commonly used type of insulating gl unit, however in some climates the use of multi-cavity triple glazed units is increasing in response to tightening energy codes.

design issues and gl solutions

with a basic understanding of different manufactured gl types, we can now turn our attention to particular issues that are commonly addressed in building designs to determine the best type of gl that may be suitable solutions.

controlling solar gains

a great deal of the increasing emphasis on energy use in buildings has been placed on the building envelope and particularly on gl and glazing. with the increasing sensitivity toward reducing fossil fuel usage in particular, energy codes and standards have been becoming more demanding in terms of the performance of glazing. they have steadily been raising the bar on performance such that glazing needs to be carefully addressed during design and appropriately specified to both anticipate and achieve the intended energy performance.

the first and perhaps most significant point about energy performance when it comes to glazing is that the building location and the orientation of the gl in respect to the sun (i.e. solar orientation) are the starting points. there is no single universal solution across all locations and all orientations. energy codes and ashrae standard 90.1 recognize this fact by identifying and defining separate u.s. climate zones which are the basis for determining all other aspects of energy performance and code compliance. from there, the codes require varying degrees thermal performance or solar control depending on location and orientation.

many commercial buildings are located in warm or temperate climate zones with internal operations that generate heat inside the building (i.e. internal heat loads). hence, more energy may be needed to cool the building than to heat it in a typical year. controlling the amount of heat that comes through gl in these cases becomes the dominant design issue then. it should be recognized that heat travels through gl both from the sun’s direct radiation and from the transfer of heat from the ambient exterior environment. therefore, selecting gl that provides solar control to address both the sunlight and ambient heat reflectance will maximize performance.

gl can provide direct solar control by one of two fundamental choices. first, it can absorb a portion of the solar energy striking it through the use of absorptive colored tints or absorbing coatings added to the gl . this significantly reduces solar heat and uv light transmittance as compared to clear gl products. tints add color to the look of the building and reduce the visible light transmittance (vlt) through the gl , all of which are variable based on the degree of tinting and color selected. the key to selecting tinted gl is finding the balance to achieve solar control, help control glare and contribute to the aesthetics of the building. tinted gl is readily available in a variety of thicknesses (generally between 1/8 inch and 1/2 inch) and can be processed and fabricated similarly to normal float gl making it a convenient way to reduce solar gain. tinted gl features a full range of color choices such as green, blue, blue-green, bronze, and grey colors. they commonly provide low external and internal reflectance meaning that they are not very mirror-like. they can be laminated, strengthened, and even bent using standard techniques. further, they can be used singly or in combination with other glazing in insulating gl units. all of these traits have made tinted gl a common solar control choice in low, mid, and high rise office buildings, medical / hospital buildings, educational / school buildings and retail locations.

image courtesy of pilkington north america

the chart depicts the percentage transmittance of typical gl types and colors. it demonstrates how tinted gl lowers shgc through a reduction in transmittance in the solar infrared region, while maintaining high light transmittance in the visible light region.

instead of absorbing energy, the other choice of achieving solar control with gl is to reflect it back varying degrees of solar light or heat energy (or both) by applying various coatings during manufacturing. the types and effectiveness of the coating can vary notably between gl products and between manufacturers so it is important to review the technical data to be sure that a coating is selected appropriate to the building, its location, and solar orientation. for example, a coating that produces a low shgc value will result in very little solar heat p ing through the gl while a low-e coating reduces the emissivity of gl and lowers the u-factor. some manufacturers have coatings that will achieve both solar control and low emissivity and those should be looked at for suitability. coated gl is available in some fairly clear versions or in a full range of colors including green, blue, blue-green, bronze, gold, and grey. the coatings also commonly reduce uv light transmittance which means fading is reduced in fabrics, artwork, etc. coatings have been recognized as an ideal means to achieve a rather precise level of solar control for new commercial construction or renovation projects. specifically by using different coatings on different layers of a dual pane insulated gl unit, the options and possibilities increase for balancing heat gain against light transmittance and u-factors. hence, coated gl has been commonly used in commercial buildings requiring solar and thermal control such as low, mid and hi-rise buildings, medical/ hospital buildings, educational/ school facilities, office buildings, retail establishments, and residential structures of all types.

controlling heat loss

turning to colder climates, the approach to thermal energy performance with gl is different. in these locations, the energy required for heating is greater than for cooling over the course of the year. hence, there is usually a desire to allow sunlight to freely penetrate into the building during the heating season to take a ntage of p ive solar gains. this means selecting gl with a higher shgc may be desirable, particularly on sun facing facades. at the same time, low emissivity is desired to redirect energy (i.e. interior room heat) back into a building (rather than out of it), to achieve much lower heat loss than ordinary float gl . for such buildings, this coating is often selected to allow for enhanced clarity and light transmittance which will tend to favor a pyrolytic surface coating over a sputter coating. once again, the use of different coatings on different layers of insulated gl units allows for some fine tuning of the glazing to suit particular circumstances of different buildings, different solar orientations and different performance needs. the surfaces of insulated gl units are identified by number such that in a typical double pane unit, surface #1 faces the building exterior, #2 is the inner face of the outer pane (in the space between the gl layers), #3 is the exterior face of the inner pane (also in the space between gl layers), and #4 faces the building interior. usually the coatings are placed on surfaces #2 and #3 so they are not exposed.

image courtesy of pilkington north america

use of a low-e coating on surface #4 in combination with a low-e coating on surface #2 provides a significant reduction in u-factor of approximately 20 percent.

low-e 4th surface technology

in order to improve the energy efficiency of insulated gl units without increasing the thickness or weight of the window, at least one manufacturer has developed a coating for the 4th surface of the double glazed unit. this 4th surface coating works in combination with a low-e coating on surface #2 to create a significant reduction in u-factor of approximately 20 percent. pyrolytic low-e coatings are well suited for this purpose as they provide the a ntage of being very durable and difficult to damage, with a track record of use in these types of application for well over 10 years.

daylighting and views

in some cases, the visual performance of the gl may be the overriding design issue. this can be true in buildings where daylighting is being used to turn off electric lights and save energy or in cases where the ability to view through the gl with clarity and good color rendition is important. note that all of the gl discussed for thermal energy performance provides some degree of visual performance and the gl described in this section provides some degree of thermal performance. the distinction is the degree to which the two are balanced or weighted to favor one over the other due to its specific location in a specific building.

among the things to take into account in selecting gl for daylighting is the quality of the light that will end up in the interior space. the color of the gl or the coating can affect the color of the transmitted light while clear gl will allow for more accurate color renditions. however, clear gl can be a source of glare. if the gl is not shaded, does not face away from the sun, or is not treated to reduce glare, then the shear light intensity or the high contrast between it and the other interior spaces can create disturbing and unwanted bright light. in that case people will often respond by closing blinds or otherwise block the daylight undoing the intended benefit of the design. selecting a tinted or coated gl therefore that appropriately addresses glare while still keeping the color clear may be an optimal solution in some cases.

p o courtesy of pilkington north america

the quality and the quantity of light are important factors for spaces that are naturally daylight using gl .

in addition to letting daylight into buildings, allowing people to view out without undue color or view quality issues is also a common design requirement. clear gl is available that offers excellent optical properties, transmitting up to 90 percent of the sun’s visible spectrum thus maintaining high clarity and low distortion with brilliant flat surfaces. it is available in a wide range of sizes and thicknesses for optimum utilization and is applicable in commercial, residential, and institutional buildings of all types.

safety gl

there are many interior and exterior applications where codes and general practice require the use of safety gl that reduces the possibility of injury if broken. tempered gl is commonly used, although the tempering process introduces distortion in the gl which can give the unwanted characteristic of visual waviness. furthermore there is a small risk of spontaneous breakage when using tempered gl , which restricts its use in certain applications. heat strengthened and laminated gl es are options to mitigate these issues. one thing to be aware of however, is that heat treating float gl to produce either heat strengthened or tempered gl requires a focused cooling process called quenching. the quenching air jets used in a tempering furnace cannot cool the gl with complete uniformity though. as a result some areas are cooled faster than others, resulting in differential shrinkage which creates areas of different compressive stress. this differentiation can create “quench marks” due to very slight changes in the gl density which affects the light p ing through the gl . quench marks should not be considered a defect; they are an indication that the gl has been heat treated. appearance of quench marks is dependent on lighting conditions and they can be visible in transmission and reflection, and particularly when viewing the gl at an angle other than directly facing the gl . they are more visible in thicker, clear, heat treated, gl ; when a lightly reflective coating is used; or when both lights of gl in an insulating gl (ig) unit are heat treated. they become particularly visible in any gl when polarizing sungl es are worn. therefore, if viewing clarity is the priority, designs which do not require heat strengthened or tempered gl can be preferable to those that do. it is always important to construct a mock-up of the intended glazing design to gain an understanding of any potential issues related to distortion or quench marks.

visual clarity

there are many applications where gl is used and great visual clarity is the major design criteria. this might include retail displays, showrooms, museums, sports stadiums, zoo enclosures and exhibits. in these cases gl is commonly used to create a physical barrier but clear visual characteristics are needed without distortion. since visual clarity is affected by the amount of visual reflections that appear on the surface of the gl , anti-reflective gl is available to overcome this issue. it is formed by using two pyrolytic coated surfaces in a single laminated gl product to minimize visible light reflectance to less than 2 percent compared to normal clear gl which is 8 percent. this allows more than 90 percent of visible light to transmit through the anti-reflective laminated gl with very low masking reflections. in addition, anti-reflective gl can block more than 99 percent of transmitted uv thus reducing the fading of interior fabric and furnishings. as a laminated gl product, it also offers the traditional benefits of enhanced security, improved safety, and damage protection. it is possible to get anti-reflective gl tempered if increased strength is required. one manufacturer produces an anti-reflective gl that offers a lower emissivity than normal gl ; giving improved thermal insulation in addition to a reflection reduction.

p o courtesy of pilkington north america

ordinary gl on the left can produce veiling reflections that obscure the view through to the other side. anti-reflective gl on the right dramatically improves the clarity of objects beyond the gl .

for situations where very pure color clarity and high vlt are desired, low iron gl may be worth considering. normally, all gl has traces of iron content which is responsible for the edges of a piece of clear gl appearing green. when gl is manufactured by deliberately reducing the amount of iron present, the green edge color is reduced in intensity and the view looking through the gl is very clear. it is therefore ideal for use where gl edges are visible or where a neutral color is desired. as its light transmission is 1 percent and 8 percent higher than clear float gl in 3 mm to 19 mm thickness respectively, it is perfect for applications where transparency and purity of color are desired. it can be used in anti-reflective gl , in insulated gl units, and for maximizing solar heat gain in colder climates. low-iron gl can also be heat treated for safety and laminated for security. all of these traits make it a high clarity choice for storefronts and displays, furniture, solar collectors, p ovoltaic panels, and special applications requiring thick gl such as bullet resistant gl , aquariums etc.

p o courtesy of pilkington north america

low-iron gl shown on the left is more optically clear without the common green tint found in most conventional gl products as seen on the right, particularly along the gl edges.

special building design applications

there are a number of building design situations where some very specific needs arise for gl . manufacturers have responded by developing and testing gl products to meet those special applications.

fire resistance with gl

for building areas that require viewing through gl but also high levels of fire protection, then fire-resistant gl should be considered. it is specifically designed to limit conductive and radiative heat transfer with product performances ranging from 20 to 120 minutes. these gl products must always be used as part of an approved fire resistance or fire protected framing embly. fire-resistant gl consists of multiple laminates of float gl and a special transparent intumescent interlayer, which is totally compatible and optically homogeneous with the gl . when exposed to fire, the pane facing the flames fractures but remains in place. as the heat penetrates the gl , the interlayers react by foaming to form a thick, opaque, resilient and tough insulating shield that blocks the conductive and radiant heat of the blaze. as a design tool, it allows natural light and unobstructed views in fire rated walls, openings and doors while restricting the spread of heat, smoke, flames and gases. it can be combined with a full range of other gl products to address security, bullet and hurricane resistance or visual clarity requirements. these products are typically tested and cl ified independently by organizations such as underwriters laboratories (ul). ultimately, it addresses health safety and welfare by reducing fire damage to people, property and valuables.

p o courtesy of pilkington north america

fire-resistant gl can be used to spread daylight and create open visual contact in areas that require fire resistance ratings in buildings.

acoustic control

some buildings are subject to higher levels of noise than others while some building uses are simply more sensitive to noise affecting the occupants / users of that building. either way, unwanted noise coming from things like roadway traffic, railways, aircraft, factory operations, , or other activities needs to be limited and controlled. methods of creating sound insulating walls are common and fairly well known, but if those walls have windows, the gl needs to provide acoustic control as well. noise control gl is the ideal choice in situations like this. by using a polyvinyl butyral (pvb) interlayer laminated between two layers of selected float gl , manufacturers offer a high quality product that produces excellent noise reduction without compromising on light transmittance or impact resistance. the acoustic performance can be varied by combining different thicknesses of gl with the pvb interlayer to achieve a specified rating. in this way noise control gl offers the opportunity to achieve project-specific noise reduction requirements. it is generally available in a variety of sizes and can be fabricated to meet any needed safety ratings. it can be used singly or in double or triple pane insulating gl units (igus). depending on the configuration and thickness of the gl , test results have shown that noise control gl can achieve stc ratings between 31 and 39. one manufacturer offers a laminate with a special pvb that specifically reduces mid-range frequencies and tests with an stc in the low 40s. attenuation of mid-range frequencies is important as this includes sounds such as urban road traffic, railway traffic, and factory noise.

self-cleaning exterior gl

buildings of many types that contain glazing that is difficult to reach for cleaning or simply require cleaning because of the surrounding environment can create ongoing high maintenance expenses. in response, a rather innovative gl product has been developed that uses the power of the sun to clean itself. this self-cleaning gl can dramatically reduce or eliminate window cleaning, while still offering good visual clarity and an unspoiled exterior aesthetic. this gl uses uv energy from the sun, which is abundant even on cloudy, overcast days, to keep windows clean naturally in several steps. first, a p ocatalytic process generated by additives in the gl loosens dirt and gradually breaks down organic residue so it doesn’t adhere to the gl . next a hydrophilic action on the gl surface causes rain to sheet on the gl , carrying dirt away with minimal spotting or streaking. under most conditions, natural rain is sufficient to keep the window clean, and a quick spray with a hose will achieve the same result even in prolonged dry weather. since the coatings used in this self-cleaning gl are pyrolytic and an integral part of the gl surface, they aren’t susceptible to peeling, separation or disintegration over time. in addition, they are not damaged by liquid gl cleaners so there is no need to be concerned about re-coating or retreating the gl . combined in an insulating unit with an inboard lite of either low-e or solar control gl , all aspects of glazing performance in a building can be addressed and maintained. self-cleaning gl is commonly available in clear or blue colors and a range of thickness from 1/8 inch up to ¼ inch.

emerging technologies

while all of the gl types and products discussed so far represent a fair amount of innovation and technological a nces, manufacturers are continuing to pursue even more ways to address building design issues through a nced products. some of these include the following cutting edge glazing innovations.

vacuum insulated glazing

a vacuum, is very effective at minimizing conduction and convection heat losses. while a perfect vacuum with zero heat transfer is not easily achievable, it is possible to produce a partial vacuum with notably reduced heat transfer. these insulating principles of vacuums are being applied by some manufacturers to create a high performance gl with a thinner profile. they are offering vacuum insulated glazing that is different than conventional double glazing in that the air between the two panes of gl is extracted, to create the needed vacuum. in order to keep the panes from collapsing in on each other, micro-sized spacers are used to keep the panes apart. nonetheless, the gap between the two panes can be reduced to just 0.2 mm, giving the gl an overall thickness of just over 6 mm (1/4 inch). heat flow through radiation can be reduced by covering one of the gl panes with a low-emissivity coating, similar to that used in conventional double glazing. therefore, despite its thin profile, vacuum insulated glazing can achieve u-factors as low as 0.18 btu/hr.sqft°f in a ¼ inch profile. that means the same or better thermal performance is achieved as conventional double glazing but in one quarter of the thickness and two thirds the weight. that makes it ideal for retrofit or historic preservation projects where an existing window sash or frame needs to be preserved and conventional insulated glazing units won’t fit. thus it balances historical preservation with modern comfort and environmental requirements while allowing windows that are more in keeping with the original design.

there are of course some variations available for vacuum insulated glazing. for locations that require solar control, the coated surface can be designed to achieve the needed shgc. for situations that can accommodate the width of igus, it is possible to use a triple glazed, coated vacuum insulating gl unit that gives u-factors as low as 0.12 btu/hr.sqft°f. this combination uses a vacuum insulated gl unit with a conventional spacer, gas fill and a coated outer pane to create a hybrid unit with superior thermal performance. both designs allow for minimum disruption in existing buildings making it a cost effective method of improving the energy efficiency. the vacuum also allows for improved acoustic performance over single glazing, enhancing the living and working environment. while this is regarded as an emerging technology in the us, it should be noted that it has been successfully used in japan for over fifteen years and is really a proven solution.

p o courtesy of pilkington north america

vacuum insulated glazing uses clear micro spacers to keep the panes separated but still allows for good visual clarity in the size and weight of gl suitable for historic renovations.

specialty glazing

manufacturers continue to expand and develop the range of coatings that can be used on gl to meet very specific and special needs. as a result, specialty gl has become available that can be used to meet those needs. for example, controlling conden ion on gl doors of built in refrigerators / freezers in supermarkets or other retail settings can be an ongoing problem both for maintenance and for visibility of merchandise. as a result, electrically conductive gl has been developed that allows the gl to be electrically heated and overcome this problem. it is color neutral, minimizing reflected color and will not change over time. it easily fabricated with a durable pyrolytic coating that can be handled, cut, insulated, laminated, heat-strengthened and tempered and is even bendable. the heated gl is scratch and abrasion resistant and is available in a variety of gl thicknesses and sheet resistances ranging from 5 ohms/square up to several thousand ohms/square. as a result, heated gl combines thermal control with superior electro-optical properties to keep merchandise clearly visible. heated glazing has also been used in a variety of architectural applications, such as in restaurants where thermal comfort of the diners is important. here the heated glazing provides heat to the building occupants.

other specialty glazing has been developed for electro-optical applications such as computer screens or touch screens in buildings or glazing that will control static when touched. for buildings that want to use p ovoltaic (solar-electric) energy, specialty gl and glazing has been developed for both rigid panels and thin film applications. the rise in the use of building integrated p ovoltaic cells (bipv) is made possible because of the effective development and proper use of this type of specialty glazing that maximizes the energy generating potential of these systems.

electrically conductive specialty gl can be used to keep gl panels clear in retail settings where commercial refrigeration is used.

p o courtesy of pilkington north america

electrically conductive specialty gl can be used to keep gl panels clear in retail settings where commercial refrigeration is used.

switchable electrochromic glazing

when gl is tinted or coated it achieves the resultant performance properties permanently. this means that the gl performs the same way all the time regardless of any changing light conditions outside. an innovative alternative is to use gl that can literally be switched from clear, to lightly tinted to dark tinted and levels in between. this is being achieved by using electrochromic coatings which are applied to panes of conventional float gl or float gl coated with transparent conductive coatings. electrochromic coatings are typically metal oxides and are thin films like other gl coatings. when a very small electric voltage is applied across the coatings, ions travel between layers, where a reversible solid state change takes place, causing the coating to tint and absorb light. reversing the polarity of the applied voltage causes the ions to migrate back to their original layer, and the gl returns to its clear state. this ability to switch gl back and forth at will is particularly useful and desirable in large daylit spaces where different uses and lighting conditions dictate different needs for the gl . typically electrochromic glazing should be integrated into the building control system to maximize efficiency. other types of switchable glazing are available, including lcd based privacy gl and thermochromic and p ochromic based materials.

green building contributions of gl

the us green building council (usgbc) has developed the leed® rating system for green buildings which has been recognized as the leading green building standard in this country. the leed 2009 system is in place until the year 2015 which overlaps with leed version 4 introduced late in 2013. since buildings are currently being designed under both systems, credits available for both are summarized below which properly selected gl products can contribute to.

optimize energy performance

both leed 2009 and leed v. 4 place a strong emphasis on reducing the use of fossil fuels and increasing the use of non-polluting renewable energy. as we have seen, the range of gl products available allow architects and other design professionals to truly optimize performance by selecting gl that is coated, tinted, or otherwise fabricated to best suit a particular building and its location, and even vary the selections to suit individual building facades and installations. if on-site renewable energy is pursued, it is likely that p ovoltaic solar cells will be considered which the properly selected gl will support and make possible. in order to receive points in this credit category the building must demonstrate a percentage increase in energy savings in accordance with ashrae standards. the number of points earned depends on the degree of energy savings and/or the amount of energy generated on site.

p o courtesy of pilkington north america

solar p ovoltaic systems rely on appropriate solar gl to allow the optimization of energy being produced without relying on any fossil fuels.

materials and resources

this area has changed dramatically between the different versions of the leed® rating system. leed 2009 includes four areas where metal wall panels can contribute to an overall green building:

mr credit 4: recycled content: 10 percent and 20 percent (1 – 2 points) post-consumer gl is a highly recyclable material that can be re-used or repurposed into a variety of products such as gl containers, counter tops and landscaping material. however, it cannot be utilized in the float gl manufacturing process since even the smallest impurity can compromise the product quality and manufacturing process. therefore, float gl manufacturing cannot utilize recycled gl as defined by the leed rating system.

credit 5: regional materials (1 – 2 points). many gl manufacturing plants are located throughout the usa meaning a regional material contribution is possible depending on proximity to the building.

the materials and resources category under leed v. 4 takes a rather different approach to defining the green nature of building products. the new approach focuses on the full life cycle of those products. the key documentation needed to demonstrate performance under this approach is referred to as an environmental product declaration (epd). individual manufacturers or a trade ociation can prepare specific or generic epds for products. in the case of gl products, check with the manufacturer to see what is available for documentation to earn the appropriate points for this updated category.

indoor environmental quality

under ieq credit 8.1 daylight & 8.2 views, gl plays a very significant role as has been discussed. the beauty of the range of glazing choices is that daylight can be brought into spaces while still addressing the thermal needs of the building and without blocking the view. gl products have daylight transmissions ranging from 92 percent down to 8 percent, when single glazed. as outdoor daylight (no direct sun) is in the 1,000 to 2,500 foot candle range, even the lowest transmission (darkest) gl in large sizes, can meet the minimum credit requirement with only 8 percent transmittance of 1000 foot candles (i.e. 80 fc luminance).

innovation in design

under both leed 2009 and leed v. 4, credit is given for recognized innovations that exceed minimum performance levels in green building components or systems. hence, it is entirely possible to achieve some additional credit by using some of the innovative or emerging technologies related to gl that improve on leed minimum performance levels. more significantly, it is possible to show innovation by using these systems to improve the building overall by finding appropriate ways to address differing needs and strike the right balance between them under different operating conditions.


case study
michigan state university federal credit union headquarters building

location: east lansing, michigan

architect: daniels and zermack ociates, inc.
gregory a. mckenzie, aia, principal-in-charge, ann arbor, mi

glazing contractor: calvin and company of flint, mi

gl fabricator: pdc michigan of plymouth, mi

gl used: solar control low-e coated

celebrating its grand opening of a new headquarters building in east lansing, mi, the michigan state university federal credit union (msufcu) is setting the standard for green construction and sustainable design. the new gold leed® certified, 145,000-square-foot building, along us-127, is the permanent location for the company headquarters. operating for over 73 years, msufcu is the largest university-based credit union in the world. with its primary focus being its members and community, the construction of the new headquarters building proves to be a valuable contribution. msufcu in collaboration with architects, daniels and zermack ociates, inc. in ann arbor, mi, have integrated green design and construction materials for an energy efficient, sustainable project.

daniels and zermack have been providing innovative building design to financial institutions for over 60 years. the full service firm specializes in new construction, additions, planning, and renovations. greg mckenzie, aia, principal-in-charge of the project, took the efficiency of the building into great consideration during design. mckenzie worked closely with glazing contractor, calvin and company of flint, mi and gl fabricator, pdc michigan of plymouth, mi to select the best possible gl choices to achieve the desired outcomes. the four story headquarters building showcases 44,000 square-feet of solar control, low-e glazing selected for this project because it provides a perfect blend of visible daylight along with low solar heat gain. the low-emissivity properties combined with solar control result in energy cost reductions compared to ordinary gl .

overall, nearly 80 percent of the building takes a ntage of natural day lighting to reduce the need for artificial lighting,” according to mckenzie. however, msufcu wanted a building that did not require the use of blinds since they were viewed as an added cost that compromises the appearance of the building from the exterior. the selected glazing provides glare control which allows for this design option. the contemporary building design blends the aesthetics of all the branch locations, which showcase brick and green gl facades. mckenzie said, “the gl is a great color match and we are very pleased with the result.” the building’s attractive low-e gl facade allows natural light in, absorbs and blocks solar energy, reducing the amount of heat that can enter the building. it combines great aesthetics, solar and thermal performance, subtle reflectivity and glare control all in the final design.


conclusion

architects design buildings to meet a variety of criteria and in so doing combine professional skill with appropriate material and product selection. float gl has been shown to be a vital and integral building material that is manufactured in a full range of products to address many general and very specific design issues. as such, architects are now able to select specific gl products for different projects and façades from a vast range of combinations of tempered, laminated, tinted and coated gl . by understanding the differences and benefits between the different manufactured choices the performance, aesthetics, and functionality come together to create building designs that can meet or exceed expectations



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alexander of macedonia
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" paign for erasing the lies from the history of iran"

alexander of macedonia

the invasion of alexander of macedonia, the biggest lie in history

     rulers have existed since the beginning of human civilization. the initial civilization meaning the urban living and the creation of social cl and writing began, according to some accounts around 7 to 10 thousand years ago in mesopotamia and iran. nobody knows for certain whether rulers or people e first, it is the old chicken and hen story. in any case, the rulers have used different tricks to make people obey them, such as strange sects and religions, superstitions and telling and writing lies (there is a mention of this in the famous inscription of darius the great).

     many of such writings and inscriptions and stories are of these tricks which continue to the present day. one of the most important of them all is the invasion of iran by alexander the great. the tellers of the story of alexander of macedonia who told his story 600 years after his death did not pay attention of the point that the main reasons in winning a war is the greater number of fighters, the supremacy of the arms used and the experience of the commanders in warfare together with a thorough knowledge of the enemy terrain and its economy. a young man from a sparsely populated land with a poor economy cannot easily rise to destroy a great empire, confiscate the land of a brave people where in every household having a sword and arrow was a way of life, as if the enemy had come to a land of addicts and street dwellers. we see today how well equipped occupiers have run aground in their invasion, let alone in those days and……

     the movie 300 that was based on the invasion of alexander was a reason for the people of the world to discover the lies that lye behind the victories of alexander. a good opportunity has risen to erase these lies from our sweet history. us iranians need to tell the truth to the world, all the false inscriptions and wars of alexander and not just this film. it is of great surprise, how is it that iranian historians cannot recognize these lies, the lies of the military magnitude, the false distances, the fictitious wars, the fictitious towns and cities etc. would the iranian historian please study these lies with due patience and a new vision and rectify them in your speeches and writings?

   where was macedonia?

     macedonia, in old egyptian inscriptions "mage donia" which in arabic be e to be pronounced "magduniye" was important centre of mithraism in northern africa. yaghut hamudi, traveller, geog her and historian in his book "majamal baladan" says "macedonia is the name of egypt in the greek language". ibn al hih ahmad hamedani 4th arabic century geog her and historian quoting ibn yasar says,-" macedonia is egyptian territory". al moghadasi 5th islamic century geog her in "hosn al taghasim", ibn al khardazbeh in dalmask and almamalek", masoudi in the book of moruj alzahb and many others confirm that in those days macedonia was egyptian territory. with the exception of early islamic historians and the knowledgeable, ibn maghta, tabari and dinvari have called alexander in their writings iranian.

      in order to understand the reasons behind the creation of the story of alexander, its inventor's forgery, distortion, fabrication and theft that have occurred, one must pay attention to the special politics and the aims of the tyrannical religious emperors and governors ruling the eastern roman empire. between the 8th and the 11th century, for three hundred consecutive years 13 armenian men and 8 women, residents of the western part of the halice river (today called ghezel irmagh) and the town of ani (the town of the one thousand churches) who were not from the constantine family and had ambitions of power using the circumstances and sometimes with the help of the secret jewish organization infiltrated constantinople then the center of world power. these people, in order to safeguard their position, pretended to be greek and macedonian compiled and published the myth of alexander with the aim of setting east and west in other words mithraism and christianity against each other and by doing this increase their credibility. they compiled a book about alexander quoting his personal physician collis dens and extended alexander's acquisitions as far as india and china. with the help of agents of the abbasids they glorified alexander in order to distance the mind of the newly risen societies from the greatness of the ancient iranian's civilization, culture and power. the editing of the book was done in greek which was at the time the language of the church and be e so successful that the era in which it was published be e known as the era of the greek culture. on the other hand the religion of jesus christ did not flourish in the balkans until the 13th century and mithraism dominated this region whose followers believed this religion to be a falsification and apostasy of their religion.   in the written and verbal battle between these two religions, it is worth a mention of the shahname "the book of the kings" that is recited in divine language.  mazandaran in the times of anushiravan khorasani according to documents in the national library was called pazesh khargar. india (hend or end in persian pronunciation) according to tabari and masoudi until the end of the 12th century was the name of khoozestan. seventeen places in khoozestan such as hendijan and andimeshk and ….begin with this name, india used to be called aryavarte and baharat.

  eskandar and sekandar,

 in iranian languages alexandros is not alexander which in its equivalent in eastern languages. if one accepts that "al" in alexander is an article, by removing it one is left with exander which has no resemblance to alexanders or alexander so one needs to search and find out the origin of alexander and alexanders. in the works of albaghiye biruni page 145 it is written,- the head of its dynasty ( the parthians) is ashk ibn ashkanwhich is the title of king ufghufur is son to  balash ibn shahpour ibn esiktar ibn siyavash ibn kaykavoos.  biruni has named the parthian kings as ask ibn balash ibn sahpou ibn ashkan ibn ash jabbar (page 147 al baghiyeh). aslan ghaffari the author of sekandar and dara believes that ash jabbar and esiknar and such names are variations of eskantar meaning "brave" which has changed to eskandar.ash jabbar or esiknar or according to aslan ghaffari's estimate eskantar was the name of one of the parthian's kings in 3rd century b.c  who captured territory in vararoud i.e transoxiania and the greater khorasan with nayshabour, herat and marv and northern afghanistan and was abbreviated to eskandar and this power circle of the parthians be e subject of misuse first by the writers of alexander of macedonia from the eastern roman empire due to inexperience and stupidity and subsequently by the westerners in their animosity against the iranians.  those iranians that have nowrooz and live in vast and ancient countries have different languages and accents but share the same culture with varying customs. since far back, they have had to deal with enemies, beginning with eastern romans imperialist culture to the present day.

      going sekandari, - in the greater iran to those heroes and champions who during training and sports put their hands on the ground and their feet in the air and walk on their hands, say that they are" going sekandar".

      the enemies of iran have lied as much as they can about the defeats of the achaemenides and we have not even asked the very achaemenides once about their destiny. there are 12000 stone inscriptions of iran in the university of ciracus in the united states and other places and we have not even a clue and don't ask for them. the achaemenides have never said that persepolis was a palace let alone alexander managed to burn it down. on the stone inscription bearing the code xpd that lies in the eastern and western part of the balcony of what is famously known as the private palace of king xerxes he says,- …at the request of oromazes i erected this hadnish. and the word hadnish has been repeated several times in persepolis. all is written so that the pilgrimage that visited the site would know its purpose.

      strabo the famous greek historian considers herodotus the biggest liar and says that like magicians he plays fool with simple people's feelings.  f.n. arski (strabo the pioneer of the science of geog hy    pooyesh publication) says that herodotus is a liar and only fools believe him. fokidid says that herodotus talks without thinking and cannot be believed.

  the false warships

      in order to cover up their defeats, the greeks have magnified the iranian navy in their stories; they have talked of 2000 warships and another 2000 support frigates and commercial ships. if we compare their number and capacity to the middle sized and large boats in the persian gulf today they outnumber them even today! and if we suppose that the maintenance of each takes 30 days a year and the useful life of each ship is on average 20 years and the time to make one 6 months, then at one particular time there needs to be 120 boats and ships under construction in the yards. let us ume that the capacity of each yard is 6 ships at a time which means twice the capacity of the shipping yards in glasgow at the height of the power of the british empire in the 18th century, which means 6 yards and as the supply of wood was in itself a huge problem, a great logistical plan would have been needed to transport wood from the north like in the era of nadershah when he only managed to build 3 ships using the wood from the forests of the north and they quickly be e unusable or there had to be a supply of wood from india. therefore there would have been a huge number of saws and axes and other equipments and roads etc but none exists in any museum in iran or anywhere else. you decide for yourself without prejudice the root of the story and beware that the glory of the iranian history is not in lies, it lies in love, bravery, solidarity and love for the motherland (homeland). let us not allow the enemies change these good attributes with their lies.

  takht – e - jamshid and sivand

     in the images depicted in takh-e-jamshid, no-one is angry, nobody is mounted on a horseback, and one sees no-one bowing, there is nobody with their head down or defeated, there is no tribe superior to another, and there is no image of violence.

      one of the things iranians take pride in is the fact that slavery has never been common in iran. amongst hundreds of bodies carved on the stones of persepolis, there is not even one nude. let us tell the beloved iranians what we were so that in remains in their memory. over the past one hundred years persepolis and its surroundings have been thoroughly searched and there have been findings by many different archeological groups and there has not been a false persepolis found. the enemies have wanted to take revenge on the iranians on paper: they have created this imaginary city to take revenge for the burning down of athens and have been somewhat successful by taking a ntage of the idiocy of some of our historians. where there has not been a city, there has not been a capital for the achaemenides either and because it was not a capital city therefore it did not have a fortress or an alley way for a king in order to have 3 layers of walls built around it. these lies have not been found. which war where the greeks the prisoners of in takht-e-jamshid? and how did alexander gave them clothes in the midst of war? and many more such lies. which idiot would believe all the lies about the taking and transport of spoils of war? the burning down of takht-e-jamshid by alexander or whoever else is a big lie. the illiterate storytellers who wrote the story of the victory of the macedonians centuries later did not have the least knowledge about takht-e-jamshid. they have written that the palace was built mainly out of cedar wood, this is not true. takht-e-jamshid was built on stone and from stone and the burning down is also false and scientifically provable to be false. limestone is chemically calcium carbonate caco3 and under one atmospheric pressure and 894 degrees celsius by receiving 391 calories per gram is converted into 44% co2 and 56% cao. the co2 gas escapes into the air which leaves the cao. the latter is mixed with water which gives slaked lime or ca (oh)2. this reaction liberated 280 calories of heat. some of the clothes, carpets and other objects found at persepolis are not from that era and it is scientifically impossible for them to be so. over the centuries nomads and shepherds have used that area and indeed have made fires and technically those objects belong to them. people looking for treasures have dug and looted much over the centuries, knowing the history can be a treasure for us, read and express your views!

      the idiots have written that persepolis looted and burnt down the capital of the parsees. persepolis is their name invented centuries after darius like many others they invented and today it is known as takht-e-jamshid, nobody knows what it was called in those days and it remains to be discovered by the scientific and historic societies. takht-e-jamshid did not have water to be a capital, the small sivand river flows 10 to 12 kilometers away and in those days 2500 years ago people had the intelligence not to build a dam and control the flow because the water of the river would spread over a vast plain and in the and dry season the evaporation rate would be high and the remaining water would become salty hence unsuitable either for drinking or for agriculture therefore only damaging the environment. in the past all capital cities were built around major rivers. takht-e-jamshid was a place of worship whose construction was not completed. in those days iranian people were like god king worshippers.  it was like many other places of worship but on a larger and more glamorous scale and was never completed looted or burnt down. the intellectual evolution of humans made way for the appearance of the first religions. their intellectuals created the parthian. this evolution continues to date with various ups and downs and will continue until the end of humanity.

      today the important issues as far as intellectual growth is concerned are for us to think about everything and question it's validity whether it is true or not, what and how is the reality? is every glamorous rubbish the foreigners and enemies of iran have written true?

      when i write to the schools abut their books about the fabrication of alexander they reply that they know nothing about an alternative text! do they doubt these lies and really give up? do they want no one to think about the truth about alexander? do they want to take away the ability to think about the fabrication of history and alexander?

      in the gospel there is no mention of takht-e-jamshid, however this book gives a lot of information about other buildings and sites of the iranian empire and major cities such as hamadan and shush. there is no mention of it in any document of the babylonians, yrians, and phoenicians. catusias who lived 24 years in the iranian court does not mention it even once. this was the most sacred place in iran, with an exclusiveness that would protect an exclusive and invisible religion away from the contamination of the outsiders. the enemies of iran like very much telling that takht-e-jamshid was completely built and prosperous.

     revealing the fabricated and stupid wars

      the idiots who have written against iran and worse those who believe them have written that alexander attacked iran with 30000 troops and 40000 mounted soldiers via the strait of ellis pont, today known as dardanelle, crossed a deep and fast river with high granite walls and fought darius the 3rd in asia minor. the granite river that is today called bighachay is a small and shallow river that has no walls. the liars are shameless, as long as there are gullible people who believe them they may continue with their lies. moreover, the banks of this river have no place for the battle of around 150,000 men. go and see for yourself if you do not believe this. the liar writers wanted to diminish the importance of shush the two thousand year capital of elam which was also the capital of the achaemenides for 200 years and to have people believe that a partially completed shrine of takht-e-jamshid was the capital of iran, then falsely have it burnt down by alexander. five or six centuries later when they wrote their lies, the old religion of the achaemenides no longer existed and takht-e-jamshid was a deserted place. they had no idea of the distances between places and whatever they have written with respect to this is pure rubbish. it is easy to realize that it is all lies; they say 600 thousand troops of darius crossed the bridges over the euphrates river in 5 days, think a little! the 600 thousand is a lie, 5 days is a lie and the bridges are all lies. everything the have made up is a lie.

   the travel of alexander from takht-e-jamshid to damghan

they have written that their alexander went from takht-e-jamshid to hamadan. we analyze this lie too. in order to go from takht-e-jamshid to hamadan one needs to p through isphahan. there is absolutely no mention of this city with its brave inhabitants in any eskandarname i.e. document relating to alexander. they could not have gone to hamadan without p ing through isphahan, whoever claims otherwise is really stupid. from isphahan to najafabad there is a 30 kilometer length of gardens and herb plantations. this in itself is a good barrier against the attack and a nce of the enemy, therefore the illiterate writers were indeed much worse than one thinks in order to destroy these gardens in cold blood, on paper. there is no mention of other cities in isphahan either such as golpayegan, burujerd, malayer. there are only made up names that have no resemblance to the names of iranian towns and cities. there is a 480 km distance from isphahan to lorestan to hamadan, the road p es through harsh mountainous terrain, almost 200 km of which has a height of 2000 meters, one of the highest roads in the world and in winter is covered with ice and snow. the road from lorestan to hamadan is also a mountainous road and is one of the most difficult in the world and thanks to the bravery of its people no invader has been able to cross that region in history not even the local one. it is said that the bigger a lie the easier it is believed and this is exactly the case here, they tell and the idiots believe them!

      from takht-e-jamshid to isphahan through to hamadan then rey and damghan it is 1600 kms see the magnitude of the lie? or perhaps they covered this distance in fast japanese electric trains!  abu reyhan biruni in asar al baghiye has written that darius the 3rd was killed near erbil by the commander of his troops. at that time he knew nothing of the fabricated alexander, the reality is the parthian.

    the fabricated alexander of macedonia on his way to gorgan

      if the alexander historians wrote grandiose lies and confabulation it was their style and knew nothing about inside iran, however, those internal and external enemies, idiots and traitors who continue the lies in speeches and writings, what could their motive be? they take alexander from dameghan to gorgan with many erroneous and fabricated names of places, strange events, peoples and tribes that never existed, distances that have no bearing with the reality, please place a map in front of yourself and have a look and you will see how we have been cheated purely out of animosity and complex.

    another lie on paper

       alexander historians have created darband of pars on paper and have had it conquered by alexander in order to take revenge of the defeat of the greeks by the iranians in thermopylae strait, otherwise there is no strait between shush and takht-e-jamshid. over the past one hundred years iranian including, myself and english archeologists who have searched the area for treasures and archeological evidence have found no strait. there are books written about such excavations. many distinguished researches have written persians or farsiha but i would write this word more generally, i would say iranian or iranians because this is the name of a vast geog hical region and peoples who all have the ancient nowrooz and have all throughout history have defended iran and continue to do so. the enemies who do not know iran have created false heroes and the idiots are proud of them for nothing. they created a false shepherd in the harsh winter of lorestan and never explained how those two armies survived the freezing temperatures and at the same time they created tropical forests in that region and much such nonsense. they were enemies of iran but why do these so called iranian historians repeat such nonsense?

      imagine historical wars as they happened in those times and not how hollywood wants you to see them!

   illiterate and stupid enemies

      1700 and 1800 years ago, the alexander historians were far too illiterate to write their fabricated stories more believable and more stupid are the enemies of iran who take these nonsense for history. patala which in persian is the "bottom of the hill" is near the strait of boan, in their stories they refer to a river estuary in order to fabricate a document about alexander's journey to india. tanais river is a river between asia and europe which today is called the den. in their fabrication they have said it to be in northern afghanistan and placed it instead of balkh and taken alexander to indian, they have also written that alexander's troops travelled from balkh to sogdiana and spent harsh times in the desert without water or pastor in order to depict their bravery. this also is a fabrication. the city of balkh lies near a large river called balkhab and there is plenty of life in a radius of 350 km around it and not a waterless desert, you can easily see for yourself on a map. their oxus river is not the amu darya, they have written so much nonsense because they did not knew their geog hy and the stupid enemies of iran believe them and maliciously repeat them all the time.

      bacchus is the greek version of bagh which is also called bak, bag, bi and by. it is the prefix of izad mehr (yazata mehr), bagh mehr. mithraism spread during the parthian times to rome and greece. during alexander's time it was not known but 500 years later alexander historians knew about it because they were the enemies of iran and iranian religion like today. the caspian gate is not the sar darre khar as they claim; dar band khazar is a town between baku and ma khaj ghale. they have lied in order to justify their stories. arabius river which they claim alexander and his men crossed in india is today's shat al arab river and whatever indian they wrote is khuzestan. oritiens the land of the people of avar is a city called magjar in iraq and not india. arabite is the home to the arabs in sothern iraq and not the estuary of send river in pakistan. dustkami which in this fabricated story is mistakenly called dustkani is the decanter of the followers of mithras's which is still used in mourning to serve water or sorbet and it was not known during alexander era but 500 later during the parthian was known. atropat, azarpad is a vocabulary belonging to the s anid's and not achaemenides because they were not zoroaster's. atropat or azarpad was the keeper of fire. today pad is known as bod as in sepahbod or arteshbod (sepah is corps and artesh is army in persian, translator's note). this is also evidence that the documents pertaining to alexander were written centuries later. azerbaijan is not the destroyed atropatan. azarbaijan or azarbijan is made up of three parts: azar meaning fire, bai meaning god and jan meaning place, together the place of god fire. they write: the troops of alexander on their return journey to and from sogdiana were engaged with a brave people called momasenha. momsen means grand. they are from the western part of the fars province in iran, what has it got to do with balkh and northern afghanistan. they have written that alexander got near the city of nysa near the send river and locate nysa as being between hamadan and bistoon. nesa was the first capital of the parthian near ashkhabad of turkmenistan and mithraism spread from there which hence be e to be known as the religion of nesa or nesara. nabarzan, nabarz meaning undefeatable is a postfix of mehr which is also used in kurdish. mithraism was spread to rome during the parthian and be e the common religion. the romans used the iranian vocabulary of nabarz as a postfix of mehr (mithra). in many of hundreds of mithraism's shrines left over from the roman empire, wall inscriptions also testify against this fabricated story and the fact that it was written centuries later. the idiots who invented alexander even defeated the paganisms, kusiyan or the caspians whose rule had ended 800 years previously because they wanted alexander to have defeated everyone! how illiterate those who today consider this history. the city of 100 gates is not dameghan, where on earth was its water in order to have 100 gates? different groups of archeologists searched that areas for years and not even found a city of one gate! they talked all that grandiose nonsense in order to raise the importance of their fairy hero, do you get me?

      the evidence against continues! the lying storytellers who were illiterate and knew nothing about geog hy created alexander in order to inflate the importance of an insignificant and indigent people of greece. the alexander historians who were a bunch of illiterate liars who didn't know geog hy created the myth of alexander with all those mistakes, not knowing that 2000 years later anush ravid would reveal the untruth. they defeated and toppled by their alexander all the countries and peoples who they had heard of in those days, they told much hype and lies which is easily recognizable and whoever that doesn't understand it is a real fool. they created hundreds of false names none of which has iranian or indian root and it is all too obvious.

anoush raavid / iran

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مشاهده متن کامل ...
alexander of macedonia
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

" paign for erasing the lies from the history of iran"

alexander of macedonia

the invasion of alexander of macedonia, the biggest lie in history

     rulers have existed since the beginning of human civilization. the initial civilization meaning the urban living and the creation of social cl and writing began, according to some accounts around 7 to 10 thousand years ago in mesopotamia and iran. nobody knows for certain whether rulers or people e first, it is the old chicken and hen story. in any case, the rulers have used different tricks to make people obey them, such as strange sects and religions, superstitions and telling and writing lies (there is a mention of this in the famous inscription of darius the great).

     many of such writings and inscriptions and stories are of these tricks which continue to the present day. one of the most important of them all is the invasion of iran by alexander the great. the tellers of the story of alexander of macedonia who told his story 600 years after his death did not pay attention of the point that the main reasons in winning a war is the greater number of fighters, the supremacy of the arms used and the experience of the commanders in warfare together with a thorough knowledge of the enemy terrain and its economy. a young man from a sparsely populated land with a poor economy cannot easily rise to destroy a great empire, confiscate the land of a brave people where in every household having a sword and arrow was a way of life, as if the enemy had come to a land of addicts and street dwellers. we see today how well equipped occupiers have run aground in their invasion, let alone in those days and……

     the movie 300 that was based on the invasion of alexander was a reason for the people of the world to discover the lies that lye behind the victories of alexander. a good opportunity has risen to erase these lies from our sweet history. us iranians need to tell the truth to the world, all the false inscriptions and wars of alexander and not just this film. it is of great surprise, how is it that iranian historians cannot recognize these lies, the lies of the military magnitude, the false distances, the fictitious wars, the fictitious towns and cities etc. would the iranian historian please study these lies with due patience and a new vision and rectify them in your speeches and writings?

   where was macedonia?

     macedonia, in old egyptian inscriptions "mage donia" which in arabic be e to be pronounced "magduniye" was important centre of mithraism in northern africa. yaghut hamudi, traveller, geog her and historian in his book "majamal baladan" says "macedonia is the name of egypt in the greek language". ibn al hih ahmad hamedani 4th arabic century geog her and historian quoting ibn yasar says,-" macedonia is egyptian territory". al moghadasi 5th islamic century geog her in "hosn al taghasim", ibn al khardazbeh in dalmask and almamalek", masoudi in the book of moruj alzahb and many others confirm that in those days macedonia was egyptian territory. with the exception of early islamic historians and the knowledgeable, ibn maghta, tabari and dinvari have called alexander in their writings iranian.

      in order to understand the reasons behind the creation of the story of alexander, its inventor's forgery, distortion, fabrication and theft that have occurred, one must pay attention to the special politics and the aims of the tyrannical religious emperors and governors ruling the eastern roman empire. between the 8th and the 11th century, for three hundred consecutive years 13 armenian men and 8 women, residents of the western part of the halice river (today called ghezel irmagh) and the town of ani (the town of the one thousand churches) who were not from the constantine family and had ambitions of power using the circumstances and sometimes with the help of the secret jewish organization infiltrated constantinople then the center of world power. these people, in order to safeguard their position, pretended to be greek and macedonian compiled and published the myth of alexander with the aim of setting east and west in other words mithraism and christianity against each other and by doing this increase their credibility. they compiled a book about alexander quoting his personal physician collis dens and extended alexander's acquisitions as far as india and china. with the help of agents of the abbasids they glorified alexander in order to distance the mind of the newly risen societies from the greatness of the ancient iranian's civilization, culture and power. the editing of the book was done in greek which was at the time the language of the church and be e so successful that the era in which it was published be e known as the era of the greek culture. on the other hand the religion of jesus christ did not flourish in the balkans until the 13th century and mithraism dominated this region whose followers believed this religion to be a falsification and apostasy of their religion.   in the written and verbal battle between these two religions, it is worth a mention of the shahname "the book of the kings" that is recited in divine language.  mazandaran in the times of anushiravan khorasani according to documents in the national library was called pazesh khargar. india (hend or end in persian pronunciation) according to tabari and masoudi until the end of the 12th century was the name of khoozestan. seventeen places in khoozestan such as hendijan and andimeshk and ….begin with this name, india used to be called aryavarte and baharat.

  eskandar and sekandar,

 in iranian languages alexandros is not alexander which in its equivalent in eastern languages. if one accepts that "al" in alexander is an article, by removing it one is left with exander which has no resemblance to alexanders or alexander so one needs to search and find out the origin of alexander and alexanders. in the works of albaghiye biruni page 145 it is written,- the head of its dynasty ( the parthians) is ashk ibn ashkanwhich is the title of king ufghufur is son to  balash ibn shahpour ibn esiktar ibn siyavash ibn kaykavoos.  biruni has named the parthian kings as ask ibn balash ibn sahpou ibn ashkan ibn ash jabbar (page 147 al baghiyeh). aslan ghaffari the author of sekandar and dara believes that ash jabbar and esiknar and such names are variations of eskantar meaning "brave" which has changed to eskandar.ash jabbar or esiknar or according to aslan ghaffari's estimate eskantar was the name of one of the parthian's kings in 3rd century b.c  who captured territory in vararoud i.e transoxiania and the greater khorasan with nayshabour, herat and marv and northern afghanistan and was abbreviated to eskandar and this power circle of the parthians be e subject of misuse first by the writers of alexander of macedonia from the eastern roman empire due to inexperience and stupidity and subsequently by the westerners in their animosity against the iranians.  those iranians that have nowrooz and live in vast and ancient countries have different languages and accents but share the same culture with varying customs. since far back, they have had to deal with enemies, beginning with eastern romans imperialist culture to the present day.

      going sekandari, - in the greater iran to those heroes and champions who during training and sports put their hands on the ground and their feet in the air and walk on their hands, say that they are" going sekandar".

      the enemies of iran have lied as much as they can about the defeats of the achaemenides and we have not even asked the very achaemenides once about their destiny. there are 12000 stone inscriptions of iran in the university of ciracus in the united states and other places and we have not even a clue and don't ask for them. the achaemenides have never said that persepolis was a palace let alone alexander managed to burn it down. on the stone inscription bearing the code xpd that lies in the eastern and western part of the balcony of what is famously known as the private palace of king xerxes he says,- …at the request of oromazes i erected this hadnish. and the word hadnish has been repeated several times in persepolis. all is written so that the pilgrimage that visited the site would know its purpose.

      strabo the famous greek historian considers herodotus the biggest liar and says that like magicians he plays fool with simple people's feelings.  f.n. arski (strabo the pioneer of the science of geog hy    pooyesh publication) says that herodotus is a liar and only fools believe him. fokidid says that herodotus talks without thinking and cannot be believed.

  the false warships

      in order to cover up their defeats, the greeks have magnified the iranian navy in their stories; they have talked of 2000 warships and another 2000 support frigates and commercial ships. if we compare their number and capacity to the middle sized and large boats in the persian gulf today they outnumber them even today! and if we suppose that the maintenance of each takes 30 days a year and the useful life of each ship is on average 20 years and the time to make one 6 months, then at one particular time there needs to be 120 boats and ships under construction in the yards. let us ume that the capacity of each yard is 6 ships at a time which means twice the capacity of the shipping yards in glasgow at the height of the power of the british empire in the 18th century, which means 6 yards and as the supply of wood was in itself a huge problem, a great logistical plan would have been needed to transport wood from the north like in the era of nadershah when he only managed to build 3 ships using the wood from the forests of the north and they quickly be e unusable or there had to be a supply of wood from india. therefore there would have been a huge number of saws and axes and other equipments and roads etc but none exists in any museum in iran or anywhere else. you decide for yourself without prejudice the root of the story and beware that the glory of the iranian history is not in lies, it lies in love, bravery, solidarity and love for the motherland (homeland). let us not allow the enemies change these good attributes with their lies.

  takht – e - jamshid and sivand

     in the images depicted in takh-e-jamshid, no-one is angry, nobody is mounted on a horseback, and one sees no-one bowing, there is nobody with their head down or defeated, there is no tribe superior to another, and there is no image of violence.

      one of the things iranians take pride in is the fact that slavery has never been common in iran. amongst hundreds of bodies carved on the stones of persepolis, there is not even one nude. let us tell the beloved iranians what we were so that in remains in their memory. over the past one hundred years persepolis and its surroundings have been thoroughly searched and there have been findings by many different archeological groups and there has not been a false persepolis found. the enemies have wanted to take revenge on the iranians on paper: they have created this imaginary city to take revenge for the burning down of athens and have been somewhat successful by taking a ntage of the idiocy of some of our historians. where there has not been a city, there has not been a capital for the achaemenides either and because it was not a capital city therefore it did not have a fortress or an alley way for a king in order to have 3 layers of walls built around it. these lies have not been found. which war where the greeks the prisoners of in takht-e-jamshid? and how did alexander gave them clothes in the midst of war? and many more such lies. which idiot would believe all the lies about the taking and transport of spoils of war? the burning down of takht-e-jamshid by alexander or whoever else is a big lie. the illiterate storytellers who wrote the story of the victory of the macedonians centuries later did not have the least knowledge about takht-e-jamshid. they have written that the palace was built mainly out of cedar wood, this is not true. takht-e-jamshid was built on stone and from stone and the burning down is also false and scientifically provable to be false. limestone is chemically calcium carbonate caco3 and under one atmospheric pressure and 894 degrees celsius by receiving 391 calories per gram is converted into 44% co2 and 56% cao. the co2 gas escapes into the air which leaves the cao. the latter is mixed with water which gives slaked lime or ca (oh)2. this reaction liberated 280 calories of heat. some of the clothes, carpets and other objects found at persepolis are not from that era and it is scientifically impossible for them to be so. over the centuries nomads and shepherds have used that area and indeed have made fires and technically those objects belong to them. people looking for treasures have dug and looted much over the centuries, knowing the history can be a treasure for us, read and express your views!

      the idiots have written that persepolis looted and burnt down the capital of the parsees. persepolis is their name invented centuries after darius like many others they invented and today it is known as takht-e-jamshid, nobody knows what it was called in those days and it remains to be discovered by the scientific and historic societies. takht-e-jamshid did not have water to be a capital, the small sivand river flows 10 to 12 kilometers away and in those days 2500 years ago people had the intelligence not to build a dam and control the flow because the water of the river would spread over a vast plain and in the and dry season the evaporation rate would be high and the remaining water would become salty hence unsuitable either for drinking or for agriculture therefore only damaging the environment. in the past all capital cities were built around major rivers. takht-e-jamshid was a place of worship whose construction was not completed. in those days iranian people were like god king worshippers.  it was like many other places of worship but on a larger and more glamorous scale and was never completed looted or burnt down. the intellectual evolution of humans made way for the appearance of the first religions. their intellectuals created the parthian. this evolution continues to date with various ups and downs and will continue until the end of humanity.

      today the important issues as far as intellectual growth is concerned are for us to think about everything and question it's validity whether it is true or not, what and how is the reality? is every glamorous rubbish the foreigners and enemies of iran have written true?

      when i write to the schools abut their books about the fabrication of alexander they reply that they know nothing about an alternative text! do they doubt these lies and really give up? do they want no one to think about the truth about alexander? do they want to take away the ability to think about the fabrication of history and alexander?

      in the gospel there is no mention of takht-e-jamshid, however this book gives a lot of information about other buildings and sites of the iranian empire and major cities such as hamadan and shush. there is no mention of it in any document of the babylonians, yrians, and phoenicians. catusias who lived 24 years in the iranian court does not mention it even once. this was the most sacred place in iran, with an exclusiveness that would protect an exclusive and invisible religion away from the contamination of the outsiders. the enemies of iran like very much telling that takht-e-jamshid was completely built and prosperous.

     revealing the fabricated and stupid wars

      the idiots who have written against iran and worse those who believe them have written that alexander attacked iran with 30000 troops and 40000 mounted soldiers via the strait of ellis pont, today known as dardanelle, crossed a deep and fast river with high granite walls and fought darius the 3rd in asia minor. the granite river that is today called bighachay is a small and shallow river that has no walls. the liars are shameless, as long as there are gullible people who believe them they may continue with their lies. moreover, the banks of this river have no place for the battle of around 150,000 men. go and see for yourself if you do not believe this. the liar writers wanted to diminish the importance of shush the two thousand year capital of elam which was also the capital of the achaemenides for 200 years and to have people believe that a partially completed shrine of takht-e-jamshid was the capital of iran, then falsely have it burnt down by alexander. five or six centuries later when they wrote their lies, the old religion of the achaemenides no longer existed and takht-e-jamshid was a deserted place. they had no idea of the distances between places and whatever they have written with respect to this is pure rubbish. it is easy to realize that it is all lies; they say 600 thousand troops of darius crossed the bridges over the euphrates river in 5 days, think a little! the 600 thousand is a lie, 5 days is a lie and the bridges are all lies. everything the have made up is a lie.

   the travel of alexander from takht-e-jamshid to damghan

they have written that their alexander went from takht-e-jamshid to hamadan. we analyze this lie too. in order to go from takht-e-jamshid to hamadan one needs to p through isphahan. there is absolutely no mention of this city with its brave inhabitants in any eskandarname i.e. document relating to alexander. they could not have gone to hamadan without p ing through isphahan, whoever claims otherwise is really stupid. from isphahan to najafabad there is a 30 kilometer length of gardens and herb plantations. this in itself is a good barrier against the attack and a nce of the enemy, therefore the illiterate writers were indeed much worse than one thinks in order to destroy these gardens in cold blood, on paper. there is no mention of other cities in isphahan either such as golpayegan, burujerd, malayer. there are only made up names that have no resemblance to the names of iranian towns and cities. there is a 480 km distance from isphahan to lorestan to hamadan, the road p es through harsh mountainous terrain, almost 200 km of which has a height of 2000 meters, one of the highest roads in the world and in winter is covered with ice and snow. the road from lorestan to hamadan is also a mountainous road and is one of the most difficult in the world and thanks to the bravery of its people no invader has been able to cross that region in history not even the local one. it is said that the bigger a lie the easier it is believed and this is exactly the case here, they tell and the idiots believe them!

      from takht-e-jamshid to isphahan through to hamadan then rey and damghan it is 1600 kms see the magnitude of the lie? or perhaps they covered this distance in fast japanese electric trains!  abu reyhan biruni in asar al baghiye has written that darius the 3rd was killed near erbil by the commander of his troops. at that time he knew nothing of the fabricated alexander, the reality is the parthian.

    the fabricated alexander of macedonia on his way to gorgan

      if the alexander historians wrote grandiose lies and confabulation it was their style and knew nothing about inside iran, however, those internal and external enemies, idiots and traitors who continue the lies in speeches and writings, what could their motive be? they take alexander from dameghan to gorgan with many erroneous and fabricated names of places, strange events, peoples and tribes that never existed, distances that have no bearing with the reality, please place a map in front of yourself and have a look and you will see how we have been cheated purely out of animosity and complex.

    another lie on paper

       alexander historians have created darband of pars on paper and have had it conquered by alexander in order to take revenge of the defeat of the greeks by the iranians in thermopylae strait, otherwise there is no strait between shush and takht-e-jamshid. over the past one hundred years iranian including, myself and english archeologists who have searched the area for treasures and archeological evidence have found no strait. there are books written about such excavations. many distinguished researches have written persians or farsiha but i would write this word more generally, i would say iranian or iranians because this is the name of a vast geog hical region and peoples who all have the ancient nowrooz and have all throughout history have defended iran and continue to do so. the enemies who do not know iran have created false heroes and the idiots are proud of them for nothing. they created a false shepherd in the harsh winter of lorestan and never explained how those two armies survived the freezing temperatures and at the same time they created tropical forests in that region and much such nonsense. they were enemies of iran but why do these so called iranian historians repeat such nonsense?

      imagine historical wars as they happened in those times and not how hollywood wants you to see them!

   illiterate and stupid enemies

      1700 and 1800 years ago, the alexander historians were far too illiterate to write their fabricated stories more believable and more stupid are the enemies of iran who take these nonsense for history. patala which in persian is the "bottom of the hill" is near the strait of boan, in their stories they refer to a river estuary in order to fabricate a document about alexander's journey to india. tanais river is a river between asia and europe which today is called the den. in their fabrication they have said it to be in northern afghanistan and placed it instead of balkh and taken alexander to indian, they have also written that alexander's troops travelled from balkh to sogdiana and spent harsh times in the desert without water or pastor in order to depict their bravery. this also is a fabrication. the city of balkh lies near a large river called balkhab and there is plenty of life in a radius of 350 km around it and not a waterless desert, you can easily see for yourself on a map. their oxus river is not the amu darya, they have written so much nonsense because they did not knew their geog hy and the stupid enemies of iran believe them and maliciously repeat them all the time.

      bacchus is the greek version of bagh which is also called bak, bag, bi and by. it is the prefix of izad mehr (yazata mehr), bagh mehr. mithraism spread during the parthian times to rome and greece. during alexander's time it was not known but 500 years later alexander historians knew about it because they were the enemies of iran and iranian religion like today. the caspian gate is not the sar darre khar as they claim; dar band khazar is a town between baku and ma khaj ghale. they have lied in order to justify their stories. arabius river which they claim alexander and his men crossed in india is today's shat al arab river and whatever indian they wrote is khuzestan. oritiens the land of the people of avar is a city called magjar in iraq and not india. arabite is the home to the arabs in sothern iraq and not the estuary of send river in pakistan. dustkami which in this fabricated story is mistakenly called dustkani is the decanter of the followers of mithras's which is still used in mourning to serve water or sorbet and it was not known during alexander era but 500 later during the parthian was known. atropat, azarpad is a vocabulary belonging to the s anid's and not achaemenides because they were not zoroaster's. atropat or azarpad was the keeper of fire. today pad is known as bod as in sepahbod or arteshbod (sepah is corps and artesh is army in persian, translator's note). this is also evidence that the documents pertaining to alexander were written centuries later. azerbaijan is not the destroyed atropatan. azarbaijan or azarbijan is made up of three parts: azar meaning fire, bai meaning god and jan meaning place, together the place of god fire. they write: the troops of alexander on their return journey to and from sogdiana were engaged with a brave people called momasenha. momsen means grand. they are from the western part of the fars province in iran, what has it got to do with balkh and northern afghanistan. they have written that alexander got near the city of nysa near the send river and locate nysa as being between hamadan and bistoon. nesa was the first capital of the parthian near ashkhabad of turkmenistan and mithraism spread from there which hence be e to be known as the religion of nesa or nesara. nabarzan, nabarz meaning undefeatable is a postfix of mehr which is also used in kurdish. mithraism was spread to rome during the parthian and be e the common religion. the romans used the iranian vocabulary of nabarz as a postfix of mehr (mithra). in many of hundreds of mithraism's shrines left over from the roman empire, wall inscriptions also testify against this fabricated story and the fact that it was written centuries later. the idiots who invented alexander even defeated the paganisms, kusiyan or the caspians whose rule had ended 800 years previously because they wanted alexander to have defeated everyone! how illiterate those who today consider this history. the city of 100 gates is not dameghan, where on earth was its water in order to have 100 gates? different groups of archeologists searched that areas for years and not even found a city of one gate! they talked all that grandiose nonsense in order to raise the importance of their fairy hero, do you get me?

      the evidence against continues! the lying storytellers who were illiterate and knew nothing about geog hy created alexander in order to inflate the importance of an insignificant and indigent people of greece. the alexander historians who were a bunch of illiterate liars who didn't know geog hy created the myth of alexander with all those mistakes, not knowing that 2000 years later anush ravid would reveal the untruth. they defeated and toppled by their alexander all the countries and peoples who they had heard of in those days, they told much hype and lies which is easily recognizable and whoever that doesn't understand it is a real fool. they created hundreds of false names none of which has iranian or indian root and it is all too obvious.

anoush raavid / iran

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مشاهده متن کامل ...
imam hossein story
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

(the third imam, husayn ibn ‘ali (as


second son of fatima (sa) and ‘ali (as) husayn (as) was born on 3rd shabaan, 4th year of hijri (10.1.626 ad) when he was born the holy prophet was given the news of the birth of his 2nd grandson. he arrived at the house of his daughter, took the little baby in his arms, said the azan and iqamah in his ears.

people around the prophet saw tears in his eyes. fatimah asked what was the reason for this, he told her that this boy of hers will achieve martyrdom, but consoled her by adding that god will create a nation who will mourn husayn till the day of jud ent. another famous saying of the prophet at the same time be e synonymous with the name of his grandson husayn.

“hussian-o-minni wa ana minul husayn”. husayn is from me and i am from husayn. one can explain this hadith that husayn, being the grand son of the prophet was from him biologically. how a grandfather was from his grand son needs to be explained. prophets of god speak spiritually rather than materially.

he was talking about islam the deen he was igned by god to propagate god's religion.. he was for islam and his whole life was for islam and its establishment on earth. any break in this mission would subvert this mission which was the purpose of his creation.

the message of the holy prophet in this saying was that husayn will, in some near future save this mission from destruction, hence the very purpose of his being will be saved by the sacrifice of his grandson. he was giving the news of a future occurrence. the story of karbala’ unfolds.

shah usto husayno badshah usto husayn

deen uato husayno deen panah usto husayn

surdad, nadad dust dur dueste yazid

haqqa ke benate la ilah husto husayn

husayn is the king , indeed he is the king of kings,

husayn is deen and also the protector of deen,

he gave his head but not his hand of allegiance in the hand of yazid.

indeed he was the founder (like his grandfather) of the concept of one god.

this quartet of shah moinuddin chishty ajmeri is the exact meaning of the hadith of “husayno minni” as mentioned above.imam husayn (as) has saved islam from oblivion by offering his timely sacrifice to draw the line of demarcation between truth and falsehood, between good and evil, between right and wrong, that after this event in karbala’ in 61 hijri, no one inside or outside islam dare to challenge the truth of the holy qur'an or try to subvert its meanings.

the story of karbala’ begins with the birth of husayn. the holy prophet had shown affection and love for his grandson as any grandfather should show,but there was something more positive and profound in this love.

several times when husayn entered the mosque as a small child the holy prophet will put him in his lap and tell his companions that this is husayn, look at him and remember him. the prophet’s insistence to remember husayn shows that those who will forget this event will cause trouble in islam.

it was just seven years of his life with his grandfather that the holy prophet died and soon after,husayn’s mother hazrat fatima (sa) also died.. the next 25 years of his life in madinah was with his father ‘ali,his brother hasan and many other brothers and sisters in the family. he grew up to be loved by the companions of the holy prophet.

during the period of 2nd khilafat-e-rasheda, omar ibne khattab had always shown his love and respect for husayn. whenever husayn entered the mosque, the caliph would let him sit beside him and tell the companions to listen to what this young man says. they all valued his advice even at that young age.

his main activity in madinah was to see that the people there know true islam. he also managed the trust set up by his father, to help the poor of the city by giving them food and many necessities of life. this was the true islamic welfare state in progress where every hungry mouth must have food, every naked person must have clothes and a shelter over his head.

apart from administering the trust set up by his father ‘ali (as) , husayn's (as) main occupation during these 25 years in madina was to teach the newly converted muslims real islam through the qur’an and sunnah of the prophet.

he has performed hajj 24 times during this period. he has also travelled to yemen and most of the southern part of hejaz and najd. it is clear that he did not take any part in any of the expeditions by the muslim forces under the directions of the three kholafa.

after the death of the 3rd caliph osman, husain’s father ‘ali (as) was compelled by the people of madinah overwhelmingly to take the reigns of power. ‘ali (as) was reluctant and waited for three days before accepting the mantle of worldly power along with the authority of imamah. (see life of imam ‘ali ) (as) .

circumstances changed idly and within the first 6 month of ‘ali’s khilafat he had to leave madinah for basra and the battle of jamal took place. we see that husayn (as) who took no part in any battles before was a commander of ‘ali’s forces in this first battle under his father’s leadership. fighting began and ended in just one day, the battle was over, ‘ali (as) performed funeral prayers on dead of both sides and buried them. victors and vanquished were treated the same way.

hazrat ayesha was returned to madina under the escort of her brother muhammad ibne abibakr and 40 other men. she repented her participation in the battle all her life and never forgave talha and zubair who deceived her into this battle against ‘ali (as).

she also realized that the true instigator of this battle was muawiya under whose directions both talha and zubair started this whole adventure against the legitimately elected caliph of islam.

it was to destabilize the power base of islam which was the khilafat of ‘ali (as) . when he did not succeed in this he began other tactics to do thsame. his bands of soldiers raided many parts of iraq to burn and loot villages and destroy communities. ‘ali (as) had no choice but to prepare for battle with muawiya.

the battle of siffin took place in the 2nd year of ‘ali’ (as) khilafat and husayn (as) took full part. he was the commander o arrison of 10,000 men along with his elder brother hasan (as) and muhammad (hanafiya). it was ‘ali’s practice to put his other son muhammad-e-hanafiya in the forefront and save the lives of these two grandsons of the prophet. nevertheless they took full part in these battles and fought with great bravery.

the 3rd battle during the khilafat of ‘ali (as) was the battle of nehrwan fought against the khawarij. this was also over in just one day with total defeat of khawarij. ‘ali (as) returned to kufa and the main administration of the islamic welfare state began. both brothers were the chief administrators of this welfare state where they would seek out those poor adestitute within the state and provide them with the necessities of life.

while living with his father in kufa, husayn (as) visited various northern part of the islamic state. one story goes to say that he visited azerbaijan and part of iran of that time.

four years and 10 months of his father’s khilafat were over quickly and his life with his elder brother hasan (as) began in madina. they still have the trust state which was established by his father and both brothers administered it jointly.

husayn (as) visited makka and performed hajj 9 times during the life time of his brother. after the martyrdom his brother hasan (as) husayn (as) took the mantle of imamate and spiritual guidance of the ummah. it is during this period that during one of his journeys to makka for pilgrimage, his famous duas (supplication) of arafah be e famous.

this is a dua which at the place of arafat during the hajj ritual that imam recited and many pilgrims heard it and instantly memorised it as was the practice of the people of that time. qur'an was also memorised in the same manner and many sermons of imam ‘ali (as) were also memorised by people.

this dua of arafa be e famous because of its deep insight into the realms of spirituality of islam and its total dependence upon allah’s will and power. this also gives insight into the reasons why imam husayn (as) left makka for karbala’. the following extract shows this feeling of the imam towards reform of the umma of his grandfather,

“o’god: you know that our struggle, moves, protests, and paigns have not been, and are not, for the sake of rivalry and for obtaining power, neither are they for the sake of personal ambition nor for worldly ends, nor for the purpose of accumulating wealth and acquiring worldly a ntages. “ then what is their purpose? imam states the purpose in these words.

“to establish the landmarks of your deen, to make reforms manifest in your lands, so that the oppressed among your servants may have security, and your laws, which have been suspended and cast into neglect, may be reinstated.”

further on in this same dua the imam calls upon his creator to show his total dependence upon him.

o’he, upon whom i called when i was sick and he healed me, when naked, he clothed me, when hungry he fed me, when thirsty he gave me drink, when abased he exalted me, when ignorant, he gave me knowledge, when alone he provided companion, when away from home he returned me home, when empty handed he enriched me, when in need of help he helped me, when rich he took not from me”.

this kind of complete dependence upon god which is the hallmark of islamic teachings, was taught by the imam to the people of madinah and makka, and the whole of hejaz he visited..

once a bedouin asked imam what is the best thing to do. imam replied,” belief in god”. he asked again, what is the best means of deliverance from destruction, imam said, “trust in god”. the man asked, what man’s ornament is, imam replied,” knowledge ociated with intelligence”.

the man insisted, if this be not available, what then, imam replied,” wealth accompanied with generosity”. what if this is out of reach, imam said, “poverty allied with patience”. what if this be not practicable?, imam smiled and said, let the lightening consume the man to ashes. he then gave whatever money he had with him to fulfill his needs.

it was in the month of rajab 60 hijri that moawiya died and his son yazid succeeded his father on the throne of the arab empire with damascus as its capital. moawiya in his cleverness had told yazid that” whatever you do when you become ruler after my death, do not ask husayn ibne ‘ali for the oath of allegiance. leave him where he is and you will have no problems.”

but yazid in his arrogance of power did not bother to remember the wishes of his father. the very first thing he did was to write a letter to his governor in madinah informing him of his succession to the throne of his father and ordering him to take the oath of allegiance from husayn ibne ‘ali (as).

yazid realized that although he had full temporal power and is the virtual ruler of the arab empire, but he has no spiritual strength unless the grandson of the prophet accepts him as such. people in makka and madinah would still regard husayn (as) as their leader if only spiritually. walid ibne ataba the governor of madinah receives this letter on 26th of rajab 60 hijri.

it was dusk and people were getting ready for maghrib prayers. walid immediately sent a messenger to imam’s house and called him to the palace. imam realized the seriousness of the situation and took his brothers and sons with him.

when they arrived at the gate of the palace imam asked to stay outside and wait and only enter the gates when they hear imam speak loudly. after these instructions imam entered the palace. there was walid sitting in his high chair with marwan ibnul hakam by his side. imam asked, “what is the matter that i was called at this hour”.

walid mentioned moawiya’s death, yazid’s accession to the throne and the demand for imam’s oath of allegiance. imam replied that this is not the matter which can be done in the solitude of the palace, let this matter be brought before the people of madinah next day in the mosque of the prophet.

imam stood up to leave while marwan who was listening to this conver ion did not like it and warned walid that if he lets husayn go he will loose him. take the oath now or cut his head off as yazid suggested in his letter. imam after hearing this remark from marwan told walid loudly, ”a person like me would not give the oath of allegiance to a person like yazid who had violated all tenets of islam”. as imam said these words loudly, his brothers and sons entered the palace and they all left safely.

imam realized after consulting his friends and relatives that the life of peace for them in madinah was over.

a question is asked sometimes, that why imam husayn (as) had not chosen to come to terms with yazid as his elder brother, imam hasan (as) had done earlier while dealing with moawiya. the question does not take into account the difference in the situations of the two brothers. ‘ali (as) as the imam left his elder son the mantle of imamate which he at the time of his death p ed it on to his brother imam husayn (as).

imam hasan (as) had also been installed as the caliph. finding that moawiya had succeeded in,secrertly, sowing the seeds of discord and dissent among the muslims, and had induced the feeling of great insecurity by undermining the machinery for the maintenance of peace, law and order, imam hasan (as) had deemed it expedient to enter into a treaty with him under which the imam abdicated in favor of his adversary only the adjuncts of worldly power.

he did not dissociate himself from the spiritual primacy at all and continued to be the spiritual leader and the imam of the ummah.

second point which is equally important is that when yazid enforced his oath of allegiance over the muslims, he insisted the people must swear allegiance to him which was totally different from the oath of allegiance of kholafae rashidoon. previously they swore the oath of allegiance that the khalifa should rule according to the verdict the qur’an and the sunnah of the prophet.

but yazid’s impertinence and arrogance made it an abject acknowled ent by the swearer that he was the slave (abd) of yazid who would dispose off his life, property and offspring in any manner deemed fit. one of the companions of the prophet in madinah named ibn rabia al aswad was prepared to swear allegiance to yazid in accordance with the old practice but refused to swear allegiance in the form proposed. he was summarily executed. this happened inside the city of madinah.

where then was there any point in imam husayn (as) trying to make up to yazid. this is where imam husayn (as) found himself placed in circumstances which were markedly different from those which confronted his elder brother who had abdicated only his temporal power in favor of moawiya for the restoration of peace and order on the domain of islam.

this kind of oath was entirely out of question for imam husayn (as) to accept. this would have totally degraded islam as ordained in the qur’an and as it was practiced by the prophet of islam. when settlement with yazid being wholly out of question, the only alternative course open to imam husayn (as) was to oppose yazid to save and protect the values of islam from further degradation and to protect the faith itself from destructive inroads of pre-islamic revivalism.

he could, however, have entertained no illusions about the kind of support he could hope to enlist for himself in any conflict with yazid. the exceedingly unhappy position in which his elder brother had found himself through the treacherous withdrawal of the support given to him in his confrontation with moawiya, imam husayn (as) therefore thought of entirely new strategy of war with yazid, for in any case war it had to be.

he made no attempt to meet yazid’s military might with his own martial strength. he built no hopes on numerical strength for the success of his cause which was entirely the cause of islam and saving islamic values. imam decided to battle with yazid on the spiritual plane, to oppose yazid’s might with his nobility of character, confront power with powerlessness, meet multitudes with want of material support and defy oppression with suffering and martyrdom.

the proof of this line of thought be e so clear in imam husayn’s sermons and letters to his brother muhammad-e-hanafiya when the imam was leaving makka for iraq.

imam, after leaving madinah in the month of rajab, stayed in makka for about 5 months. it was in the month of zilhijja 60 hijri when he noticed that there were yazid’s soldiers in makka in the garb of ahram to kill the imam inside the masjidul haram. imam changed the rituals of hajj into umra and decided to leave makka. the date was 8th of zilhijja 60 hijri.

when people saw the imam leaving before completing the hajj they began to ask questions as to why he was leaving in such a hurry. some doubted his motives, saying that he might be leaving makka for iraq to confront yazid and take power into his hands. to quell these doubts he left a letter with his brother muhammad-e-hanafiya which clearly states his purpose of leaving makka.

he wrote in the letter, “i have not come out to stir emotions, to play with discontentment, to provoke dissension or to spread oppression. i wish to bring the umma back to the path of amr-bil-ma’arouf and nahyi unil munker. i wish to bring them back to the path of my grandfather the messenger of allah and of my father ‘ali ibne abi talib”.

the momentous journey of imam husayn (as) begins from makka towards an unknown destination which eventually ended at karbala’.

the map on the next page showing the route of imam husayn (as) from makka to karbala’ was prepared by the writer of this book in 1984 and was presented at the imam husayn seminar organized by the muhammadi trust. this map has been regarded as a pioneering effort and a land mark in islamic history.

the journey which began from makka on the 8th of zilhijja 60 hijri ended in karbala’ on 2nd of muharram 61 hijiri and took about 22 days in all. imam stopped at 14 places on his way to karbala’. he met various people and delivered various sermons. what the imam talked about to these people he met and said in his sermons at various places reflects the true motives he had in his mind.

the names of these places imam p ed were mentioned in history books but their exact locations were not traceable in modern geog hical maps. after searching in the archives of the british museum library a map of 9th century hijri was found in which all these names were clearly shown.

the reader will see in the following pages the exact map of hejaz and iraq of that time and the exact route the imam and his caravan took in 60 hijiri.

map of hejaz and iraq showing the route of imam husayn from makka to karbala’.

there were 14 places in all where the imam was known to have p ed during this journey.

the first place was called saffah. here the imam stayed for the night. the next morning when he was preparing to leave for his next manzil that he met the famous poet farazdaq who was coming from iraq and was going to makka for pilgrimage.

when he learnt that imam was proceeding for iraq he tried to persuade him not to go there. imam asked farazdaq about the conditions in kufa and the poet replied,” people’s hearts are with you but their swords are against you.” imam told him, “allah does what he wishes, i leave it to him who proposes the just cause”. farazdaq left the place for makka and imam’s caravan proceeded towards its next manzil. the 2nd manzil was dhatul - irq.

here the imam stayed the night. here he met abdullah ibn jaafar who was imam’s cousin and husband of his sister hazrat zainab. abdullah brought his two sons aun and muhammad to accompany the imam. abdullah also tried to persuade the imam to postpone his journey and return to madina.

but imam replied,” my destiny is in the hands of allah” these words which mention his destiny were repeated at many places during this journey and clearly indicate that he had a mission in his mind and he was proceeding towards that mission without fail.

the 3rd stage in the imam’s journey was the small town called batn-ur-rumma. from here the imam sent a letter to one of his friends in kufa asking about the situation there. qais ibn mushahir took the letter for the imam. he also met abdullah ibn mutee who was also coming from the troubled land of iraq.

he also tried to persuade the imam not to proceed any further. he said that kufans were not faithful to anyone -” al kufi la yufi “- they could not be trusted. but imam continued with his fateful journey with the same words that his destiny is in the hands of allah.

the 4th stage of imam’s journey took him to zurud. this was a small town just over the hills of hejaz separating from the province of najd. from here the mountains change into arid desert. at this place imam met zohair ibne qain. zohair, until that time, was not the follower of ahlul-bayt.

he was undecided and considered himself as a person in middle not able to decide which side was the right one. imam saw zohair’s tent pitched in the distant and sent his emissary with a note. zohair read the note, realized for the first time in his life that time for decision to choose the right path has arrived. something happened to him inside that has changed his entire life.

what was written in the note is not clear, but zohair told his friends to take his wife and children back to his tribal lands, and he himself set out to join the imam and his caravan.

here it is important to mention that when the imam was leaving makka he was trying to persuade the hordes of people who wanted to come out with him, to go back to their homes.. imam was telling them that there is no reward of worldly goods at the end of the journey. but at the same time he wrote letters to some people inviting them to accompany him to the end of his journey.

one of them was zohair as mentioned above. imam wrote another letter to his childhood friend habib ibn mazahir al -asadi in kufa inviting to join him in his journey of destiny. habib was an old companion of the prophet, was much o then the imam. some historians mention habib’s age at 82.

another important point worth mentioning here is that these additional people invited by the imam were each from different tribes of arabia. out of total number of 72 male warriors with the imam, 18 were from his own family, all descendants of abu talib. but the rest of the martyrs were from all places and all creeds, almost from all islamic lands of that time.

there were men from sham (syria), from jaba el amul (lebanon), from armenia, from azerbaijan, from yemen, abyssinia and egypt. it appears that imam was taking special care that whoever is martyred with him on the day of ashura comes from different tribes and different lands, different culture and creed so that the message reaches all corners of the islamic lands through their relatives and friends.

the 5th stage of imam’s journey was a small town called zabala. here the imam learnt from two tribesmen coming from kufa, about the death of hazrat muslim ibn aqeel. imam uttered the words,”innlillahe wa inna ilaihe rajeoon”, loudly that all around him hear these words and know that something momentous has happened.

when all his companions gathered around him he said,”indallah nahtasib unfosana”, which means that before god we all are accountable to our actions and deeds”. asadi tribesmen tried to dissuade the imam from proceeding any further, but to no avail. he told his companions of the death of his cousin hazrat muslim.

in a very touching way he told hazrat muslim’s 4 year daughter of the death of his father. he called her, put her on his lap and gave her a pair of ear rings to put on. she asked why? then she replied herself, it looks like that her father has died and that she is an orphan now. imam hugged her, consoled her and told her that he will look after her in place of her father.

there was a commotion inside the ladies p as they all realized that kufa cannot be their destiny any longer. they also learnt that with hazrat muslim, his two small children and his friend hani were also killed along with many friends of ahlul bayt.

hoards of tribesmen who were still with the imam's party left him as they all realized for sure that there was not going to be a war for victory over yazid but the purpose was something else. by this 5th stage only about 50 people were left with the imam and many of them were women and children.

imam left zabala and arrived at batn-e-aqiq at his 6th manzil. here the imam met a man from the tribe of akrama who told him that kufa was not a friendly town, that yazid’s army has surrounded this garrison town, no one was allowed to leave or enter the town. but imam carried on toward his destiny.

the 7th manzil was sorat. imam stayed the night here and in the morning after fajr prayer he asked his companions to store as much as water as possible in all possible containers and sheep skins they had. the wells were underground, and the imam’s companions filled all possible containers, jars, sheepskins with water.

the next day they arrived at a place called sharaf. while the imam was p ing from this valley that one of his companions called out that he could see the approach of any army through the dust storm. imam asked for a safe place, preferably a hill at their back. a guide took them near a hill where imam asked everyone to dismount while kept the hill at their back. the name of the place was zuhasm. it was here that imam met hur’s army of 1000 men.

they were coming from kufa and appeared to be without water for sometime. imam asked his companions to give them water in spite of the fact that they were hostile to imam’s party. everyone drank to their fill, even horses and els drank. one soldier was so thirsty that he was unable to drink the water himself and the imam went to him and poured water in his mouth.

hurr who was the leader of that brigade from kufa e to the imam and wanted to get hold of the reins of his horse to which imam replied not to be impertinent. hur then refrained from doing that, but told the imam he will take him to kufa under escort to which imam did not agree.

while they were discussing these matters that the time for the zohr arrived and all of them, friends and enemy alike stood behind the imam to complete their prayers. after the prayers imam told hurr and his soldiers that he had received many letters from kufa inviting him to go there as an imam and guide in all matters religious or secular. the actual words of imam’s khutba as mentioned by tabari is as follows.

“ o’people of kufa, you sent me delegations and wrote me letters that you had no imam and that i should come to unite you and lead you in the way of god. you replied that we ahlul bayt are more qualified to govern your affairs than those who claim things to which they had no rights and act unjustly., but if you have changed your mind, have become ignorant of our rights and have forgotten your promises, than i shall turn back”.

but the imam and his companions were denied by hur’s soldiers to turn back. imam did not wish to go to kufa now, and hur’s army did not want them to return to madina. so a compromise was reached by both parties to bye- p kufa and turn towards north. imam and his party was leading and the hur’s army was behind them. in two days journey they arrived at a place called baiza.

baiza was the 10th manzil. at baiza imam delivered his most memorable sermon. history recorded this sermon fully. the words of this sermon clearly indicate the very purpose of the imam for leaving makka and his reasons of opposing the oath of allegiance to yazid.he said,

o’people,the prophet of islam has said that if a believer sees a tyrannical ruler transgressing against allah and his messenger and oppressing people, but does nothing by word or action to change the situation, then it will be just for god to place him where he deservingly belongs.

do you not see to what low level the affairs have come to.., do you not observe that truth has not adhered and falsehood has no limits. and as for me, i look upon death but a means of attaining martyrdom. i consider life among the transgressors an agony and an affliction”.

this khutba of the imam at baiza is a landmark in history. this was 60 hijri, about 681 ad. twelve hundred years later in gettesburg abraham linclon delivered a speech in which he said,
“to suffer in silence while they should protest makes cowards of men”. these words of lincoln reflect exactly what imam said some over 1200 years ago that oppressors and transgressors from the true path of justice will emerge all the time.

if there remains no one on earth to object over their transgressions that they will go unchecked. one should always point out to these tyrants of the right path of justice. this is the lesson we should all learn from imam husayn (as).

the next manzil was uzaibul hajanat. here imam stayed away from the escorting army of hur. he met trimmah bin adi. after having known about the kufan abandonment of his envoy hazrat muslim, it be e clear that imam had no hope of support or even survival in kufa.

nevertheless, he refused an offer of safety extended to him by trimmah bin adi. ibn adi was the leader of a powerful tribe of adi in the area. he pleaded the imam to accept his offer of 20,000 armed soldiers from his tribe to help him if he wishes to go to kufa to fight with the army of yazid.

adi even offered the imam and his small entourage to a hideout in the tribal hills away from kufa. but imam rejected all such offers of safety and indulgence in war.imam replied to ibn adi,”allah will bless you and your people for your good intentions. i cannot go from my word.things are destined”.

it is clear from this reply that the imam was fully aware of the impending dangers he and his family and friends would face if he continues with his journey without any help from outside forces. he had a certain strategy and plan in his mind to bring about a revolution in the conscience of the muslim ummah.

he did not mobilise military support which he could easily have mustered in hedjaz, nor did he try to exploit whatever physical strength was available to him. on the othand he was discouraging any such suggestions of an army to fight physically.

imam’s twelvth manzil was qasre- bani maqatil. it was evident here that kufa was no more his destination. as hur did not want him to leave for anywhere else, a compromise was reached and they bye p ed kufa and took a new route. resting in the heat of the afternoon, imam uttered a sentence which is said in circumstances when someone hears of death.

his elder son ‘ali akber e forward and enquired about this sentence. imam replied that while he was half a sleep he saw in his dream that some one was shouting loudly that this caravan was destined towards death. ‘ali akber asked, are we not on the right path.

an unusual question so it seems. but when the imam replied that they were indeed on the right path, his son’s reply was again typical of this family of the prophet. father, when we are on the right path,” we have no worries whether death takes us or we fall upon death”.

the young son of the imam was isfied as long as their paths were right. death meant nto them for they were fully aware that death of this kind trans forms into the glory of martyrdom.

their thirteenth manzil was nainawah. at this place a messenger from ibn ziad the governor of kufa e to meet the army of hur and told them not to leave the imam and his party under any circumstances. the battered caravan p ed through ghaziriyah and arrived at a place by the river banks of the euphretes.

imam asked the name of this place and he was told the name “karbala’”. imam replied, this is the place of kerbin-wa-bala, i.e. the place of torture and pain. let us stop here, imam ordered to dismount. we have reached our destination. tents were pitched near the river bank. the date was 2nd of muharram 61 hijiri (3rd october 681 ad).

hurr’s soldiers surrounded the imam’s p. but no one knew what was going to happen until two days later on the 4th of muharram that another contingent of 4000 men arrived from kufa. the next day shimr arrived with another 10,000 men to fight an army of about 40 people, among them were men of over 80 and children of 13 and 11 and even a 6 month old baby, the youngest son of the imam who was only a month old when imam left madina in the month of rajab 5 months ago.

shimr ordered the imam and his entourage to leave the river bank and pitch their tents away from it. imam’s brother abbas and others refused,but imam told them to move the tents. the tents were moved about 200 yards away from the river bank and the river was immediately occupied by the soldiers of yazid newly arrived from kufa.

next day 7th, all water supply was stopped for the imam’s party and soon the cry of thirst heard from the children in the p. ~whatever water they would have stored was finished within a day and by the 8th there was no water left in the p. in the scorching heat of the desert even a few hours without water was impossible yet for three days these people were without water.

on the afternoon of the 9th, yazid’s army moved forward in a formation of attack. imam was informed and he sent abbas and ‘ali akber to enquire about this. the reply was that orders were from kufa to commence fighting and finish off with the family of the prophet. imam asked them to give them a stay of one night for they all wished to spend their last night in meditation and prayers to god.

the night was dark and horrible, flickering lights from the p of the imam was showing few people busy in prayers. the sound of their prayers in unison was coming out of the p as if honey bees were busy to build their nest. whereas on the enemy side and dancing had gone on all night. many soldiers from yazid’s army saw this difference and realized in awe who was on the path of god and who was not.

some soldiers slipped away from yazid’s p towards the imam’s p knowing fully well that if fighting started the next morning they would surely perish. about 30 such people moved to imam’s p. imam held a meeting of his battered and thirsty companions and told them that the enemy wanted only his life. they have no animosity with anyone else.

when no one moved imam asked that the candles should be put off, in case some of them were ashamed to show themselves running away from the imam. the imam also said that he was taking away the burden of the oath of allegiance from them and made them free to go. “take few of my relations with them” but when the candles were lit again, all were there, no one moved.

one of the older companions named muslim ibn awsajah e forward and declared that they were all one solid rock to fight for the imam. if they were killed 70 times and then were made alive again they would still prefer to achieve martyrdom with the imam rather than live with the oppressive rulers like yazid.

morning appeared and before sunrise ‘ali akber gave the azan and all of them completed their morning prayers behind their imam.

imam made his brother abbas as the flag bearer of the tiny army of 70 persons in all when all of a sudden two more soldiers defected from yazid’s army. one was hur who was the leader of the contingent who brought the imam’s party to karbala’ and also his son. both of them arrived with their hands tied to apologize to the imam for what they had done and asked his permission to fight for them and become first martyrs.

imam did not give orders to commence fighting until arrows e from the enemy p. then hur went out to fight. overwhelmed by the numbers on the other side, he soon died. his son went and he also died.

then one by one each companion of the imam went and died until zohr time when saeed ibn abullah al bijilly e forward and informed the imam that it was prayer time for zohr. battle was raging, arrows were coming towards the imam’s p, how could they have formed lines for prayers.

but they stood in single foil to perform their last prayers while two companions of the imam saeed and zohair stood in front of this line to hold back all the arrows that were coming towards them. once the imam finished the last words of the prayers these two soldiers died of exhaustion. the last of the companions of the imam died and only the relatives remained.

first to go was imam’s son ‘ali akber who fought bravely but thirst for three days was the most important factor in the fall of these martyrs. he was also killed and then imam’s nephew qasim went and was killed. then four of his brothers, osman, jafar, abullah and abbas were killed. imam then brought his 6 month old son ‘ali asgher. he brought him in his arms under the shade of his cloak. he told the audience, "this baby has not done any harm to you.

he is thirsty, give him some water." the commander of yazid’s army ordered hurmula who was the best marksman to kill the baby. hurmula pulled the bow and the arrow killed the baby instantly. imam brought the baby near the p, informed his mother of the martyrdom of the baby. he then buried the baby in the sand. afterwards imam himself went for battle.

but before that he introduced himself again that he was the grandson of the prophet in case anyone had any doubts about him and that his guilt was only to refuse to accept the oath of allegiance of the tyrannical ruler yazid.

the enemy was thirsty for the blood of the imam, they were blind in their eagerness to kill the last of the family of the prophet. they fell upon his injured and tired body like blood hounds and soon the imam was also killed. the battle ended in one day.

the evening of the 10th was the darkest for the women and children of the family of the prophet. ps were set alight and burnt, their possessions were looted. it was late at night while they were huddled together waiting for further tortures from the enemy side, that they saw the wife of hur coming towards them with food and water.

they were hungry and thirsty but none of them was keen to take anything, not even the youngest of the children. imam husayn’s youngest daughter sakina took the tumbler of water and ran towards the open field. her aunt zainab asked where was she running to and she replied, her little brother ‘ali asgher was thirsty, she was taking some water for him, not knowing that little ‘ali asgher was already dead, being the victim of hurmula’s arrow.

night p ed and the morning e with more pain and grief when they saw that the bodies of the enemy were buried but the grandson of the prophet with all his sons and brothers and companions lie unburied on the desert sand. the women and children were taken prisoners with the ailing son of imam, the 22 year old ‘ali, leading this battered caravan towards kufa as the imam of the family. he was now the 4th imam.

the bodies of these martyrs were buried on 3rd day by tribesmen of bani asad, guided by the fourth imam who was with them miraculously while in prison in kufa.




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این گزارشها شامل 5 سال پیش بینی بازار فناوری های جدید همراه با اطلاعات آماری و اطلاعات آنالیزی از بازار، کاربردها، ساختار صنعتی، گردانندگان اصلی، سهم بازار، پویایی صنعت، فناوری و شیفت فناوری و توسعه ی بین المللی در ارتباط با آن بازار است.

خوانندگان این گزارشها دریافتی کلیدی از اطلاعاتی خواهند داشت که چشم اندازی پر محتوا از مسائل پیش روی بازار مد نظر را بر آنان می گشاید و به آنان اجازه می دهد با دریافت مزایای رقابتی، در زمینه فرصت های ب و کار جدید برنامه ریزی استراتژیکی را طراحی نمایند.

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مشاهده متن کامل ...

the effect of organizational life cycle stage on the use of activity-based costi
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

mana ent accounting research 19 (2008) 62–79

juha-pekka kallunki, hanna silvola department of accounting and finance, university of oulu, po box 4600, fin-90014 oulu, finland abstract

this paper investigates if the use of an activity-based cost-accounting system differs among rms in different organizational life cycle stages. we apply the miller and friesen [miller, d., friesen, p.h., 1983. successful and unsuccessful phases of the corporate life cycle. organ. stud. 4 (3), 339–356; miller, d., friesen, p.h., 1984. a longitudinal study of the corporate life cycle. manage. sci. 30 (10), 1161–1183] life cycle model according to which the internal characteristics of rms and the external contexts in which the rms operate differ across rms depending on their stages of development. based on the organizational life cycle theories we hypothesize that the use of the activity-based costing is more common among rms in maturity and revival phases than amongrms in a growth phase. our empirical analyses based on a questionnaire to 105 finnish rms operating in various industries and in different life cycle stages support our hypothesis. we conduct various robustness checks of the results using several control variables and checking the effect of potential non-response bias. our results remain essentially the same. ©2007 elsevier ltd. all rights reserved. jel cl ification: m41 keywords: activity-based costing system; organizational life cycle; mana ent accounting 1. introduction in a growthstage, rms are characterized by a id sales growth and an expansion of activities and products (miller and friesen, 1984). in a maturity stage, the sales of the rm level off, more formal and bureaucratic organization structures are established and innovation declines. in the revival stage, rms adopt divisionalized structures for the rst time to cope with more complex and heterogeneous markets (miller and friesen, 1984). these life cycle stages of therm are described in organizational life cycle theories according to which the internal characteristics of rms and the external contexts in which the rms operate differ across rms depending on the stage of development (e.g. greiner, 1972; miller and friesen, 1983, 1984; merchant, 1997). a rm’s life cycle stage is a contingency to which organizational responses have to be matched (e.g. miller and friesen, 1983, 1984). this implies that the use of mana ent accounting systems differs across the stages of organizational life cycle as different systems are needed in different stages. firms’ need for formal mana ent accounting and control systems is notably greater in the later life cycle stages than it is in the early stages. however, as md. auzair and langeld-smith (2005) point out, organizational life cycle is a fairly recent variable in the empirical mana ent corresponding author. tel.: +358 8 553 2956; fax: +358 8 553 2906. e-mail address: [email protected](j.-p. kallunki). 1044-5005/$ –see front matter © 2007 elsevier ltd. all rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.mar.2007.08.002

j.-p. kallunki, h. silvola / mana ent accounting research 19 (2008) 62–79 63 accounting system literature, and life cycle stage has not been linked to most of the mana ent control dimensions. in a few existing empirical studies, it has been reported that the life cycle stage is an important driver of the emergence of mana ent control systems (miller and friesen, 1984; moores and yuen, 2001; davila, 2005; md. auzair and langeld-smith, 2005; granlund and taipaleenm¨aki, 2005). for instance, miller and friesen (1984) report that rms in the maturity and revival phases put signicantly more emphasis on formal cost controls than do rms in the growth stage. md. auzair and langeld-smith (2005) use a self-categorization measure based on the rm’s own essment of its life cycle stage and report that organizational life cycle, among other contingent variables, has a signicant effect on the design of a rm’s mana ent control systems. in this paper, we investigate if the use of the activity-based cost-accounting system differs across life cycle stages of the rm.1 the life cycle literature (e.g. miller and friesen, 1983, 1984) reports that increased competition and diversication in products and marketscause rmsinthematurityandrevivalphasestoputsignicantlymoreemphasis on formal cost controls and performance as opposed to rms in the growth phase. in addition, mature and revivalrms have greater resources for experimenting with a nced mana ent accounting systems and they have more complex, more formal and more bureaucratic organizational structures creating a need for these systems compared to growth rms. these differences in the internal characteristics of the rm and the environments in which the rms operate lead to more widespread use of a nced costing systems, such as activity-based costing, among mature and revival rms than among growth rms. the paper contributes to the mana ent accounting literature by exploring if the life cycle of the rm has a role of its own apart from that of the size of the rm in the use of activity-based costing. although rms in the maturity and revival phases are often larger than rms in a growth phase, not all mature or revival rms are necessarily large in size. in other words, even small rms are likely to use activity-based costing if they have a managerial need for an a nced cost-accounting system due to their life cycle stage. we therefore expand the earlier studies investigating the effect of the size of the rm on the use of activity-based costing without considering the life cycle stage of the rm. such earlier studies include drury and tayles (1994), innes and mitchell (1995), bjornenak (1997), chenhall and langeld-smith (1998), malmi (1999) and al-omir and drury (in press). wefeelthat this study has important implications for the practice of mana ent accounting research; it sheds light on whether the actual underlying organizational need indicated by the life cycle stage of the rm rather than simply the size of the rm drives the rms’ use of an activity-based costing. in addition, although activity-based costing has been scrutinised for almost two decades, it continues to be actively investigated (e.g. al-omir and drury, in press). one reason for this is that implementations of erp (enterprise resource planning) systems allowing rms to integrate a nced cost accounting such as activity-based costing software with erp systems, have increased remarkably in recent years (e.g. dechow and mouritsen, 2004; granlund and malmi, 2002; granlund, 2007). our empirical analyses based on the cross-sectional survey data of 105 rms operating in several industries and in different life cycle stages, support our hypothesis. the results indicate that the characteristics of the rm reported in the life cycle literature to affect the use of a nced cost-accounting systems differ across life cycle phases, i.e. rms in the maturity and revival phases have a greater organizational size, lower protability, a more diversied product/service range and have more often gained a stock market listing as opposed to rms in the growth phase. more importantly, we ndthat the use of activity-based costing is signicantly more common among rms in maturity and revival phases than it is among rms in a growth phase. in addition, we nd that it is the life cycle stage rather than the size or age of the rm which is decisive in explaining the use of the activity-based costing among rms. these results remain essentially the same after several control variables and checking the effect of potential non-response bias have been applied. wedivide the remainder of the body of this paper into four sections. in section 2 we review the relevant literature and develop our hypothesis. we describe the survey data and research method in section 3 and report the results of preliminary data analyses. in section 4, we report the empirical results including the corresponding robustness tests and present concluding remarks in section 5. 1 hilton (2005, p. 786) describes activity-based cost accounting system as ‘a two-stage procedure used to ign overhead costs to products and services produced. in the rst stage, signicant activities are identied, and overhead costs are igned to activity cost pools in accordance with the way the resources are consumed by the activities. in the second stage, the overhead costs are allocated from each activity cost pool to each product line in proportion to the amount of the cost driver consumed by the product line’. in addition, bjornenak and mitchell (2002) provide an excellent review of the activity-based costing journal literature and lukka and granlund (2002) that of activity-based costing research genres.

4 j.-p. kallunki, h. silvola / mana ent accounting research 19 (2008) 62–79 2. theory and hypothesis development 2.1. characteristics of firms in different organizational life cycles stages organizational life cycle theories suggest that the characteristics of organizations change according to the life cycle stages (e.g. greiner, 1972; churchill and lewis, 1983; miller and friesen, 1983, 1984; merchant, 1997; moores and yuen, 2001). in the birth stage, the prime distinguishing feature of the rms is that they are young, dominated by their owners, and have simple and informal organizational structures (miller and friesen, 1984). for this reason, the birth stage is also referred to as an ‘entrepreneurial stage’. the founders of these rms are technically or entrepreneurially oriented, preferring to keep mana ent activities to a minimum. they prefer to devote their efforts to developing and selling new products, and they rely on a minimal amount of information in decision-making. the growth stage occurs once the rm has established its distinctive competences and has achieved some initial product-market success (miller and friesen, 1984). in the growth stage, rms are characterized by id sales growth. growth rms rely more on formal rules and procedures to ensure organizational and administrative ef ciency. this is due to the expansion of activities and products and increasingly centralized structures. some authority is delegated to middle-managers who devote greater effort to collecting and processing information needed in decision-making. growth rms extend their product ranges, but this results in a more complex array of products for a given market rather than positions on widely differing markets (miller and friesen, 1984). thematurity stage follows the growth stage as the sales levels stabilize and the level of innovations falls (miller and friesen, 1984). in the maturity stage, the administrative task of the rm becomes more complex, which in turn leads to formal and bureaucratic structures. in fact, quinn and eron (1983) dene this stage as the ‘formalization and control stage’. mature rmsplacemoreemphasisonef ciencyandprotabilityandonstrategiesreplacinginnovations. decision-making is dominated by a few key managers and structures remain centralized. in the revival stage, rms adopt divisionalized structures for the rst time to cope with the more complex and heterogeneous markets (miller and friesen, 1984). revival rms focus their strategies on diversication and expansion of product-market scope to achieve turnaround and attain new growth (e.g. miller and friesen, 1984; gupta and chin, 1990; merchant, 1997). they also emphasise more sophisticated control and planning systems. table 1 summarises the characteristics of therms in different life cycle stages. afew recent studies have applied the miller and friesen typology to the life cycle stages of the rm in connection with mana ent accounting. md. auzair and langeld-smith (2005) measure the life cycle stage of the rm using a self-categorization measure proposed by kazanjian and drazin (1990), and report that organizational life cycle, among other contingent variables, has a signicant effect on the design of a rm’s mana ent control systems. davila (2005) table 1 characteristics describing rms in different life cycle stages growth maturity revival environment organization strategy more competitive and heterogeneous some formalization of structure functional basis of organization increasing differentiation somewhat less centralized broadening of product market scope into closely related areas incremental innovation in product lines id growth still more competitive and heterogeneous formal, bureaucratic structure functional basis of organization moderate differentiation moderate centralization consolidation of product market strategy focus on ef ciently supplying a well-dened market very heterogeneous, competitive and dynamic environment divisional basis of organization high differentiation sophisticated controls, more formal analysis in decision-making strategy of product market diversication, movement into some unrelated markets high level of risk taking and planning substantial innovation notes: the table is based on miller and friesen (1983, 1984).

j.-p. kallunki, h. silvola / mana ent accounting research 19 (2008) 62–79 65 reports that the size and age of the rm, the replacement of the founder as ceo and the existence of outside investors are drivers of the emergence of mana ent control systems. finally, moores and yuen (2001) explore the use of mana entaccounting systems at different life cycle stages and nd that the formality of the mana ent accounting systems varies across life cycle stages. 2.2. the use of activity-based costing in different organizational life cycle stages the life cycle literature implies that there are several reasons why the use of a nced mana ent accounting systems such as activity-based costing is greater among rms in the maturity and revival phases than amongrms in the growth phase. these reasons are due to differences in the administrative task, business environment, strategies and organization structures between rms in different life cycle phases. first, as a result of a more complex, more challenging and more competitive business environment, the administrative task of mature and revivalrms is more complex than that of growth rms (miller and friesen, 1983; chandler, 1962). this creates a need for a more sophisticated decision-making approach utilizing sophisticated mana ent accounting systems such as activity-based costing. second, rms in the growth phase put emphasis on growth and on expanding their market shares, whereas rms in the maturity and revival phases put clearly more emphasis on minimizing production costs in mature, highly competitive markets rather than on growth. this is because increased competition decreases the profitability of the rms in the maturity and revival stages. therefore, cost-effectiveness and protability are more important in the maturity and revival phases than they are in the growth phase. consequently, rms in the maturity and revival phases put more emphasis on formal controls, such as formal cost controls, as they need to produce products ef ciently and earn adequate prot margins on a more competitive market (miller and friesen, 1984). third, maturity and revival rms experience increased diversification in their products and markets (miller and friesen, 1984). increased diversication in products and markets together with increased competition cause rms in the maturity and revival phases to put more emphasis on reducing, controlling and understanding factors driving their costs as opposed to rms in a growth phase (e.g. miller and friesen, 1984; gupta and chin, 1990; merchant, 1997; mooresandyuen,2001;md.auzairandlangeld-smith,2005).therefore,matureandrevival rmsespeciallycanbe expected to use activity-based costing, as activity-based costing should help managers to understand cost hierarchies, to identify relevant revenues and costs (e.g. jones and dugdale, 2002), and to achieve a better nancial performance (e.g. kennedy and af eck-graves, 2001). fourth, the life cycle literature suggests that the organizational size of the rms is greater in maturity and revival phases than it is in the growth phase. as chenhall and langeld-smith (1998) point out, greater organizational size leads to greater complexity of tasks, which requires more division of labour. the specialization of tasks leads to more extensive differentiation, i.e. similar tasks are grouped within common units (chenhall and langeld-smith, 1998; blau et al., 1976). as a result, it becomes more dif cult to ensure that organizational subunits are acting towards the achievement of a common purpose (lawrence and lorsch, 1967). more sophisticated integrative mechanisms such as information systems are then developed to coordinate the activities of subunits (chandler, 1962). mana ent accounting innovations such as activity-based costing are examples of such information systems (chenhall and langeld-smith, 1998). in addition, rms in the maturity and revival stages as result of greater organizational size have greater resources to experiment with administrative innovations such as a nced mana ent accounting systems. in sum, greater organizational size and greater resources can be expected to lead to more widespread use of activity-based costing among rms in the maturity and revival stages as opposed to rms in the growth stage. fifth, the life cycle literature suggests that rms in the mature and revival stages have more centralized, more formal and more bureaucratic organization structures as opposed to rms in the growth stage (e.g. miller and friesen, 1984; quinn and eron, 1983; moores and yuen, 2001). gosselin (1997) reports that among organizations that adopt activity-based costing more centralized and more formal organizations are more ociated with the implementation of activity-based costing in comparison to decentralized and less formal organizations. he also nds that organizations that adopt and implement activity-based costing are bureaucracies. it follows from these results that the use of the activity-based costing should also be more common among rms in the maturity and revival phase than among rms in a growth phase due to the more centralized, more formal and more bureaucratic organization structures of the mature and revival rms.

6 j.-p. kallunki, h. silvola / mana ent accounting research 19 (2008) 62–79 the literature discussed above leads us to the following hypothesis on the use of activity-based costing in different life cycle stages of the rm2: hypothesis 1. the use of activity-based costing is greater among rms in maturity and revival phases than amongrms in a growth phase. while rms may use activity-based costing for different reasons (see section 2.3), the life cycle theories imply that the life cycle stage of the rm should affect the reasons for using activity-based costing in the same way as it affects the actual use of activity-based costing. in other words, the reasons for using activity-based costing in different life cycle phases should reect the differences in the managerial need for using it in each life cycle phase, as suggested by life cycle theories. as noted earlier, the life cycle theories suggest that the use of activity-based costing should be more widespread among mature andrevival rms, because these rms are less protable and they have to put more emphasis onreducing, controlling and understanding the factors driving their costs as opposed to rms in a growth phase. hence, the need to reduce, control and understand factors driving the costs should also be a more important reason for using activity-based costing among the rms in the maturity and revival phases than among rms a growth phase. similarly, life cycle theories imply that the administrative task of mature and revival rms is more complex than that of growthrms, necessitating more sophisticated mana ent accounting system such as activity-based costing. therefore, a need to improve and modernize decision-making by using activity-based costing should be a more important reason for using activity-based costing among mature and revival rms than among growth rms. in sum, we propose the following hypothesis on the reasons for using of activity-based costing at different life cycle stages of the rm: hypothesis 2. aneed to reduce and control the costs, a need to understand the factors driving the costs and a need to improve and modernize decision-making should be more important reasons for using an activity-based costing amongrms in maturity and revival phases than among rms in a growth phase. 2.3. other characteristics of the firm affecting the use of activity-based costing there are also other characteristics of the rm that need to be controlled for when investigating the use of the activity-based costing at different organizational life cycle stages. some of these characteristics and those describing the life cycle stage of the rm are partly inter-related (e.g. the size, age, product/service diversity and stock market listing of the rm). earlier studies (e.g. davila, 2005) have used the size and age of the rm as measures of the life cycle stage. however, our aim is to isolate the role of the life cycle of the rm from that of the other characteristics of the rm by using the self-categorization measure proposed by md. auzair and langeld-smith (2005) and kazanjian and drazin (1990). therefore, in our analyses we control for the effect of the other characteristics of the rm on the use of activity-based cost accounting. first, the earlier literature reports that the use of activity-based costing increases as the size of the rm increases (e.g. drury and tayles, 1994; moores and chenhall, 1994; innes and mitchell, 1995; bjornenak, 1997; chenhall and langeld-smith, 1998; baird et al., 2004). second, the earlier literature reports that the use of formal mana ent control systems increases as the rm grows older (e.g. davila, 2005). third, the use of activity-based costing has been reported to be more common among rms having high product/service diversity (e.g. bjornenak, 1997; malmi, 1999). fourth, as cooper and kaplan (1988) points out, rms having a complex production process tend to use more sophisticated cost-accounting systems compared to other rms. fifth, the educational level of the ceo of the rm has been reported to be positively related the use of formal mana ent accounting systems (e.g. graham and harvey, 2001; davila, 2005). sixth, as davila (2005) and granlund and taipaleenm¨aki (2005) report, rms have to meet the expectations ofventurecapitalinvestorswhendevelopingtheirmana entcontrolsystems.therefore,venturecapital investors may require rms to use a nced mana ent accounting systems such as activity-based costing. seventh,rms listed on a stock exchange have been reported to use a nced mana ent accounting systems (granlund and taipaleenm¨aki, 2005; o’connor et al., 2004). finally, earlier studies report that the use of activity-based costing differs 2 we emphasize that we propose a hypothesis on how widespread the use of activity-based costing is in different life cycle stages. we do not hypothesize when rms begin to use activity-based costing in their life cycle.

j.-p. kallunki, h. silvola / mana ent accounting research 19 (2008) 62–79 67 between manufacturing and service rms, because service rms may have fewer activities for cost allocation (lukka andgranlund,1996;hussainetal.,1998).intheempiricalanalyses,wecontrolfortheeffectofalltheabove-mentioned factors on the use of activity-based costing of rms. section 3 describes the empirical measures of these factors. 3. research method 3.1. sample and survey procedure the data used in the study were collected by a survey questionnaire (dillman, 1999; van der stede et al., 2005). the nal questionnaire was mailed to 500 finnish rms randomly selected from a database of rms located in the helsinki area. the database is maintained by statistics finland. the rms are of different sizes and they operate in various industries, because we want to test our hypotheses on the effect of the life cycle stage of the rm on the use of activity-based costing such that the results can be generalized to rms with different sizes and operating in different industries. pilot tests were undertaken with groups of chief accountants, nancial directors and academics to rene the design and focus the content. we received some advice on survey design and formulation to make the survey more explicit and easier to answer. a respondent who wastypically a nancial director, chief accountant, senior mana ent accountant or chief executive, was themosteligible personwithineach rmtocompletethesurvey.thesurveypackage included a covering letter explaining the purpose of the research and a link to the web site where respondents could also complete the questionnaire. respondents answered anonymously using the internet questionnaire or by mail. a reminder was mailed 3 weeks later which gave us 16 further responses. all in all, we received 105 responses out of the 500 recipients giving a response rate of 21%. in addition, ve respondents phoned us to indicate that they did not have enough time to participate. we received 15 responses via the internet and 90 responses via mail. table 2 reports the summary statistics of the sample rms. as van der stede et al. (2005) suggest, non-response bias tests are needed to ensure the representativeness of the sample. we test the potential effect of non-response bias on our results by comparing the mean values of the survey items of the earliest 20% of responses received to the mean values of variables of the latest 20% of responses received. in addition, we also compare the mean values of the variables of the postal and internet responses. there were no signicant differences, which provides some evidence for absence of response bias. in addition, a chi-square test indicates that the respondents appeared to represent the broader sample frame with no signicant differences in industry between responding and non-responding rms. 3.2. measures the wording of items in the questionnaire is provided in appendix a. the questionnaire includes items measuring the organizational life cycle stage, the use of activity-based costing, reasons for using activity-based costing and other characteristics of the rm that are likely to affect the use of activity-based costing. the questionnaire was designed to use survey items used in earlier studies to reduce response error, if respondents do not fully understand questions (e.g. dillman, 1999; van der stede et al., 2005). in this section, we describe the survey items in details. 3.2.1. measure of the organizational life cycle stage of the firm our measure for the organizational life cycle stage is based on a well-known life cycle model proposed by miller and friesen (1983, 1984) in which rms go through different phases in which the strategies, organizational structures and decision-making styles of the rm vary across life cycles. since the miller and friesen life cycle model is based on common life cycle indicators, it can be applied to rms of different sizes operating in different industries. in addition, the miller–friesen model has been tested in many empirical studies (e.g. miller and friesen, 1984; moores and yuen, 2001; davila, 2005). following kazanjian and drazin (1990) and md. auzair and langeld-smith (2005) we use a self-categorization measure to identify the life cycle stage of the rm, i.e. we asked rms to dene their current life cycle stage (survey item 13 in appendix a).3 life cycle stages are dened as in miller and friesen (1983), i.e. rms 3 weemphasizethat this methodology for analysing the use of a specic mana ent accounting system is not ours, but it is used in the life cycle literature cited in this paper. we also recognise that any research methodology has its limitations. as we have discussed earlier, we empirically test a hypothesis on how widespread the use of activity-based costing is in different life cycle stages.

8j.-p.kallunki,h.silvola/mana entaccountingresearch19(2008)62–79table2summarystatisticsofthesamplermsnpanela:sizenumberofemployees(surveyitem4)1–502151–10015101–25024251–50014501–1000101001–150041501–17total105netsales(md)(surveyitem3)1–5136–101411–502851–10011101–50025501–100071001–7total105panelb:industry(surveyitem9)categorybanksandnance3insurance2investment2transport4trade20otherservices26metalindustry11forestindustry3multi-business1energy2foodindustry1construction7telecommunicationandelectronics8chemicals1mediaandpublishing8otherindustries6total105wereaskedtostatewhethertheywereinthebirth,growth,maturity,revivalordeclinelifecyclestage.however,onlyonermchosebirthstageandanotheronechosedeclinestage.wecl ifythebirthrmasagrowthrmandthedeclinermasarevivalrm.inempiricalanalyses,were-estimatealltheregressionsuchthatthesetwoobservationswereexcluded, heresultsremainthesame.table3reportssummarystatisticsofthecharacteristicsofthermsindifferentlifecyclestagesbasedontheself-categorizationmeasure.theresultsconrmthatthecharacteristicsofthermsdifferacrosslifecyclephasesasreportedinthelifecycleliterature(e.g.millerandfriesen,1983,1984).moreimportantly,thecharacteristicsofthermthatlifecycleliteraturehasreportedtoaffecttheuseofa ncedcost-accountingsystemsdifferacrosslifecyclephases.theresultsreportedintable3indicatethat,incomparisontormsinthegrowthphase,rmsinthematurityandrevivalphaseshavelargerorganizationalsize,lowerprotabilityandamorediversiedproduct/servicerange.also,theproportionofrmshavingstockmarketlistingisgreaterinthematurityandrevivalphasesthanitisinthegrowthphase.becausegainingastockmarketlistinghasbeenreportedtoincreasethecomplexityoftheadministrativetaskandtheformalityoftheorganizationalstructure(e.g.granlundandtaipaleenm¨aki,2005;megginsonandnetter,

j.-p. kallunki, h. silvola / mana ent accounting research 19 (2008) 62–79 69 table 3 characteristics of the sample rms across life cycle stages growth maturity revival number of rms proportion of which listed on a stock exchange (survey item 2) net sales (md ) (survey item 3) growth in net sales (%) (survey item 6) number of employees (survey item 4) net income margin (%) (survey item 7) age of the rm (in years) (survey item 1) number of products/services (survey item 12) 22 (9%) 95 [12] 27.6 [10.0] 409 [138] 8.5 [6.0] 13.1 [10.0] 2.68 proportion of different cost items as a percentage of total costs (survey item 14) material 28.8 [20.0] direct labour other variable manufacturing costs fixed manufacturing cost other xed costs 37.0 [32.5] 8.7 [5.5] 8.7 [5.5] 15.9 [12.5] 54 (13%) 3230 [51] 4.0 [3.5] 1177 [170] 6.3 [5.0] 48.7 [45.0] 2.89 37.3 [40.0] 27.3 [20.0] 9.6 [5.0] 7.9 [4.0] 12.1 [10.0] 29 (28%) 3910 [66] 5.7 [5.0] 4259 [341] 5.1 [3.0] 68.4 [64.0] 3.00 29.6 [24.0] 35.4 [35.6] 11.6 [5.0] 7.0 [6.5] 15.9 [10.5] notes: the table presents the mean [median] values of each variable at different life cycle stages. 2001), this result provides some evidence that maturity and revival rms have more complex administrative tasks and moreformalorganizational structures compared to rms in the growthphase. finally, table 3 reports the cost structures of the sample rms across life cycle stages (survey item 14), because differences in the cost structures of rms may explain their use of activity-based costing (e.g. lukka and granlund, 1996). this measure is based on lukka and granlund (1996). however, the results indicate no differences in the cost structures of rms in the growth phase versus the maturity and revival phases. 3.2.2. measure of the use activity-based costing and measures of the reasons for using activity-based costing followingearliersurveysontheuseofactivity-basedcosting(e.g.chenhallandlangeld-smith,1998),respondents were asked to respond ‘yes’ or ‘no’ to the question of whether their rm was using an activity-based costing system4 (survey item 15). in our sample, 28% of the respondents answered that they were currently using activity-based costing method, whichis areasonably high rate if compared to that reported in earlier studies. it also indicates that the extent of the use of activity-based costing among finnish rms has increased. earlier studies report that 6% of respondents used activity-based costing in 1992 (lukka and granlund, 1996), 11% in 1993 (laitinen, 1995) and 27% in 1999 (hyv¨onen, 2003). the measures of the specic reasons for using activity-based costing described in section 2.2 were based on earlier surveys on the benets of activity-based costing (e.g. shields, 1995; hussain et al., 1998). these measures reect the following reasons for using activity-based costing mentioned in hypothesis 2: a need to reduce and control the costs (survey items 16b and 16h), a need to understand factors driving the costs (survey items 16f and 16g) and a need to improve and modernize decision-making (survey items 16a, 16c, 16e and 16d). for these measures, we used ave-point likert scale ranging from (1) ‘not important’ to (5) ‘very important’. the respondents were asked to choose the alternative that best described the benets of activity-based costing in their rm. table 4 reports the mean values of the rms’ responses to the questions on their use of an activity-based costing system and the reasons for using it across life cycle stages. table 4 also reports the p-values for testing whether the 4 although activity-based costing has been well known among practitioners for almost two decades, it is possible that different respondents may have different views regarding the concept of activity-based costing. for instance, earlier studies report that employees may have different views on the denition of activity-based costing (e.g. cobb et al., 1992; innes and mitchell, 1993, 1998; malmi, 1997; major and hopper, 2005). we have mitigated the inuence of this potential bias in two ways. first, we have chosen the same measure of the use of the activity-based costing that has been used in earlier studies (e.g. chenhall and langeld-smith, 1998; gosselin, 1997; bjornenak, 1997; malmi, 1999) to reduce potential response error described by dillman (1999). activity-based costing has been actively discussed in the finnish business literature and the media since it was originally suggested, and it is as commonly known in finland as it is in other countries, where this measure has been used. second, our questionnaire includes several questions on the reasons for using activity-based costing (survey item 16). these questions also serve the purpose of validating ourndings on the role of the life cycle of the rm in the use of activity-based costing, in other words, if respondents have understood the question on the use of activity-based costing correctly, the life cycle stage of the rm should affect the reasons for using activity-based costing in the same way as it affects the use of activity-based costing.



مشاهده متن کامل ...
communicable diseases
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

 

 communicable diseases

 

 

 

 

communicable diseases are diseases that are the result of a cau ive organism spreading from one person to another or from animals to people.

 

they are among the major causes of illnesses inkenyaand the entireafrica. these diseases affect people of all ages but more so children, due to their exposure to environmental conditions that support the spread. communicable diseases are preventable if interventions are placed at the various levels of transmission of the disease.

 

in recent years our region also faces new and emerging diseases which are challenging public health as never before. unfortunately, many of these diseases affect the poor and marginalized sections of society, and contribute not only to ill health and poverty at micro-level but also have serious socio-economic implications at the macro-level.  health workers have an important role to play in the control of these diseases by applying effective and efficient mana ent, prevention and control measures. 

 

as a health worker you need to be equipped with the capacity to target communicable diseases for their eradication.

 

common characteristics of communicable diseases

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

i hope your answer included the following examples:

 

  1. they are very common.
  2. some of them cause death and disability.
  3. some of them cause epidemics.
  4. most of them are preventable when using fairly simple interventions.
  5. many of them affect infants and children.


 cl ification of communicable diseases

 

we shall now focus on the various cl es of communicable diseases.  there are various ways of cl ifying communicable diseases.  the cl ification given below is considered to be the most appropriate for ease of understanding.  the detailed description of each of the cl es will be discussed in the respective units of this course.

 

 

 

discuss with a colleague the cl es of communicable diseases listed below.  explore any other method of communicable disease cl ifications that you might have read elsewhere.

 

 

 

 

the cl es include:

 

  • contact diseases such as scabies, pediculosis, fungal skin infections, trachoma, acute bacterial conjunctivitis.

 

  • ually transmitted diseases and hiv/aids

 

  • vector borne diseases such as relapsing fever, bancroftian filariasis, onchocerciasis, yellow fever, trypanosomiasis, plague, schistosomiasis, dracunculosis, leishmaniasis and malaria.

 

  • diseases caused by faecal – oral contamination such as acute gastro-enteritis, bacillary dysentery, pylobacter jejuni, giadiasis, amoebiasis, cholera, enteric fevers, food poisoning, poliomyelitis, viral hepatitis.

 

  • helmonthic diseases such as ascariasis, enterobiasis, trichuriasis, hookworm, strongyloidiasis, taeniasis, hydatidosis.

 

  • airborne diseases such as acute respiratory infections, meningitis (bacterial and fungal) tuberculosis and leprosy.

 

  • zoonotic diseases (diseases of contact with animals or animal products) such as anthax, brucellosis, rabies, hydatidosis, tetanus.

 

 

you have learnt a lot so far.

now try to define communicable disease.

list some of the characteristics of the communicable diseases.

cl ify with clear example the various communicable diseases.

 

 

 

 

if you could answer these questions correctly, then you are doing well!  keep it up and proceed to the next section on epidemiology.

  epidemiology

 

this section will focus on various aspects of epidemiology.

 

 

 

 

 

by the end of this section you should be able to answer the following questions:

 

how do we define epidemiology?

what is the scope of epidemiology?

what is disease natural history?

which are the disease prevention levels?

what are the various epidemiologic methods?

how do we handle communicable disease outbreaks?


definition of epidemiology

 

epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease among populations. this definition has however been broadened to include various illnesses and conditions that are not necessarily diseases but affect the health of populations such as chronic illnesses like diabetes, hypertension or ulcers, as well as such conditions as natural calamities, road traffic accidents, crimes and other social vices.

 

scope of epidemiology

 

epidemiology as a scientific discipline has developed over the years and has become a necessity in the field of health care for effective disease prevention and control.  it is a common saying that “disease prevention is better (cheaper) than cure”.  that saying aptly describes the role of epidemiology in our day to day life.

 

we have seen that epidemiology is the study of disease/conditions distribution and determinants.  as a science, it utilises rational study methods in identifying the distribution patterns and determinants of diseases.  from the studies, recommendations are generated on how to:

  • plan for disease prevention and control
  • predict the disease patterns for effective prevention and control
  • mobilise resources for effective prevention and control
  • evaluate programmes for disease prevention and control
  • develop evidence based and practical policies for effective disease prevention and control.
  • develop a data base for further studies in epidemiology of diseases and conditions.

 

figure 1 illustrates the scope of epidemiology is simple terms.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

figure 1: the scope of epidemiology

 

disease distribution factors

let us now examine more carefully figure 1.  we find that the disease distribution factors are three: persons, time and place.  in other words we look at who was affected, when and where.

 

furthermore, with reference to the first factor, persons affected by the disease, we consider their age, , race, occupation etc. as well as any other common characteristics relating to those persons affected by the disease.

 

the second factor, time, relates to when the diseases is most likely to strike e.g. an epidemic, endemic, seasonal, cyclic, etc

 

finally, the third factor, place, refers to the geog hical distribution of a disease and the common characteristics that are favourable for that disease in the given locality. some diseases are localized, regional, pandemic, etc.

disease determinant factors

disease determinant factors include the agent, host and environment.

 

agent refers to the disease causing organism characteristics such as habitation, breeding, migration, infectivity, climatic and environmental factors favouring its existence.

 

host refers to the biological makeup of the individuals that makes them vulnerable to the specified illness such as physical condition, genetic make up, habits, etc.

                                                                                                                                

environment refers to the ecological conditions that favour the interaction of host and agent, for example  swampy areas, bushes within house holds, sanitation etc.

 

the epidemiologic cycle

 

i am sure you have come across the term epidemiologic cycle, epidemiologic triangle, or disease cau ion triangle.  all of these mean one and same thing.  read the content below to know more about it.

 

here is a diagrammatic illustration of the interaction between disease determinant factors.

 

 

 

 
   

 

 

                                                                               

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

figure 2: disease cau ion cycle

 

 

the host, agent and environmental factors have to be conducive for the disease to occur. all communicable diseases require that the three factors are present for individuals to be affected.

 

vector is the vehicle that some of the agents or disease causing organisms require so as to be moved from one point to the other.  some require it to complete their developmental cycle, e.g. a mosquito in the transmission of malaria.  not all communicable diseases require a vector for transmission.

 

control and prevention measures can be implemented at the various levels of the chains shown in figure 2.  for example, to break the chain between host and environment for the transmission of malaria, you need to clear swampy areas, bushes and ensure proper disposal of waste. alternatively, to break the chain between host and agent in the malaria disease one can take prophylactic anti-malaria drugs. to break the chain between the environment and the agent, one can spray the breeding sites for mosquitoes and to break the vector and host chain one can sleep under mosquito net.

 

 

a) select any three communicable diseases and construct epidemiologic cycle for each.

 

b) describe how the various chains for each of the diseases you have chosen in ‘(a) are broken for effective control and preventionmeasures

 

 

 

disease transmission

 

the disease transmission process has three components.  these are: source, transmission route and susceptible host.

 

the source is the origin of the disease causing organism.  this could be an infected person, animal, place or object.

 

the main transmission routes are;

  • direct contact, for example ual contact
  • vectors such as mosquitoes
  • faecal-oral (ingesting contaminated food and water)
  • airborne
  • trans-placental (mother to foetus)
  • blood contact (transfusion, surgery, injection)
  • contact with animals or their products that are infected.

 

susceptible host is an individual who has low resistance to a particular disease. this may be due to various factors such as:

  • lack of previous contact with the disease, hence no immune cells
  • immuno-suppressive illnesses such as aids
  • malnutrition
  • drugs that a person may be consuming.

 

control and prevention measures

 

each and every communicable disease has its own unique source, route of transmission and susceptible hosts.  therefore, the principles of control and prevention should be geared towards:

  • attacking the source of the disease causing organism
  • interrupting the transmission cycle
  • protecting the susceptible host.

 

for example, in the case of malaria, we can attack the source by clearing and spraying the mosquito breeding sites.  thus we interrupt the transmission route by spraying and killing the mosquitoes, hence the cau ive organism and lastly we can protect the susceptible host by giving prophylactic medications, and advising him or her to sleep under treated mosquito nets.

 

to understand the transmission process of communicable diseases it is paramount to understand the natural history of a disease.

 

natural history of disease

 

in order to understand the process of disease progression, we shall now go through the so called natural history of disease. 

natural history of disease refers to the process of disease/condition progression from the time it affects an individual to the time the individual recovers or dies, if appropriate measures are not instituted.

 

the process of disease progression has two distinct periods: pre-pathogenesis period and pathogenesis period.

 

pre-pathogenesis period

the pre-pathogenesis period is the period before the disease infects an individual. the agent and the host are interacting in the environment.  at this level, the host defense system is well capable of handling the agent (cau ive organisms) hence there is no disease.

 

pathogenesis period

the pathogenesis period is the period that starts when the body defense mechanism has been overcome by the agent (disease causing organisms), resulting to the host cells dying. this period has various stages.

 

sub clinical horizon. at this stage the host cells have started dying but no major effects are felt yet and the host has no signs or symptoms of the disease.  at this level only laboratory tests would reveal the extent of damage.

 

clinical horizon.  at this time the damage on the cells is so much that some of the host’s body functions are starting to fail.  this manifests in signs and symptoms of a disease and the host is feeling uncomfortable or sick.  if the host does not receive appropriate medical intervention then they will continue to the next stage.

 

early disease stage.  at this time the disease effects are real as a result of m ive cell damages that are affecting tissues functions.  the host needs appropriate intervention to correct the damage.  if they fail to receive correct interventions then the disease gets in to the next level.

 

a nced disease.  at this level the damage to the host systems is m ive and may be irreversible, leading to disability or permanent damage.  the host may have one of three outcomes at this stage: recover, suffer permanent disability, convalescence or in worst cases death.  figure3 illustrates the whole process of disease cau ion and progression till death or the natural history of the disease or condition process.

 

 

 

 

figure 3: the natural history of disease/condition.

 

 

 

describe the natural history of a chronic disease such as diabetes.

 

 

 

disease prevention

 

disease prevention refers to deliberate actions to halt or delay disease progression from one stage to the next. there are three levels of disease prevention: primary, secondary and tertiary.

 

 

 

 

primary prevention

for communicable disease this is the most common prevention method.  primary prevention targets the pre-pathogenesis period or the period before the disease infects the individual. the interventions include:

  • general measures such as health education, safety measures and healthy behaviour
  • specific measures such as vaccination, prophylaxis medication, etc.

 

secondary prevention

this mainly happens during the early stages of the disease process.  the purpose is to prevent further damage to the host cells and tissues and thus avoid disease complications.  measures would include early diagnosis, screening and prompt treatment.

 

tertiary prevention

this takes place during the a nced stages of the disease progression to minimise the complications or reverse the effects. main interventions are rehabilitative in nature and include physical the y, occupational the y, psyc he y, corrective/rehabilitative surgery etc.

 

measures of disease in populations

 

 

warning:.

i wish to warn you that this section has several mathematical formulas and calculations so you may have to tune your mind to calculations. get yourself a calculator as well before you continue reading.

 

 

 

u

               

                    

 

 

 

epidemiologists use various methods and approaches in quantifying disease cases in a population.  some of these are: counts, ratio, proportion, percentage, and rates.

 

count.  this is the number of individuals with a specified quality in a defined population.

 

ratio.  this expresses the relationship between two numbers in the form of

x: y

e.g. the ratio of males to females is 1:3

 

proportion.  this is a specific type of ratio in which the numerator is included in the

denominator and the resultant value is expressed as a part of the whole.

x/x+y       or     x per x+y

e.g. proportion of males in the cl is 4 per 10 students, or 40 per 100 students or 400 per 1000, etc.

 

percentage.  this is a proportion that is expressed per 100.

                                    x per 100

                        e.g. 40 percent of the community members are males.

 

percentage is a very common measure of disease in various epidemiological descriptive studies.

rate.  this is a special form of proportion that includes specification

  • of time and
  • population

it is the basic measure that most clearly expresses the probability or risk of disease in a defined population over a specific period of time.  the rate is defined as follows;

 

rate =                   no of events in a specified period   x k

                        population at risk of the specific event in a specified period

where k is a constant that may be set (fixed) for certain rates or set by the investigator for convenience.

 

application of the measures in populations

here we talk about the incidence or prevalence of the disease/condition in the population.

 

incidence

the incidence of a disease or health condition refers to the number of persons in a population who develop the disease/condition during a specified period of time. the determination of incidence requires that a population is followed up over a period of time through a prospective study.

 

incidence rate =           number of new cases in a population over a

specified duration of time in a given population       x   k

the population at risk of developing the disease or condition at the beginning of the duration of interest.

 

 

 

kilanga village has a population of 1500 males and 2000 females.  a prospective study is conducted over two years to establish the incidence of cancer of the prostate within the population during which 30 males developed the disease.

calculate the incidence of the disease in the population

 

 

 

answer:

incidence rate=    30 (individuals who developed the disease)          = 0.02 cases

                                                1500 (males)                                                  

 

for ease of interpretation we multiply by k which we may take to be 100 for this case and it will be:

 

incidence = 2 cases per hundred males in the population of kilanga village within the two years of study.

 

prevalence

the prevalence of a disease or condition refers to the total number of persons who have the disease/condition of interest at a particular time.  prevalence rates are calculated at a point in time (point prevalence) or over duration of time (period prevalence).  the information required for point prevalence is obtained from cross sectional studies and in period prevalence is obtained from retrogressive studies.

 

point prevalence =     number of existing cases of

disease/condition at a specified point in time    x  k

                                    total population at that point in time.

 

 

 

 

data collected in march at kilanga village revealed that there were 140 cases of malaria at the time of data collection.  if kilanga village had a total population of 3500 persons, calculate the point prevalence of malaria at that tim.e

 

 

 

 

answer

 

  point prevalence =    140 (cases           )   = 0.04 cases

                                    3500 (population)    

 

for ease of interpretation we multiply by k in this case we take it to be 100.  hence the report will read:

 

point prevalence of malaria for kilanga village in march was 4 cases per 100 people.

 

 

period prevalence =             number of existing cases of

disease/condition over a specified duration of time.  x k

average population over the specified duration of time.

 

 

 

 

records obtained from kilanga village indicate that for the previous six months, inclusive of march, the number of malaria cases was 700.  calculate the period prevalence of the disease uming that the population remained constant at 3500 over that duration.

 

 

 

 

answer

 

period prevalence  = 700 (cases)     = 0.2 cases

                                    3500 people

                                   

hence for ease of interpretation we multiply by k which we may take to be 100.

the period prevalence will be 20 cases of malaria per 100 persons in kilanga village over the last six months.

 

importance of incidence and prevalence rates

we need to know the incidence and prevalence rates because:

  • incidence rates help us to know how fast the disease is spreading, infecting or affecting people
  • prevalence rates help us to know how many people are having a disease in the population
  • prevalence can also give an indication of how fast people are recovering, dying or in the chronic stage of the disease.
  • knowing the incidence and prevalence rates enables us to interprete and predict disease epidemiologic patterns and hence plan for interventions.
  • if we know the incidence and prevalence rates we can determine if a disease is an epidemic or endemic.

 

determining endemic and epidemic diseases

 

epidemic.  tthis is the occurrence of disease cases at a frequency that is higher than the normal for the population in a given period of time.

 

endemic.  this is the occurrence of disease/condition in a given population at frequencies that are constant over duration of time.  however, these frequencies are higher than would be expected for that population. figure 4 illustrates this.

 

 

figure 4: the epidemic and endemic patterns of communicable diseases

 

 

 
 

take note

some communicable diseases are endemic in some regions of our country while others appear as epidemics.

 

 

 

 

 

 

u

               

                    

 


 

 
  1. 1.       list the communicable diseases that are endemic in specific regions of this country
  2. 2.       list the communicable diseases that are epidemic in specified regions of this country.

 

 

 

 

commonly used rates

 

 

 

 

 

the most commonly used rates are the measures of natality, morbidity and mortality.  we shall now see how to calculate these rates.

 

measures of natality

            i. crude birth rate = number of live births during time interval  x 1000

                                                estimated mid-interval population

 

 

ii. fertility rate = number of live births during time interval          x 1000

                        number of women aged 15 – 44 at mid-interval

 

 

measures of morbidity and mortality

i. crude death rate = number of deaths during time interval   x 1000

                                    estimated mid-interval population

 

ii. specific death rate = number of deaths in sub group during time interval    x 1000

                                    estimated mid-interval population of subgroup

 

 

iii. cause specific death rate =

 

            number of deaths from specified cause during time interval  x 1000

                        estimated mid-interval population

 

 

iv. infant mortality rate =

number of deaths of infants age < 1year during time interval   x 1000

                                    total live births during time interval

 

 

v. neonatal mortality rate =

 number of deaths of infants age < 28days during time interval   x 1000

                                    total live births during time interval

 

 

vi. post neonatal mortality rate =

     number of deaths of infants age ≥ 28days but < 1year during time interval  x 1000       total live births during time interval

 

 

 

get more data from your hospital records office and do calculations on percentages, rates and ratios to determine the trends of both mortalities and morbidities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

you have learnt a lot so far.   let us see how much of it you can remember!

 

 

 

what are the stages of the natural history of disease?

what is prevalence rate?

what is incidence rate?

state at least five specific rates that are commonly used?

 

 

 

 

 

 

if you had any problems when answering all these questions accurately, then read the specific section again.  if your answers were correct and clear, then you are doing very well.  congratulations and move on to the next section.

 

epidemiological methods

 

epidemiologic methods are the various approaches in which data is gathered, analyzed and reports written with regard to various diseases distribution and determinants.  they enable us to plan and evaluate disease mana ent in communities.

 

these methods are cl ified as:

 

  • descriptive methods, e.g. individual based (case study and case series) and population based (correlation studies, cross sectionals studies and surveys)
  • analytical studies e.g. prospective (cohort studies) and retrospective (case control)
  • experimental studies
  • community based studies, e.g. community trials

 

descriptive studies

these are basic studies that seek to describe the situation as it is.  these methods utilize simple descriptive statistics such as percentages tables and g hs to describe the disease situation.  these studies generate hypothesis.

 

individual based studies.  these studies reflect on single individuals as the unit of study.  here we have:

  • case report – a single unique case is reported as it is identified by the health worker.
  • case series - several case reports that have similar characteristics are analyzed so as to draw conclusions in relation to the particular disease of interest.

 

 

 population based studies.  these include:

  • surveys – which are conducted over a short duration of time with specific objectives to meet.  they are more of fact finding studies in a bid to idly draw conclusion with regard to illnesses or conditions affecting an entire population.
  • cross sectional studies - these are studies carried out across a huge population sample over a very short duration of time. their methodology and analysis are more a nced than those for the surveys.
  • correlation studies - these studies seek to compare one variable or characteristic of the population to one or several other variables, for example, smoking and lung disease, immunization coverage and measles outbreaks. one may also compare worm infestation against use of latrines, amount of house hold water, maternal literacy and so on.

 

analytical studies

these studies are more a nced in methodology and analysis and their findings are more generalisable as compared to descriptive studies.  while descriptive studies generate hypothesis, these ones test hypothesis.

 

prospective studies (cohort studies).  these studies start with individuals with an exposure of interest (cohorts) and are followed up over time as they are compared with individuals who do not have the exposure of interest.  analysis is then done to find out if those who had exposure will develop the outcome of interest to a larger extent than those without exposure.

 

for example, people working on farms (exposed to zoonotic disease) are followed up over time to establish if they will manifest the zoonotic diseases.  simultaneously, a similar group of individuals who do not work on farms are followed up to establish if they will also develop the same zoonotic disease. 

 

retrospective (case control studies).  these studies are easier to conduct, consume less time and are cheaper than the cohort studies.  two groups are selected from a population, of which one group with the disease of interest (case) and another without (control).  then they are asked about their past in order to establish if they had a common exposure that might have caused the disease.  these studies are however prone to recall biases.

 

for example, in a community, people who have amoebiasis may be asked about their food (sources, preparation, storage and consumption) they have been consuming.   another group from the same community who do not suffer from amoebiasis is also asked the same questions then the data is analyzed.

 

experimental studies.  these are studies conducted in a controlled environment where the researcher has control over all variables.  it is a laboratory set up kind of study.  they are very useful in the isolation of the actual disease cau ive agent.  they are very strict and also very expensive.  they require highly specialized personnel and equipment.

 

community trials. these are studies involving and entire community.  for example, in one community the water may be fluoridate while in another it may not.  the two communities are then followed up and with time if those taking water that is not fluoridated start complaining of teeth problems, then the effects of fluoride are confirmed.

importance of epidemiology in communicable diseases control

epidemiological data is important in the control of communicable diseases because it:

  • enables us to know the disease distribution patterns
  • enables us to know the disease cau ion factors
  • it equips us with data that we can apply for effective prevention and control of diseases
  • it enables us to understand the disease progression and what measures need to be taken to halt or reduce disease effects
  • it enables us to evaluate intervention programmes
  • it enables us to conduct research with regard to communicable diseases and how they affect populations.

 

surveillance

 

health surveillance may be defined as the tracking and forecasting of any health event or health determinant through the:

  • continuous collection of high-quality data
  • integration, analysis and interpretation of those data into surveillance products (for example reports, advisories, alerts, and warnings)
  • dissemination of those surveillance products to those who need to know.

surveillance products are produced for a specific public health purpose or policy objective.  surveillance should be purposeful, economical, and action oriented.  it should not only detect emerging health risks, but should also include systems that allow public health officials to monitor and evaluate progress in health protection and disease prevention.

 

take note

new health risks such as bioterrorism and zoonoses, as well as the re-emergence of some diseases such as multi-resistant bacteria and globalization, have fundamentally altered the scope and response time expected of surveillance programs at every level.

 

 

 

 

 

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surveillance uses whatever data sources will provide the necessary information. surveillance systems may share data with personal health services information systems, but the end-products are different.

most of the data currently available from health facilities are originally generated for administrative purposes.  they can serve as raw material for health services mana ent and research, as well as for disease and health surveillance if procedures for capturing and handling administrative data are appropriately adapted.

in general, surveillance data can originate from any of four cl es of source:

  • special purpose, that is, data collected specifically for a particular surveillance need.  special purpose data sources select the most relevant data and facilitate detection and response, but are costly to operate and may be difficult to maintain over the long term.
  • surveys. usually collected for more general health surveillance purposes, survey data differ from other special purpose data sets in that they are usually cross-sectional or 'one-off' and may be useful for multiple surveillance functions, notwithstanding their lack of specificity.
  • administrative. as noted, data collected for administrative purposes often find a secondary purpose in disease surveillance, for example, analysis of the diagnostic fields on hospital discharge abstracts or looking for the geog hic clusters of a particular disease. administrative data are generally of lower quality, and may not always be available on a timely basis, but are convenient to acquire and inexpensive.
  • clinical. for many surveillance purposes, this is the ideal source. indeed, new diseases and emerging clusters of known diseases are often first suspected by astute clinicians who observe unusual patterns of illness, and work with others to initiate more systematic surveillance. optimum efficiency in clinical surveillance can only be achieved if the clinical data are accessible electronically. this is rarely the case at present. the electronic health record has the potential to be a rich source of surveillance data in future. clinical data for surveillance need to be embled from a range of providers and facilities, including family physicians and other primary care providers, emergency departments, pharmacists, and veterinarians.

 

integrated disease surveillance and response (idsr)

effective communicable diseases control relies on an effective surveillance and response system that promotes better coordination and integration of surveillance function.  recognizing this, the initiative to strengthen the disease surveillance system that promotes the integration of surveillance activities inethiopiawas started in 1996.

in 1998 who/afro, following the resolution of the 48th embly, started promoting the integrated disease surveillance and response (idsr) for all member states to adopt as the main strategy to strengthen their national disease surveillance system.

the specific goals of idsr are to:

  • strengthen district level surveillance and response for priority diseases
  • integrate laboratory with laboratory support
  • reduce duplication in reporting
  • share resources among disease control programs.

the basic ingredients of idsr include:

  • a good network of motivated people
  • clear case definition and reporting mechanism
  • efficient communication system
  • basic but sound epidemiology
  • laboratory support.

feedback and id response

it is important that surveillance and laboratory data collected should be translated into specific and timely public health actions.

 

integrated disease surveillance envisages all surveillance activities in a country as a common public service that carry out many functions using similar structures, processes and personnel.  the surveillance activities that are well developed in one area may act as driving forces for strengthening other surveillance activities, offering possible synergies and common resources.

 

surveillance is based on collecting only the information that is required to achieve objectives for disease control.  data requested may differ from disease to disease and some diseases may have specific information needs, requiring specialized systems.

 

with the global momentum to scale up response to communicable diseases, public health practitioners need to review constantly their performance in detecting and responding to communicable diseases.  at the same time, they should remain accountable for their activities and policies to a variety of stakeholders.

 

people at different levels of surveillance need to report accurate, timely and reliable data to national authorities, so as to ensure timely and effective responses that will contain communicable disease outbreaks.  such data should also be availed to donors, so as to secure funding to strengthen surveillance and response activities in relation to communicable diseases.  most importantly, all surveillance levels in the member countries, should be able to utilize the surveillance information locally to address and resolve problems related to the control of communicable diseases.

 

role of the government

the international health regulations emphasize the commitment of member states to the goal of global health security.  this will require all member states to maintain a functional and effective surveillance and response system that is able to detect, investigate and respond to public health emergencies of national and international concern.  against this background and in response to requests from member states, the world health organization (who), in consultation with technical partners and member states, has developed a framework for monitoring and evaluating communicable disease surveillance and response systems.  this framework aims to strengthen surveillance and response activities and builds on the experiences gained by member states in monitoring and evaluating their surveillance and response systems.  the framework contains a list of indicators that are proposed for purposes of monitoring and evaluating surveillance and response systems to communicable diseases.   (see figure 5).

operational definitions of monitoring and evaluating

the following definitions have been adopted for purposes of monitoring and evaluating communicable disease surveillance and response systems.

 

monitoring is the routine (continuous) tracking of the performance of the surveillance and response systems.

 

evaluating is the periodic essment of changes in targeted results (objectives) that can be attributed to the surveillance and response system.  evaluation attempts to attribute changes in outputs, outcomes and impacts (negative or positive, targeted or non-targeted) of the surveillance and response system.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

figure 5: the conceptual frame work of surveillance and response for communicable diseases

 

 

you have now completed the content on disease surveillance.  answer the following questions to see if you really have understood the content.

 

 
  • what is surveillance?
  • what are the sources of surveillance data?
  • what are the goals of integrated disease surveillance and response?
  • which are the four components of disease surveillance conceptual frame work?

 

               

 

 

epidemic response

 

 

i am sure you have not forgotten what a disease epidemic is.  outbreaks or epidemics are the occurrence of a disease in excess of its expected frequency. epidemics of infectious disease,