پنجره پنجره ای به اطلاعات و مقالات فارسی
 brownies shaped brownies shaped affects taste sight affects shaped brownies sight affects taste
30 مقاله ایرانی و انگلیسی ( معماری منظر)
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تیتر مقالات در زیر آمده است برای مطالعه چکیده مقاله روی مقاله مورد نظر کلیک کنید .می توانید متن کامل مقاله را از صفحه مورد نظر کنید

1)

زیباسازی و کیفیت زندگی شهری

2)

اصول احیا و باززنده سازی معادن و نقش آن در دستی به اقتصاد پایدار

3)

پلکان هایی رو به آسمان

4)

cultural landscapes: the challenges of conservation

5)

rural landscapes: towards a better integration of rural development policies, urban and landscape planning

6)

the role of urban parks for the sustainable city

7)

a hedonic valuation of urban green areas

8)

using greenways to reclaim nature in brazilian cities

9)

pattern and divergence of tree communities in taipei’s main urban green spaces

10)

urban landscape and environmental quality preferences in ibadan, nigeria : an exploration

11)

comprehensive concept planning of urban greening based on ecological principles: a case study in beijing, china

12)

built cultural heritage and sustainable urban development

13)

yellowstone spot

14)

negotiating between children and adult design values in open space prolects

15)

public policies for managing urban growth and protecting open space: policy instruments and lessons learned in the united states

16)

plants-without precedent or sequel

17)

the shoreline walk in beirut

18)

memory and the city: urban renewal and literary memoirs in contemporary dublin

19)

modern needs, art and instincts: modernist landscape theory

20)

whither scenic beauty? visual landscape quality essment in the 21st century

21)

معماری و طبیعت

22)

employees’ reactions to nearby nature at their workplace: the wild and the tame

23)

مشخصات اصلی گرافیک محیطی :

24)

تأثیر محور پاسخ ده بر درک منظر شهری ( مطالعه موردی : محور بزرگمهر اصفهان)/گ.کوپایی

25)

نقش واهمیت باغ های تاریخی در ساماندهی منظر شهری/ق. ی راد،ی.قاسمی

26)

راهبردهای محیطی در توسعه و مدیریت پایدار منظر طبیعی

27)

نقش معماری منظر در بازآفرینی نشانه های حیات و هویت در منظر شهری / ا.سعادت فرد - م.دبیری

28)

شفابخشی در منظر سازی باغهای دوره قاجار

29)

هویت، منظر و ابعاد آن در شهر

30)

راهبردهای توصیفی در پژوهش منظر



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نقد نمایشنامه a taste of honey by shelagh delaney
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اختصاصی از نیک فایل نقد نمایشنامه a taste of honey by shelagh delaney با و پر سرعت .

نقد نمایشنامه a taste of honey by shelagh delaney


نقد نمایشنامه a taste of honey by shelagh delaney

نوع فایل :  pdf    

زبان : انگلیسی

 تعداد صفحات:  19


با


نقد نمایشنامه a taste of honey by shelagh delaney


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مستند losing sight of shore 2017
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مستند losing sight of shore 2017

رایگان losing sight of shore 2017 با کیفیت 720

عزیزان بمحض انتشار درج شد

نام : losing sight of shore
ژانر : مستند |ماجراجویی| ورزشی
سال انتشار : 2017
مدت زمان: 92 دقیقه
حجم : 700 مگابایت
کیفیت : webrip x264
زبان : انگلیسی
کارگردان : sarah moshman
نویسندگان : sarah moshman, peter saroufim
بازیگران : n/a
خلاصه داستان : مستندی در مورد چند زن شجاع که گروهی به نام coxless creww را تشکیل داده اند. این گروه توانسته است بدون هیچ پشتیبانی و با استفاده از قایق از اقیانوس آرام و از به کشور استرالیا سفر کند. در مدت 9 ماه آن ها مسافتی بیش از 8000 هزار مایل را در دریا سفر کرده اند. آن ها با چالش های شدید روانی و جسمی مواجه شده اند که برای موفق شدن می بایست برتمامی آن ها غلبه کنند. این داستان پشتکار ، دوستی و قدرت این 4 زن است….

مستند losing sight of shore 2017



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نمونه رایتینگ تسک ۱ آیلتس با ۴ مدل جواب
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the bar chart below shows the results of a survey conducted by a personnel department at a major company. the survey was carried out on two groups of workers: those aged from 18-30 and those aged 45-60, and shows factors affecting their work performance.

write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below.

you should write at least 150 words.

sample answer 1:

the supplied bar g h compares different factors which affect the work performance of two different age group.

as is presented as a result of a survey in the given bar chart, for the both age group of 18-30 and 45-60, team spirit affects work performance equivalently and that is little over 60%. the reason ‘ chance for personal development’ works for the younger age group about 90% which is more than twice than the older age group. the similar scenario is true for the relaxing environment too and this reason affects more than 80% of the 18-30 age group workers and about only 30% of the 45-60 years workers. about 45% younger workers’ work performance is affected by the job security compared to little over 20% older workers. the only case where 45-60 years workers are influenced more than their younger counterpart is ‘respect from colleagues’ which is about 50% for this age group workers in contrast to 40% (approximately ) for the 15-30 years age group. the promotional prospect is an important reason that drives younger employees to work better and this reason affects 80% younger workers compared to almost 45% aged job holders. for the lower age group job isfaction, work environment & money affects their job performance about 50%, 30% & about 75% consecutively compared to about 45%, 30% and 70% of 45-60 years job holders.

in short, workers job performance are highly affected by chance for personal development, team spirit, promotion prospects, job isfaction and salary.

(approximately 249 words)

model answer 2:

the given g h presents information on a variety of reasons that tend to impact job performance and it is divided by differentiating between two age categories of 18-30 years and 45-60 years. the data sample is collected from a personnel department at a big company.

firstly, the g h shows that 90% value personal development between the age ranges of 18-30; followed by comfortable work environment and promotional prospects at an 80%. secondly, the age range of 45- 60 are motivated by monetary aspects as 70% of the mentioned age group seem to perform better in this category.

thereafter, the particular age group values team spirit as 60% of the age range is provided in the g h chose this category after money. however, though each group varied on their factors affecting their work performance, both age groups were highly motivated and at par by team spirit (60%) and money (70%- 74%).
[written by – rashidah ]

model answer 3:

the given bar g h shows the results of a survey which was conducted by a company and gives data on the important factors that determine the work performance. the survey was conducted among the employees dividing them into two age groups, namely 18-30 and 45-60. as is observed from the comparison bar g hs chance for personal development, relaxed working environment, promotion prospects and salary are the main motivating factors for young people for their work performance. on the contrary, comparatively aged people’s work performance are affected by the factors like money, competent boss and team spirit.

the survey results are presented in a bar g h and there are total ten factors that affect the employees’ work performance. the survey was done among the people of two age groups: 18-30 and 45-60 years. the young employees put the ‘chance for personal development’ as the most important factor for work performance and more than 80% of them consider this as the most important factor. relax working environment, promotion prospects and money are three other important factors for work performance for this age group. the employees of the young group place the work environment, job security and respects from colleagues are the least preferred reasons for work performance for comparatively young employees.

on the contrary, the aged people who are over 45 years old and are less than 60, consider the money and team spirit are two most important issue for their performance in the job place. job security, relaxed working environment and work environment affect this group the least. interestingly, the issues which are preferred by the same percentage of both age groups of employees are team spirit (60%), competent boss (50%) and job isfaction (50%).

in summary, the survey makes it clear that the young people work hard for their personal development, promotions, money and relaxed working environment whereas the aged people perform better for money, team spirit, competent boss, promotion and job isfaction.

model answer 4:

the stipulated vertical bar chart depicts the outcome of a survey carried out by the personnel department of a major company and the survey was conducted among 18-35 and 45-60 age groups in order to show various elements that influence their job efficiency. at a glance, money is the motivating factor among both age groups.

to commence with, apparently, among both age groups of 18-35 and 45-60, team spirit motivates equal proportion of people that is 60%. not only the chance for personal development but also the relaxed working environment is influenced youngsters about 90% and 80 % respectively which is twice than older age group. surprisingly, competent boss and the job isfaction have almost an equal proportion of workers isfaction in both age groups. apparently, job security only motivates 20 percent of elders whereas, it is among youngsters 40. even though, 80% youngsters are motivated by promotion prospects, in the case of the old group, only 45% work for promotion. interestingly, both age groups take money as the most equally encouraging factor to work with 75% while work environment was least with 30%.

برای دیدن مطالب بیشتر کافیست کلیک کنید



the bar chart below shows the results of a survey conducted by a personnel department at a major company. the survey was carried out on two groups of workers: those aged from 18-30 and those aged 45-60, and shows factors affecting their work performance.

write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below.

you should write at least 150 words.

sample answer 1:

the supplied bar g h compares different factors which affect the work performance of two different age group.

as is presented as a result of a survey in the given bar chart, for the both age group of 18-30 and 45-60, team spirit affects work performance equivalently and that is little over 60%. the reason ‘ chance for personal development’ works for the younger age group about 90% which is more than twice than the older age group. the similar scenario is true for the relaxing environment too and this reason affects more than 80% of the 18-30 age group workers and about only 30% of the 45-60 years workers. about 45% younger workers’ work performance is affected by the job security compared to little over 20% older workers. the only case where 45-60 years workers are influenced more than their younger counterpart is ‘respect from colleagues’ which is about 50% for this age group workers in contrast to 40% (approximately ) for the 15-30 years age group. the promotional prospect is an important reason that drives younger employees to work better and this reason affects 80% younger workers compared to almost 45% aged job holders. for the lower age group job isfaction, work environment & money affects their job performance about 50%, 30% & about 75% consecutively compared to about 45%, 30% and 70% of 45-60 years job holders.

in short, workers job performance are highly affected by chance for personal development, team spirit, promotion prospects, job isfaction and salary.

(approximately 249 words)

model answer 2:

the given g h presents information on a variety of reasons that tend to impact job performance and it is divided by differentiating between two age categories of 18-30 years and 45-60 years. the data sample is collected from a personnel department at a big company.

firstly, the g h shows that 90% value personal development between the age ranges of 18-30; followed by comfortable work environment and promotional prospects at an 80%. secondly, the age range of 45- 60 are motivated by monetary aspects as 70% of the mentioned age group seem to perform better in this category.

thereafter, the particular age group values team spirit as 60% of the age range is provided in the g h chose this category after money. however, though each group varied on their factors affecting their work performance, both age groups were highly motivated and at par by team spirit (60%) and money (70%- 74%).
[written by – rashidah ]

model answer 3:

the given bar g h shows the results of a survey which was conducted by a company and gives data on the important factors that determine the work performance. the survey was conducted among the employees dividing them into two age groups, namely 18-30 and 45-60. as is observed from the comparison bar g hs chance for personal development, relaxed working environment, promotion prospects and salary are the main motivating factors for young people for their work performance. on the contrary, comparatively aged people’s work performance are affected by the factors like money, competent boss and team spirit.

the survey results are presented in a bar g h and there are total ten factors that affect the employees’ work performance. the survey was done among the people of two age groups: 18-30 and 45-60 years. the young employees put the ‘chance for personal development’ as the most important factor for work performance and more than 80% of them consider this as the most important factor. relax working environment, promotion prospects and money are three other important factors for work performance for this age group. the employees of the young group place the work environment, job security and respects from colleagues are the least preferred reasons for work performance for comparatively young employees.

on the contrary, the aged people who are over 45 years old and are less than 60, consider the money and team spirit are two most important issue for their performance in the job place. job security, relaxed working environment and work environment affect this group the least. interestingly, the issues which are preferred by the same percentage of both age groups of employees are team spirit (60%), competent boss (50%) and job isfaction (50%).

in summary, the survey makes it clear that the young people work hard for their personal development, promotions, money and relaxed working environment whereas the aged people perform better for money, team spirit, competent boss, promotion and job isfaction.

model answer 4:

the stipulated vertical bar chart depicts the outcome of a survey carried out by the personnel department of a major company and the survey was conducted among 18-35 and 45-60 age groups in order to show various elements that influence their job efficiency. at a glance, money is the motivating factor among both age groups.

to commence with, apparently, among both age groups of 18-35 and 45-60, team spirit motivates equal proportion of people that is 60%. not only the chance for personal development but also the relaxed working environment is influenced youngsters about 90% and 80 % respectively which is twice than older age group. surprisingly, competent boss and the job isfaction have almost an equal proportion of workers isfaction in both age groups. apparently, job security only motivates 20 percent of elders whereas, it is among youngsters 40. even though, 80% youngsters are motivated by promotion prospects, in the case of the old group, only 45% work for promotion. interestingly, both age groups take money as the most equally encouraging factor to work with 75% while work environment was least with 30%.

- see more at: http://ielts-city.com/%d9%86%d9%85%d9%88%d9%86%d9%87-%d8%b1%d8%a7%db%8c%d8%aa%db%8c%d9%86%da%af-%d8%aa%d8%b3%da%a9-1-%d8%a2%db%8c%d9%84%d8%aa%d8%b3-%d8%a8%d8%a7-4-%d9%85%d8%af%d9%84-%d8%ac%d9%88%d8%a7%d8%a8/#sthash.zovxhbwh.dpuf


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اندروید گوشیتان را با سایت #myandroid گوگل خانه تکانی کرده و به اندروید خود تبدی
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

احتمالا گوشی در دست شما همانند گوشی خیلی از افراد دیگری است که از همان یده اند، اما آیا شما نیز مانند آنها هستید؟ گوگل امکانی فراهم کرده که این تفاوت را اثبات کند و اندروید خود تان را داشته باشید.

چند روز پیش شرکت گوگل از ابزاری رونمایی کرده که به واسطه آن می توانید اندروید گوشی را به اندروید خودتان تبدیل نمایید. سایت myandroid website این امکان را فراهم کرده تا اندروید خود را طراحی کنید، از ظاهر آن گرفته تا روش کار ش.

مرتبط: تعمیرات موبایل

برای شروع در این سایت یک تست از شما گرفته می شود. اندروید به واسطه این آزمون می خواهد شما را درک کند، طعم های مورد علاقه تان و نیازهایتان را، و برایشان بهترین راه حل را عرضه کند. در ابتدای آزمون از کاربر خواسته می شود که اول جواب دهد و بعدا فکر کند (tap first, think later). بواسطه جواب دادن سریع گوگل امیدوار است که در پاسخگویی کمال صداقت از جانب کاربر رعایت شود. انواع سوالات از شما پرسیده می شود اینکه پولک چند رنگ دوست دارید یا تک رنگ، اشکال ارگانیک یا اشکال هندسی، و حتی اینکه دوست دارید ساندویچتان به شکلی بریده شود!

myandroid-taste-test-press-image-digidoki

طراحی اندروید خود، دیجی دکی

هدف نهایی از این سوالها این است که به شما کمک شود تا گوشیتان را با تصویر پس زمینه، بسته آی ها و … مطلوب خودتان تغییر دهید و به اندروید خود برسید.

آزمون مربوطه که نسبتا طولانی هم هست و بین ۱۰ الی ۱۵ سوال می باشد، در پایان علاوه بر زیبایی مطلوب شما، کارآمدترین طراحی برای شما را نیز پیشنهاد خواهد داد. سوالاتی از نحوه استفاده شما از گوشی نیز می پرسد اینکه کار می کنید یا بازی، اطلاعات جدیدتر می خواهید یا اطلاعات باح ر، در اندروید تازه کار هستین یا از قدیم اندرویدکار بودین؟ با توجه به پاسخهایی که بدهید، گوگل جو متفاوت برایتان خواهد داشت!

هنگامی که پاسخ دادن به سوالات آزمون را به پایان ببرید، سایت به شما مجموعه ای از آی ها، لانچر، تصویر پس زمینه و حتی کیبورد مختص خود خود شما تا به اندروید خود برسید. و چنانچه از نتیجه کار خوشتان نیامد، هیچ مشکلی نیست، براحتی می توانید چندین بار دیگر این آزمون را تکرار کنید تا بلا ه به نتیجه مطلوب خودتان برسید!

اگر میشد که کل گوشی، یعنی سخت افزاراتش و همچنین ظاهرش نیز براساس سلایق و علایق خودتان باشد چه اتفاقی می افتاد؟ چقدر باحال می شد

منبع: تعمیرات اپل در محل ، دیجی دکی



مشاهده متن کامل ...
اندروید گوشیتان را با سایت #myandroid گوگل خانه تکانی کرده و به اندروید خود تبدی
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

احتمالا گوشی در دست شما همانند گوشی خیلی از افراد دیگری است که از همان یده اند، اما آیا شما نیز مانند آنها هستید؟ گوگل امکانی فراهم کرده که این تفاوت را اثبات کند و اندروید خود تان را داشته باشید.

چند روز پیش شرکت گوگل از ابزاری رونمایی کرده که به واسطه آن می توانید اندروید گوشی را به اندروید خودتان تبدیل نمایید. سایت myandroid website این امکان را فراهم کرده تا اندروید خود را طراحی کنید، از ظاهر آن گرفته تا روش کار ش.

مرتبط: تعمیرات موبایل

برای شروع در این سایت یک تست از شما گرفته می شود. اندروید به واسطه این آزمون می خواهد شما را درک کند، طعم های مورد علاقه تان و نیازهایتان را، و برایشان بهترین راه حل را عرضه کند. در ابتدای آزمون از کاربر خواسته می شود که اول جواب دهد و بعدا فکر کند (tap first, think later). بواسطه جواب دادن سریع گوگل امیدوار است که در پاسخگویی کمال صداقت از جانب کاربر رعایت شود. انواع سوالات از شما پرسیده می شود اینکه پولک چند رنگ دوست دارید یا تک رنگ، اشکال ارگانیک یا اشکال هندسی، و حتی اینکه دوست دارید ساندویچتان به شکلی بریده شود!

myandroid-taste-test-press-image-digidoki

طراحی اندروید خود، دیجی دکی

هدف نهایی از این سوالها این است که به شما کمک شود تا گوشیتان را با تصویر پس زمینه، بسته آی ها و … مطلوب خودتان تغییر دهید و به اندروید خود برسید.

آزمون مربوطه که نسبتا طولانی هم هست و بین ۱۰ الی ۱۵ سوال می باشد، در پایان علاوه بر زیبایی مطلوب شما، کارآمدترین طراحی برای شما را نیز پیشنهاد خواهد داد. سوالاتی از نحوه استفاده شما از گوشی نیز می پرسد اینکه کار می کنید یا بازی، اطلاعات جدیدتر می خواهید یا اطلاعات باح ر، در اندروید تازه کار هستین یا از قدیم اندرویدکار بودین؟ با توجه به پاسخهایی که بدهید، گوگل جو متفاوت برایتان خواهد داشت!

هنگامی که پاسخ دادن به سوالات آزمون را به پایان ببرید، سایت به شما مجموعه ای از آی ها، لانچر، تصویر پس زمینه و حتی کیبورد مختص خود خود شما تا به اندروید خود برسید. و چنانچه از نتیجه کار خوشتان نیامد، هیچ مشکلی نیست، براحتی می توانید چندین بار دیگر این آزمون را تکرار کنید تا بلا ه به نتیجه مطلوب خودتان برسید!

اگر میشد که کل گوشی، یعنی سخت افزاراتش و همچنین ظاهرش نیز براساس سلایق و علایق خودتان باشد چه اتفاقی می افتاد؟ چقدر باحال می شد 									
									<br><br>
																		<a target=مشاهده متن کامل ...

sight words of prospect 2
درخواست حذف اطلاعات
درباره اینکه sight words در کتاب دانش آموز نیامده نظر دهید.
البته میدانید که برخلاف متن زیر ،در دی وی دی که به دانش آموزان داده شده خبری از فایل های صوتی sight wordsنیست.؟؟؟؟!!!
فایلهای صوتی ولیست این کلمات راتهیه وبرای قرار دادم بفرمایید

note that the new words and phrases are not for cl room quizzes

or translation or end-of-the-year examinations. treat this section as a

consolidation practice on pronunciation and reading

3.1 write the words on the board. ask them to look at the words and guess how

each word would be pronounced. elicit pronunciations, confirm and give

positive feedback on the correct pronunciations, and correct them if they

make mistakes.

3.2 now play the cd for sight words section, and while the words are

pronounced by the speakers, point to the same words on the board. ask them

to repeat and make sure they learn the correct pronunciation of the sight

words.

3.3 for the last round of sight word reading, f irst ask a strong student to read the

words from sight word reading in the book, then practice with an average

student, and then ask the whole cl to read the words together.

3.4 if you consider it necessary, play the cd one more time and get them to repeat

to make sure each and every student reads f luently and pronounces correctly

با تشکر از همکار ارجمندجناب حسینی از شهرستان شهریار

http://www.cltteacher.ir/showthread.php?tid=1266



مشاهده متن کامل ...
sight words of prospect 2
درخواست حذف اطلاعات
درباره اینکه sight words در کتاب دانش آموز نیامده نظر دهید.
البته میدانید که برخلاف متن زیر ،در دی وی دی که به دانش آموزان داده شده خبری از فایل های صوتی sight wordsنیست.؟؟؟؟!!!
فایلهای صوتی ولیست این کلمات را که به صورت زیپ هست یکی از همکاران تهیه کرده بفرمایید.

note that the new words and phrases are not for cl room quizzes

or translation or end-of-the-year examinations. treat this section as a

consolidation practice on pronunciation and reading

3.1 write the words on the board. ask them to look at the words and guess how

each word would be pronounced. elicit pronunciations, confirm and give

positive feedback on the correct pronunciations, and correct them if they

make mistakes.

3.2 now play the cd for sight words section, and while the words are

pronounced by the speakers, point to the same words on the board. ask them

to repeat and make sure they learn the correct pronunciation of the sight

words.

3.3 for the last round of sight word reading, f irst ask a strong student to read the

words from sight word reading in the book, then practice with an average

student, and then ask the whole cl to read the words together.

3.4 if you consider it necessary, play the cd one more time and get them to repeat

to make sure each and every student reads f luently and pronounces correctly

با تشکر از همکار ارجمندجناب حسینی از شهرستان شهریار



مشاهده متن کامل ...
مقاله آشنایی با شبکه ٌwimax
درخواست حذف اطلاعات
اختصاصی از یاری فایل مقاله آشنایی با شبکه ٌwimax با و پر سرعت .

لینک و ید پایین توضیحات

فرمت فایل word  و قابل ویرایش و پرینت

تعداد صفحات: 23

 

به نام خدا

جامع علمی کاربردی

واحد جهاد ی

موضوع ارائه :

آشنایی با شبکه

wimax

زبان اصلی و ترجمه

مربوطه:

جناب آقای عابدینی

گرد آورندگان:

مجید تفاهمی

مترجم :

مجید تفاهمی

تیر ماه

87

how wimax works

by marshall brain and ed grabianowski

inside this article

1. 

introduction to how wimax works

2. 

how wimax works

3. 

what can wimax do?

4. 

dollars and cents

5. 

the wimax scenario

6. 

lots more information

7. 

see all internet articles

p o courtesy intel

think about how you access the internet today. there are basically three different options:

broadband access - in your home, you have either a dsl or cable modem. at the office, your company may be using a t1 or a t3 line.

wifi access - in your home, you may have set up a wifi router that lets you surf the web while you lounge with your laptop. on the road, you can find wifi spots in restaurants, els, coffee shops and libraries.

dial-up access - if you are still using dial-up, chances are that either broadband access is not available, or you think that broadband access is too expensive.

the main problems with broadband access are that it is pretty expensive and it doesn't reach all areas. the main problem with wifi access is that spots are very small, so coverage is sparse.

what if there were a new technology that solved all of these problems? this new technology would provide:

the high speed of broadband service

wireless rather than wired access, so it would be a lot less expensive than cable or dsl and much easier to extend to suburban and rural areas

broad coverage like the cell phone network instead of small wifi spots

this system is actually coming into being right now, and it is called wimax. wimax is short for worldwide interoperability for microwave access, and it also goes by the ieee name 802.16.

wimax has the potential to do to broadband internet access what cell phones have done to phone access. in the same way that many people have given up their "land lines" in favor of cell phones, wimax could replace cable and dsl services, providing universal internet access just about anywhere you go. wimax will also be as painless as wifi -- turning your computer on will automatically connect you to the closest available wimax antenna.

in this article, we'll find out how wimax works, what engineers are doing to make it better and what it could mean for the future of wireless internet.

2. how wimax works

p o courtesy intelwimax transmitting tower

in practical terms, wimax would operate similar to wifi but at higher speeds, over greater distances and for a greater number of users. wimax could potentially erase the suburban and rural blackout areas that currently have no broadband internet access because phone and cable companies have not yet run the necessary wires to those remote locations.

a wimax system consists of two parts:

a wimax tower, similar in concept to a cell-phone tower - a single wimax tower can provide coverage to a very large area -- as big as 3,000 square miles (~8,000 square km).

a wimax receiver - the receiver and antenna could be a small box or pcmcia card, or they could be built into a laptop the way wifi access is today.

a wimax tower station can connect directly to the internet using a high-bandwidth, wired connection (for example, a t3 line). it can also connect to another wimax tower using a line-of-sight, microwave link. this connection to a second tower (often referred to as a backhaul), along with the ability of a single tower to cover up to 3,000 square miles, is what allows wimax to provide coverage to remote rural areas.

 

what this points out is that wimax actually can provide two forms of wireless service:

there is the non-line-of-sight, wifi sort of service, where a small antenna on your computer connects to the tower. in this mode, wimax uses a lower frequency range -- 2 ghz to 11 ghz (similar to wifi). lower-wavelength transmissions are not as easily disrupted by physical obstructions -- they are better able to diffract, or bend, around obstacles.

there is line-of-sight service, where a fixed dish antenna points straight at the wimax tower from a rooftop or pole. the line-of-sight connection is stronger and more stable, so it's able to send a lot of data with fewer errors. line-of-sight transmissions use higher frequencies, with ranges reaching a possible 66 ghz. at higher frequencies, there is less interference and lots more bandwidth.

wifi-style access will be limited to a 4-to-6 mile radius (perhaps 25 square miles or 65 square km of coverage, which is similar in range to a cell-phone zone). through the stronger line-of-sight antennas, the wimax transmitting station would send data to wimax-enabled computers or routers set up within the transmitter's 30-mile radius (2,800 square miles or 9,300 square km of coverage). this is what allows wimax to achieve its maximum range.

global area network

the final step in the area network scale is the global area network (gan). the proposal for gan is ieee 802.20. a true gan would work a lot like today's cell phone networks, with users able to travel across the country and still have access to the network the whole time. this network would have enough bandwidth to offer internet access comparable to cable modem service, but it would be accessible to mobile, always-connected devices like laptops or next-generation cell phones.

3.what can wimax do?

intel paves the way

intel will start making their centrino laptop processors wimax enabled in the next two to three years. this will go a long way toward making wimax a success. if everyone's laptop already has it (which is predicted by 2008), it will be much less risky for companies to set up wimax base stations.

intel also announced that it would be partnering with a company called clearwire to push wimax even further ahead. clearwire plans to send data from wimax base stations to small wireless modems. see intel, clearwire to accelerate deployment of wimax networks worldwide (oct. 25, 2004).

wimax operates on the same general principles as wifi -- it sends data from one computer to another via radio signals. a computer (either a desktop or a laptop) equipped with wimax would receive data from the wimax transmitting station, probably using encrypted data keys to prevent unauthorized users from stealing access.

the fastest wifi connection can transmit up to 54 megabits per second under optimal conditions. wimax should be able to handle up to 70 megabits per second. even once that 70 megabits is split up between several dozen businesses or a few hundred home users, it will provide at least the equivalent of cable-modem transfer rates to each user.

the biggest difference isn't speed; it's distance. wimax outdistances wifi by miles. wifi's range is about 100 feet (30 m). wimax will blanket a radius of 30 miles (50 km) with wireless access. the increased range is due to the frequencies used and the power of the transmitter. of course, at that distance, terrain, weather and large buildings will act to reduce the maximum range in some circumstances, but the potential is there to cover huge tracts of land.

ieee 802.16 specifications

range - 30-mile (50-km) radius from base station

speed - 70 megabits per second

line-of-sight not needed between user and base station

frequency bands - 2 to 11 ghz and 10 to 66 ghz (licensed and unlicensed bands)

defines both the mac and phy layers and allows multiple phy-layer specifications (see how osi works)

wimax could boost government security

in an emergency, communication is crucial for government officials as they try to determine the cause of the problem, find out who may be injured and coordinate rescue efforts or cleanup operations. a gas-line explosion or terrorist attack could sever the cables that connect leaders and officials with their vital information networks.

wimax could be used to set up a back-up (or even primary)


با


مقاله آشنایی با شبکه ٌwimax


مشاهده متن کامل ...
تشخیص افسردگی با استفاده از حس چشایی
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

تحقیقات نشان داده است غذا ها میتواند خلق و خو را تغییر دهند. مواد غذایی مانند پروتئین های بدون چربی ،مکمل های غذایی با ویتامین d،امگا 3 dha ،ویتامین b12،کربو هیدرات های پیچیده ،منزیم ،l تیانین ،l تریپتوفان.

مطالعات نشان میدهد که حتی لحظات کوچکی از احساس عطر و طعم میتواند خلق و خوی شما را عوض کند. با استفاده از آزمایش چشایی می توان افسردگی را در افراد تشخیص داد و داروی مناسب برای درمان این بیماری را شناسایی کرد.

محققان بریستول با انجام تحقیقی دریافتند: احساس چشایی به وسیله "سروتونین" و "نورآدرنالین" - دو ماده شیمیایی در مغز - تغییر می کند که این عدم تعادل بر بروز افسردگی دل دارد. در جریان انجام این آزمایش داوطلبان سالم در معرض هر دو داروی ضد افسردگی قرار گرفتند.


افزایش سطح "سروتونین" میزان حساسیت به مزه شیرین و تلخ را اصلاح می کند در حالی که افزایش سطح "نورآدرنالین" میزان حساسیت به طعم تلخ و ترش را بالا می برد.

به گفته "لوسی دونالدسون" س رست این تحقیق، از آنجاکه تغییر چشایی در واکنش به تغییر در دو انتقال دهنده عصبی متفاوت رخ می دهد، انتظار می رود انجام یک آزمایش چشایی در مبتلایان به افسردگی نوع انتقال دهنده عصبی موثر بر بیماری را آشکار سازد.

یافته های این تحقیق نشان داد: افراد پراسترس یا مضطرب از حس چشایی کمتری برخوردارند و به همین دلیل نیز اشتهای بیماران مبتلا به افسردگی تقلیل می یابد. نتایج این تحقیق در نشریه "نوروساینس" به چاپ رسیده است.

منابع:

حس چشایی

از دست دادن حس چشایی

اختلال حس چشایی




مشاهده متن کامل ...
تشخیص افسردگی با استفاده از حس چشایی
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

تحقیقات نشان داده است غذا ها میتواند خلق و خو را تغییر دهند. مواد غذایی مانند پروتئین های بدون چربی ،مکمل های غذایی با ویتامین d،امگا 3 dha ،ویتامین b12،کربو هیدرات های پیچیده ،منزیم ،l تیانین ،l تریپتوفان.

مطالعات نشان میدهد که حتی لحظات کوچکی از احساس عطر و طعم میتواند خلق و خوی شما را عوض کند. با استفاده از آزمایش چشایی می توان افسردگی را در افراد تشخیص داد و داروی مناسب برای درمان این بیماری را شناسایی کرد.

محققان بریستول با انجام تحقیقی دریافتند: احساس چشایی به وسیله "سروتونین" و "نورآدرنالین" - دو ماده شیمیایی در مغز - تغییر می کند که این عدم تعادل بر بروز افسردگی دل دارد. در جریان انجام این آزمایش داوطلبان سالم در معرض هر دو داروی ضد افسردگی قرار گرفتند.

افزایش سطح "سروتونین" میزان حساسیت به مزه شیرین و تلخ را اصلاح می کند در حالی که افزایش سطح "نورآدرنالین" میزان حساسیت به طعم تلخ و ترش را بالا می برد.

به گفته "لوسی دونالدسون" س رست این تحقیق، از آنجاکه تغییر چشایی در واکنش به تغییر در دو انتقال دهنده عصبی متفاوت رخ می دهد، انتظار می رود انجام یک آزمایش چشایی در مبتلایان به افسردگی نوع انتقال دهنده عصبی موثر بر بیماری را آشکار سازد.

یافته های این تحقیق نشان داد: افراد پراسترس یا مضطرب از حس چشایی کمتری برخوردارند و به همین دلیل نیز اشتهای بیماران مبتلا به افسردگی تقلیل می یابد. نتایج این تحقیق در نشریه "نوروساینس" به چاپ رسیده است.

منابع:

حس چشایی

از دست دادن حس چشایی

اختلال حس چشایی




مشاهده متن کامل ...
the kiss
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

by anton chekhov


at eight o'clock on the evening of the twentieth of may all the six batteries of the n---- reserve artillery brigade halted for the night in the village of myestetchki on their way to p. when the general commotion was at its height, while some officers were busily occupied around the guns, while others, gathered together in the square near the church enclosure, were listening to the quartermasters, a man in civilian dress, riding a strange horse, e into sight round the church. the little dun-coloured horse with a good neck and a short tail e, moving not straight forward, but as it were sideways, with a sort of dance step, as though it were being lashed about the legs. when he reached the officers the man on the horse took off his hat and said:

"his excellency lieutenant-general von rabbek invites the gentlemen to drink tea with him this minute. . . ."

 


by anton chekhov


at eight o'clock on the evening of the twentieth of may all the six batteries of the n---- reserve artillery brigade halted for the night in the village of myestetchki on their way to p. when the general commotion was at its height, while some officers were busily occupied around the guns, while others, gathered together in the square near the church enclosure, were listening to the quartermasters, a man in civilian dress, riding a strange horse, e into sight round the church. the little dun-coloured horse with a good neck and a short tail e, moving not straight forward, but as it were sideways, with a sort of dance step, as though it were being lashed about the legs. when he reached the officers the man on the horse took off his hat and said:

"his excellency lieutenant-general von rabbek invites the gentlemen to drink tea with him this minute. . . ."

the horse turned, danced, and retired sideways; the messenger raised his hat once more, and in an instant disappeared with his strange horse behind the church.

"what the devil does it mean?" grumbled some of the officers, dispersing to their quarters. "one is sleepy, and here this von rabbek with his tea! we know what tea means."

the officers of all the six batteries remembered vividly an incident of the previous year, when during manoeuvres they, together with the officers of a cossack regiment, were in the same way invited to tea by a count who had an estate in the neighbourhood and was a retired army officer: the hospitable and genial count made much of them, fed them, and gave them drink, refused to let them go to their quarters in the village and made them stay the night. all that, of course, was very nice -- nothing better could be desired, but the worst of it was, the old army officer was so carried away by the pleasure of the young men's company that till sunrise he was telling the officers anecdotes of his glorious past, taking them over the house, showing them expensive pictures, old engravings, rare guns, reading them autog h letters from great people, while the weary and exhausted officers looked and listened, longing for their beds and yawning in their sleeves; when at last their host let them go, it was too late for sleep.

might not this von rabbek be just such another? whether he were or not, there was no help for it. the officers changed their uniforms, brushed themselves, and went all together in search of the gentleman's house. in the square by the church they were told they could get to his excellency's by the lower path -- going down behind the church to the river, going along the bank to the garden, and there an avenue would taken them to the house; or by the upper way -- straight from the church by the road which, half a mile from the village, led right up to his excellency's granaries. the officers decided to go by the upper way.

"what von rabbek is it?" they wondered on the way. "surely not the one who was in command of the n---- cavalry division at plevna?"

"no, that was not von rabbek, but simply rabbe and no 'von.' "

"what lovely weather!"

at the first of the granaries the road divided in two: one branch went straight on and vanished in the evening darkness, the other led to the owner's house on the right. the officers turned to the right and began to speak more softly. . . . on both sides of the road stretched stone granaries with red roofs, heavy and sullen-looking, very much like barracks of a district town. ahead of them gleamed the windows of the manor-house.

"a good omen, gentlemen," said one of the officers. "our setter is the foremost of all; no doubt he scents game ahead of us! . . ."

lieutenant lobytko, who was walking in front, a tall and stalwart fellow, though entirely without moustache (he was over five-and-twenty, yet for some reason there was no sign of hair on his round, well-fed face), renowned in the brigade for his peculiar faculty for divining the presence of women at a distance, turned round and said:

"yes, there must be women here; i feel that by instinct."

on the threshold the officers were met by von rabbek himself, a comely-looking man of sixty in civilian dress. shaking hands with his guests, he said that he was very glad and happy to see them, but begged them earnestly for god's sake to excuse him for not asking them to stay the night; two sisters with their children, some brothers, and some neighbours, had come on a visit to him, so that he had not one spare room left.

the general shook hands with every one, made his apologies, and smiled, but it was evident by his face that he was by no means so delighted as their last year's count, and that he had invited the officers simply because, in his opinion, it was a social obligation to do so. and the officers themselves, as they walked up the softly carpeted stairs, as they listened to him, felt that they had been invited to this house simply because it would have been awkward not to invite them; and at the sight of the footmen, who hastened to light the lamps in the entrance below and in the anteroom above, they began to feel as though they had brought uneasiness and discomfort into the house with them. in a house in which two sisters and their children, brothers, and neighbours were gathered together, probably on account of some family festivity, or event, how could the presence of nineteen unknown officers possibly be welcome?

at the entrance to the drawing-room the officers were met by a tall, graceful old lady with black eyebrows and a long face, very much like the empress eugnie. smiling graciously and majestically, she said she was glad and happy to see her guests, and apologized that her husband and she were on this occasion unable to invite messieurs les officiers to stay the night. from her beautiful majestic smile, which instantly vanished from her face every time she turned away from her guests, it was evident that she had seen numbers of officers in her day, that she was in no humour for them now, and if she invited them to her house and apologized for not doing more, it was only because her breeding and position in society required it of her.

when the officers went into the big dining-room, there were about a dozen people, men and ladies, young and old, sitting at tea at the end of a long table. a group of men was dimly visible behind their chairs, w ped in a haze of cigar smoke; and in the midst of them stood a lanky young man with red whiskers, talking loudly, with a lisp, in english. through a door beyond the group could be seen a light room with pale blue furniture.

"gentlemen, there are so many of you that it is impossible to introduce you all!" said the general in a loud voice, trying to sound very cheerful. "make each other's acquaintance, gentlemen, without any ceremony!"

the officers -- some with very serious and even stern faces, others with forced smiles, and all feeling extremely awkward -- somehow made their bows and down to tea.

the most ill at ease of them all was ryabovitch -- a little officer in spectacles, with sloping shoulders, and whiskers like a lynx's. while some of his comrades umed a serious expression, while others wore forced smiles, his face, his lynx-like whiskers, and spectacles seemed to say: "i am the shyest, most modest, and most undistinguished officer in the whole brigade!" at first, on going into the room and sitting down to the table, he could not fix his attention on any one face or object. the faces, the dresses, the cut-gl decanters of brandy, the steam from the gl es, the moulded cornices -- all blended in one general impression that inspired in ryabovitch alarm and a desire to hide his head. like a lecturer making his first appearance before the public, he saw everything that was before his eyes, but apparently only had a dim understanding of it (among physiologists this condition, when the subject sees but does not understand, is called psychical blindness). after a little while, growing accustomed to his surroundings, ryabovitch saw clearly and began to observe. as a shy man, unused to society, what struck him first was that in which he had always been deficient -- namely, the extraordinary boldness of his new acquaintances. von rabbek, his wife, two elderly ladies, a young lady in a lilac dress, and the young man with the red whiskers, who was, it appeared, a younger son of von rabbek, very cleverly, as though they had rehearsed it beforehand, took seats between the officers, and at once got up a heated discussion in which the visitors could not help taking part. the lilac young lady ly erted that the artillery had a much better time than the cavalry and the infantry, while von rabbek and the elderly ladies maintained the opposite. a brisk interchange of talk followed. ryabovitch watched the lilac young lady who argued so ly about what was unfamiliar and utterly uninteresting to her, and watched artificial smiles come and go on her face.

von rabbek and his family skilfully drew the officers into the discussion, and meanwhile kept a sharp lookout over their gl es and mouths, to see whether all of them were drinking, whether all had enough sugar, why some one was not eating cakes or not drinking brandy. and the longer ryabovitch watched and listened, the more he was attracted by this insincere but splendidly disciplined family.

after tea the officers went into the drawing-room. lieutenant lobytko's instinct had not deceived him. there were a great number of s and young married ladies. the "setter" lieutenant was soon standing by a very young, fair in a black dress, and, bending down to her jauntily, as though leaning on an unseen sword, smiled and shrugged his shoulders coquettishly. he probably talked very interesting nonsense, for the fair looked at his well-fed face condescendingly and asked indifferently, "really?" and from that uninterested "really?" the setter, had he been intelligent, might have concluded that she would never call him to heel.

the piano struck up; the melancholy strains of a valse floated out of the wide open windows, and every one, for some reason, remembered that it was spring, a may evening. every one was conscious of the fragrance of roses, of lilac, and of the young leaves of the poplar. ryabovitch, in whom the brandy he had drunk made itself felt, under the influence of the stole a glance towards the window, smiled, and began watching the movements of the women, and it seemed to him that the smell of roses, of poplars, and lilac e not from the garden, but from the ladies' faces and dresses.

von rabbek's son invited a scraggy-looking young lady to dance, and waltzed round the room twice with her. lobytko, gliding over the parquet floor, flew up to the lilac young lady and whirled her away. dancing began. . . . ryabovitch stood near the door among those who were not dancing and looked on. he had never once danced in his whole life, and he had never once in his life put his arm round the waist of a respectable woman. he was highly delighted that a man should in the sight of all take a he did not know round the waist and offer her his shoulder to put her hand on, but he could not imagine himself in the position of such a man. there were times when he envied the boldness and swagger of his companions and was inwardly wretched; the consciousness that he was timid, that he was round-shouldered and uninteresting, that he had a long waist and lynx-like whiskers, had deeply mortified him, but with years he had grown used to this feeling, and now, looking at his comrades dancing or loudly talking, he no longer envied them, but only felt touched and mournful.

when the quadrille began, young von rabbek e up to those who were not dancing and invited two officers to have a game at billiards. the officers accepted and went with him out of the drawing-room. ryabovitch, having nothing to do and wishing to take part in the general movement, slouched after them. from the big drawing-room they went into the little drawing-room, then into a narrow corridor with a gl roof, and thence into a room in which on their entrance three sleepy-looking footmen jumped up quickly from the sofa. at last, after p ing through a long succession of rooms, young von rabbek and the officers e into a small room where there was a billiard-table. they began to play.

ryabovitch, who had never played any game but cards, stood near the billiard-table and looked indifferently at the players, while they in un oned coats, with cues in their hands, stepped about, made puns, and kept shouting out unintelligible words.

the players took no notice of him, and only now and then one of them, shoving him with his elbow or accidentally touching him with the end of his cue, would turn round and say "pardon!" before the first game was over he was weary of it, and began to feel he was not wanted and in the way. . . . he felt disposed to return to the drawing-room, and he went out.

on his way back he met with a little adventure. when he had gone half-way he noticed he had taken a wrong turning. he distinctly remembered that he ought to meet three sleepy footmen on his way, but he had p ed five or six rooms, and those sleepy figures seemed to have vanished into the earth. noticing his mistake, he walked back a little way and turned to the right; he found himself in a little dark room which he had not seen on his way to the billiard-room. after standing there a little while, he resolutely opened the first door that met his eyes and walked into an absolutely dark room. straight in front could be seen the crack in the doorway through which there was a gleam of vivid light; from the other side of the door e the muffled sound of a melancholy mazurka. here, too, as in the drawing-room, the windows were wide open and there was a smell of poplars, lilac and roses. . . .

ryabovitch stood still in hesitation. . . . at that moment, to his surprise, he heard hurried footsteps and the rustling of a dress, a breathless feminine voice whispered "at last!" and two soft, fragrant, unmistakably feminine arms were clasped about his neck; a warm cheek was pressed to his cheek, and simultaneously there was the sound of a kiss. but at once the bestower of the kiss uttered a faint shriek and skipped back from him, as it seemed to ryabovitch, with aversion. he, too, almost shrieked and rushed towards the gleam of light at the door. . . .

when he went back into the drawing-room his heart was beating and his hands were trembling so noticeably that he made haste to hide them behind his back. at first he was tormented by shame and dread that the whole drawing-room knew that he had just been kissed and embraced by a woman. he shrank into himself and looked uneasily about him, but as he be e convinced that people were dancing and talking as calmly as ever, he gave himself up entirely to the new sen ion which he had never experienced before in his life. something strange was happening to him. . . . his neck, round which soft, fragrant arms had so lately been clasped, seemed to him to be anointed with oil; on his left cheek near his moustache where the unknown had kissed him there was a faint chilly tingling sen ion as from peppermint drops, and the more he rubbed the place the more distinct was the chilly sen ion; all over, from head to foot, he was full of a strange new feeling which grew stronger and stronger. . . . he wanted to dance, to talk, to run into the garden, to laugh aloud. . . . he quite forgot that he was round-shouldered and uninteresting, that he had lynx-like whiskers and an "undistinguished appearance" (that was how his appearance had been described by some ladies whose conver ion he had accidentally overheard). when von rabbek's wife happened to p by him, he gave her such a broad and friendly smile that she stood still and looked at him inquiringly.

"i like your house immensely!" he said, setting his spectacles straight.

the general's wife smiled and said that the house had belonged to her father; then she asked whether his parents were living, whether he had long been in the army, why he was so thin, and so on. . . . after receiving answers to her questions, she went on, and after his conver ion with her his smiles were more friendly than ever, and he thought he was surrounded by splendid people. . . .

at supper ryabovitch ate mechanically everything offered him, drank, and without listening to anything, tried to understand what had just happened to him. . . . the adventure was of a mysterious and romantic character, but it was not difficult to explain it. no doubt some or young married lady had arranged a tryst with some one in the dark room; had waited a long time, and being nervous and excited had taken ryabovitch for her hero; this was the more probable as ryabovitch had stood still hesitating in the dark room, so that he, too, had seemed like a person expecting something. . . . this was how ryabovitch explained to himself the kiss he had received.

"and who is she?" he wondered, looking round at the women's faces. "she must be young, for elderly ladies don't give rendezvous. that she was a lady, one could tell by the rustle of her dress, her perfume, her voice. . . ."

his eyes rested on the lilac young lady, and he thought her very attractive; she had beautiful shoulders and arms, a clever face, and a delightful voice. ryabovitch, looking at her, hoped that she and no one else was his unknown. . . . but she laughed somehow artificially and wrinkled up her long nose, which seemed to him to make her look old. then he turned his eyes upon the fair in a black dress. she was younger, simpler, and more genuine, had a charming brow, and drank very daintily out of her winegl . ryabovitch now hoped that it was she. but soon he began to think her face flat, and fixed his eyes upon the one next her.

"it's difficult to guess," he thought, musing. "if one takes the shoulders and arms of the lilac one only, adds the brow of the fair one and the eyes of the one on the left of lobytko, then . . ."

he made a combination of these things in his mind and so formed the image of the who had kissed him, the image that he wanted her to have, but could not find at the table. . . .

after supper, replete and exhilarated, the officers began to take leave and say thank you. von rabbek and his wife began again apologizing that they could not ask them to stay the night.

"very, very glad to have met you, gentlemen," said von rabbek, and this time sincerely (probably because people are far more sincere and good-humoured at speeding their parting guests than on meeting them). "delighted. i hope you will come on your way back! don't stand on ceremony! where are you going? do you want to go by the upper way? no, go across the garden; it's nearer here by the lower way."

the officers went out into the garden. after the bright light and the noise the garden seemed very dark and quiet. they walked in silence all the way to the gate. they were a little drunk, pleased, and in good spirits, but the darkness and silence made them thoughtful for a minute. probably the same idea occurred to each one of them as to ryabovitch: would there ever come a time for them when, like von rabbek, they would have a large house, a family, a garden -- when they, too, would be able to welcome people, even though insincerely, feed them, make them drunk and contented?

going out of the garden gate, they all began talking at once and laughing loudly about nothing. they were walking now along the little path that led down to the river, and then ran along the water's edge, winding round the bushes on the bank, the pools, and the willows that overhung the water. the bank and the path were scarcely visible, and the other bank was entirely plunged in darkness. stars were reflected here and there on the dark water; they quivered and were broken up on the surface -- and from that alone it could be seen that the river was flowing idly. it was still. drowsy curlews cried plaintively on the further bank, and in one of the bushes on the nearest side a nightingale was trilling loudly, taking no notice of the crowd of officers. the officers stood round the bush, touched it, but the nightingale went on singing.

"what a fellow!" they exclaimed approvingly. "we stand beside him and he takes not a bit of notice! what a rascal!"

at the end of the way the path went uphill, and, skirting the church enclosure, turned into the road. here the officers, tired with walking uphill, down and lighted their cigarettes. on the other side of the river a murky red fire e into sight, and having nothing better to do, they spent a long time in discussing whether it was a p fire or a light in a window, or something else. . . . ryabovitch, too, looked at the light, and he fancied that the light looked and winked at him, as though it knew about the kiss.

on reaching his quarters, ryabovitch undressed as quickly as possible and got into bed. lobytko and lieutenant merzlyakov -- a peaceable, silent fellow, who was considered in his own circle a highly educated officer, and was always, whenever it was possible, reading the "vyestnik evropi," which he carried about with him everywhere -- were quartered in the same hut with ryabovitch. lobytko undressed, walked up and down the room for a long while with the air of a man who has not been isfied, and sent his orderly for beer. merzlyakov got into bed, put a candle by his pillow and plunged into reading the "vyestnik evropi."

"who was she?" ryabovitch wondered, looking at the smoky ceiling.

his neck still felt as though he had been anointed with oil, and there was still the chilly sen ion near his mouth as though from peppermint drops. the shoulders and arms of the young lady in lilac, the brow and the truthful eyes of the fair in black, waists, dresses, and brooches, floated through his imagination. he tried to fix his attention on these images, but they danced about, broke up and flickered. when these images vanished altogether from the broad dark background which every man sees when he closes his eyes, he began to hear hurried footsteps, the rustle of skirts, the sound of a kiss and -- an intense groundless joy took possession of him. . . . abandoning himself to this joy, he heard the orderly return and announce that there was no beer. lobytko was terribly indignant, and began pacing up and down again.

"well, isn't he an idiot?" he kept saying, stopping first before ryabovitch and then before merzlyakov. "what a fool and a dummy a man must be not to get hold of any beer! eh? isn't he a scoundrel?"

"of course you can't get beer here," said merzlyakov, not removing his eyes from the "vyestnik evropi."

"oh! is that your opinion?" lobytko persisted. "lord have mercy upon us, if you dropped me on the moon i'd find you beer and women directly! i'll go and find some at once. . . . you may call me an impostor if i don't!"

he spent a long time in dressing and pulling on his high boots, then finished smoking his cigarette in silence and went out.

"rabbek, grabbek, labbek," he muttered, stopping in the outer room. "i don't care to go alone, damn it all! ryabovitch, wouldn't you like to go for a walk? eh?"

receiving no answer, he returned, slowly undressed and got into bed. merzlyakov sighed, put the "vyestnik evropi" away, and put out the light.

"h'm! . . ." muttered lobytko, lighting a cigarette in the dark.

ryabovitch pulled the bed-clothes over his head, curled himself up in bed, and tried to gather together the floating images in his mind and to combine them into one whole. but nothing e of it. he soon fell asleep, and his last thought was that some one had caressed him and made him happy -- that something extraordinary, foolish, but joyful and delightful, had come into his life. the thought did not leave him even in his sleep.

when he woke up the sen ions of oil on his neck and the chill of peppermint about his lips had gone, but joy flooded his heart just as the day before. he looked enthusiastically at the window-frames, gilded by the light of the rising sun, and listened to the movement of the p ers-by in the street. people were talking loudly close to the window. lebedetsky, the commander of ryabovitch's battery, who had only just overtaken the brigade, was talking to his sergeant at the top of his voice, being always accustomed to shout.

"what else?" shouted the commander.

"when they were shoeing yesterday, your high nobility, they drove a nail into pigeon's hoof. the vet. put on clay and vinegar; they are leading him apart now. and also, your honour, artemyev got drunk yesterday, and the lieutenant ordered him to be put in the limber of a spare gun-carriage."

the sergeant reported that karpov had forgotten the new cords for the trumpets and the rings for the tents, and that their honours, the officers, had spent the previous evening visiting general von rabbek. in the middle of this conver ion the red-bearded face of lebedetsky appeared in the window. he screwed up his short-sighted eyes, looking at the sleepy faces of the officers, and said good-morning to them.

"is everything all right?" he asked.

"one of the horses has a sore neck from the new collar," answered lobytko, yawning.

the commander sighed, thought a moment, and said in a loud voice:

"i am thinking of going to see alexandra yevgrafovna. i must call on her. well, good-bye. i shall catch you up in the evening."

a quarter of an hour later the brigade set off on its way. when it was moving along the road by the granaries, ryabovitch looked at the house on the right. the blinds were down in all the windows. evidently the household was still asleep. the one who had kissed ryabovitch the day before was asleep, too. he tried to imagine her asleep. the wide-open windows of the bedroom, the green branches peeping in, the morning freshness, the scent of the poplars, lilac, and roses, the bed, a chair, and on it the skirts that had rustled the day before, the little slippers, the little watch on the table -- all this he pictured to himself clearly and distinctly, but the features of the face, the sweet sleepy smile, just what was characteristic and important, slipped through his imagination like quicksilver through the fingers. when he had ridden on half a mile, he looked back: the yellow church, the house, and the river, were all bathed in light; the river with its bright green banks, with the blue sky reflected in it and glints of silver in the sunshine here and there, was very beautiful. ryabovitch gazed for the last time at myestetchki, and he felt as sad as though he were parting with something very near and dear to him.

and before him on the road lay nothing but long familiar, uninteresting pictures. . . . to right and to left, fields of young rye and buckwheat with rooks hopping about in them. if one looked ahead, one saw dust and the backs of men's heads; if one looked back, one saw the same dust and faces. . . . foremost of all marched four men with sabres -- this was the vanguard. next, behind, the crowd of singers, and behind them the trumpeters on horseback. the vanguard and the chorus of singers, like torch-bearers in a funeral procession, often forgot to keep the regulation distance and pushed a long way ahead. . . . ryabovitch was with the first cannon of the fifth battery. he could see all the four batteries moving in front of him. for any one not a military man this long tedious procession of a moving brigade seems an intricate and unintelligible muddle; one cannot understand why there are so many people round one cannon, and why it is drawn by so many horses in such a strange network of harness, as though it really were so terrible and heavy. to ryabovitch it was all perfectly comprehensible and therefore uninteresting. he had known for ever so long why at the head of each battery there rode a stalwart bombardier, and why he was called a bombardier; immediately behind this bombardier could be seen the horsemen of the first and then of the middle units. ryabovitch knew that the horses on which they rode, those on the left, were called one name, while those on the right were called another -- it was extremely uninteresting. behind the horsemen e two shaft-horses. on one of them a rider with the dust of yesterday on his back and a clumsy and funny-looking piece of wood on his leg. ryabovitch knew the object of this piece of wood, and did not think it funny. all the riders waved their whips mechanically and shouted from time to time. the cannon itself was ugly. on the fore part lay sacks of oats covered with canvas, and the cannon itself was hung all over with kettles, soldiers' knapsacks, bags, and looked like some small harmless animal surrounded for some unknown reason by men and horses. to the leeward of it marched six men, the gunners, swinging their arms. after the cannon there e again more bombardiers, riders, shaft-horses, and behind them another cannon, as ugly and unimpressive as the first. after the second followed a third, a fourth; near the fourth an officer, and so on. there were six batteries in all in the brigade, and four cannons in each battery. the procession covered half a mile; it ended in a string of wagons near which an extremely attractive creature -- the , magar, brought by a battery commander from turkey -- paced pensively with his long-eared head drooping.

ryabovitch looked indifferently before and behind, at the backs of heads and at faces; at any other time he would have been half asleep, but now he was entirely absorbed in his new agreeable thoughts. at first when the brigade was setting off on the march he tried to persuade himself that the incident of the kiss could only be interesting as a mysterious little adventure, that it was in reality trivial, and to think of it seriously, to say the least of it, was stupid; but now he bade farewell to logic and gave himself up to dreams. . . . at one moment he imagined himself in von rabbek's drawing-room beside a who was like the young lady in lilac and the fair in black; then he would close his eyes and see himself with another, entirely unknown , whose features were very vague. in his imagination he talked, caressed her, leaned on her shoulder, pictured war, separation, then meeting again, supper with his wife, children. . . .

"brakes on!" the word of command rang out every time they went downhill.

he, too, shouted "brakes on!" and was afraid this shout would disturb his reverie and bring him back to reality. . . .

as they p ed by some landowner's estate ryabovitch looked over the fence into the garden. a long avenue, straight as a ruler, strewn with yellow sand and bordered with young birch-trees, met his eyes. . . . with the eagerness of a man given up to dreaming, he pictured to himself little feminine feet tripping along yellow sand, and quite unexpectedly had a clear vision in his imagination of the who had kissed him and whom he had succeeded in picturing to himself the evening before at supper. this image remained in his brain and did not desert him again.

at midday there was a shout in the rear near the string of wagons:

"easy! eyes to the left! officers!"

the general of the brigade drove by in a carriage with a pair of white horses. he stopped near the second battery, and shouted something which no one understood. several officers, among them ryabovitch, galloped up to them.

"well?" asked the general, blinking his red eyes. "are there any sick?"

receiving an answer, the general, a little skinny man, chewed, thought for a moment and said, addressing one of the officers:

"one of your drivers of the third cannon has taken off his leg-guard and hung it on the fore part of the cannon, the rascal. reprimand him."

he raised his eyes to ryabovitch and went on:

"it seems to me your front st is too long."

making a few other tedious remarks, the general looked at lobytko and grinned.

"you look very melancholy today, lieutenant lobytko," he said. "are you pining for madame lopuhov? eh? gentlemen, he is pining for madame lopuhov."

the lady in question was a very stout and tall person who had long p ed her fortieth year. the general, who had a predilection for solid ladies, whatever their ages, suspected a similar taste in his officers. the officers smiled respectfully. the general, delighted at having said something very amusing and biting, laughed loudly, touched his coachman's back, and saluted. the carriage rolled on. . . .

"all i am dreaming about now which seems to me so impossible and unearthly is really quite an ordinary thing," thought ryabovitch, looking at the clouds of dust racing after the general's carriage. "it's all very ordinary, and every one goes through it. . . . that general, for instance, has once been in love; now he is married and has children. captain vahter, too, is married and beloved, though the nape of his neck is very red and ugly and he has no waist. . . . salrnanov is coarse and very tatar, but he has had a love affair that has ended in marriage. . . . i am the same as every one else, and i, too, shall have the same experience as every one else, sooner or later. . . ."

and the thought that he was an ordinary person, and that his life was ordinary, delighted him and gave him courage. he pictured her and his happiness as he pleased, and put no rein on his imagination.

when the brigade reached their halting-place in the evening, and the officers were resting in their tents, ryabovitch, merzlyakov, and lobytko were sitting round a box having supper. merzlyakov ate without haste, and, as he munched deliberately, read the "vyestnik evropi," which he held on his knees. lobytko talked incessantly and kept filling up his gl with beer, and ryabovitch, whose head was confused from dreaming all day long, drank and said nothing. after three gl es he got a little drunk, felt weak, and had an irresistible desire to impart his new sen ions to his comrades.

"a strange thing happened to me at those von rabbeks'," he began, trying to put an indifferent and ironical tone into his voice. "you know i went into the billiard-room. . . ."

he began describing very minutely the incident of the kiss, and a moment later relapsed into silence. . . . in the course of that moment he had told everything, and it surprised him dreadfully to find how short a time it took him to tell it. he had imagined that he could have been telling the story of the kiss till next morning. listening to him, lobytko, who was a great liar and consequently believed no one, looked at him sceptically and laughed. merzlyakov twitched his eyebrows and, without removing his eyes from the "vyestnik evropi," said:

"that's an odd thing! how strange! . . . throws herself on a man's neck, without addressing him by name. .. . she must be some sort of hysterical neurotic."

"yes, she must," ryabovitch agreed.

"a similar thing once happened to me," said lobytko, uming a scared expression. "i was going last year to kovno. . . . i took a second-cl ticket. the train was crammed, and it was impossible to sleep. i gave the guard half a rouble; he took my luggage and led me to another compartment. . . . i lay down and covered myself with a rug. . . . it was dark, you understand. suddenly i felt some one touch me on the shoulder and breathe in my face. i made a movement with my hand and felt somebody's elbow. . . . i opened my eyes and only imagine -- a woman. black eyes, lips red as a prime salmon, nostrils breathing p ionately -- a bosom like a buffer. . . ."

"excuse me," merzlyakov interrupted calmly, "i understand about the bosom, but how could you see the lips if it was dark?"

lobytko began trying to put himself right and laughing at merzlyakov's unimaginativeness. it made ryabovitch wince. he walked away from the box, got into bed, and vowed never to confide again.

p life began. . . . the days flowed by, one very much like another. all those days ryabovitch felt, thought, and behaved as though he were in love. every morning when his orderly handed him water to wash with, and he sluiced his head with cold water, he thought there was something warm and delightful in his life.

in the evenings when his comrades began talking of love and women, he would listen, and draw up closer; and he wore the expression of a soldier when he hears the description of a battle in which he has taken part. and on the evenings when the officers, out on the spree with the setter -- lobytko -- at their head, made don juan excursions to the "suburb," and ryabovitch took part in such excursions, he always was sad, felt profoundly guilty, and inwardly begged her forgiveness. . . . in hours of leisure or on sleepless nights, when he felt moved to recall his childhood, his father and mother -- everything near and dear, in fact, he invariably thought of myestetchki, the strange horse, von rabbek, his wife who was like the empress eugnie, the dark room, the crack of light at the door. . . .

on the thirty-first of august he went back from the p, not with the whole brigade, but with only two batteries of it. he was dreaming and excited all the way, as though he were going back to his native place. he had an intense longing to see again the strange horse, the church, the insincere family of the von rabbeks, the dark room. the "inner voice," which so often deceives lovers, whispered to him for some reason that he would be sure to see her . . . and he was tortured by the questions, how he should meet her? what he would talk to her about? whether she had forgotten the kiss? if the worst e to the worst, he thought, even if he did not meet her, it would be a pleasure to him merely to go through the dark room and recall the past. . . .

towards evening there appeared on the horizon the familiar church and white granaries. ryabovitch's heart beat. . . . he did not hear the officer who was riding beside him and saying something to him, he forgot everything, and looked eagerly at the river shining in the distance, at the roof of the house, at the dovecote round which the pigeons were circling in the light of the setting sun.

when they reached the church and were listening to the billeting orders, he expected every second that a man on horseback would come round the church enclosure and invite the officers to tea, but . . . the billeting orders were read, the officers were in haste to go on to the village, and the man on horseback did not appear.

"von rabbek will hear at once from the peasants that we have come and will send for us," thought ryabovitch, as he went into the hut, unable to understand why a comrade was lighting a candle and why the orderlies were hurriedly setting samovars. . . .

a painful uneasiness took possession of him. he lay down, then got up and looked out of the window to see whether the messenger were coming. but there was no sign of him.

he lay down again, but half an hour later he got up, and, unable to restrain his uneasiness, went into the street and strode towards the church. it was dark and deserted in the square near the church. . . . three soldiers were standing silent in a row where the road began to go downhill. seeing ryabovitch, they roused themselves and saluted. he returned the salute and began to go down the familiar path.

on the further side of the river the whole sky was flooded with crimson: the moon was rising; two peasant women, talking loudly, were picking cabbage in the kitchen garden; behind the kitchen garden there were some dark huts. . . . and everything on the near side of the river was just as it had been in may: the path, the bushes, the willows overhanging the water . . . but there was no sound of the brave nightingale, and no scent of poplar and fresh gr .

reaching the garden, ryabovitch looked in at the gate. the garden was dark and still. . . . he could see nothing but the white stems of the nearest birch-trees and a little bit of the avenue; all the rest melted together into a dark blur. ryabovitch looked and listened eagerly, but after waiting for a quarter of an hour without hearing a sound or catching a glimpse of a light, he trudged back. . . .

he went down to the river. the general's bath-house and the bath-sheets on the rail of the little bridge showed white before him. . . . he went on to the bridge, stood a little, and, quite unnecessarily, touched the sheets. they felt rough and cold. he looked down at the water. . . . the river ran idly and with a faintly audible gurgle round the piles of the bath-house. the red moon was reflected near the left bank; little ripples ran over the reflection, stretching it out, breaking it into bits, and seemed trying to carry it away.

"how stupid, how stupid!" thought ryabovitch, looking at the running water. "how unintelligent it all is!"

now that he expected nothing, the incident of the kiss, his impatience, his vague hopes and disappointment, presented themselves in a clear light. it no longer seemed to him strange that he had not seen the general's messenger, and that he would never see the who had accidentally kissed him instead of some one else; on the contrary, it would have been strange if he had seen her. . . .

the water was running, he knew not where or why, just as it did in may. in may it had flowed into the great river, from the great river into the sea; then it had risen in vapour, turned into rain, and perhaps the very same water was running now before ryabovitch's eyes again. . . . what for? why?

and the whole world, the whole of life, seemed to ryabovitch an unintelligible, aimless jest. . . . and turning his eyes from the water and looking at the sky, he remembered again how fate in the person of an unknown woman had by chance caressed him, he remembered his summer dreams and fancies, and his life struck him as extraordinarily meagre, poverty-stricken, and colourless. . . .

when he went back to his hut he did not find one of his comrades. the orderly informed him that they had all gone to "general von rabbek's, who had sent a messenger on horseback to invite them. . . ."

for an instant there was a flash of joy in ryabovitch's heart, but he quenched it at once, got into bed, and in his wrath with his fate, as though to spite it, did not go to the general's.




مشاهده متن کامل ...
sight words of prospect 2
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

همانطور که میدانید که برخلاف متن زیر ،در دی وی دی که به دانش آموزان داده شده خبری از فایل های صوتی sight wordsنیست.؟؟؟؟!!!
فایلهای صوتی ولیست این کلمات را که به صورت زیپ هست یکی از همکاران تهیه کرده بفرمایید.

note that the new words and phrases are not for cl room quizzes

or translation or end-of-the-year examinations. treat this section as a

consolidation practice on pronunciation and reading

3.1 write the words on the board. ask them to look at the words and guess how

each word would be pronounced. elicit pronunciations, confirm and give

positive feedback on the correct pronunciations, and correct them if they

make mistakes.

3.2 now play the cd for sight words section, and while the words are

pronounced by the speakers, point to the same words on the board. ask them

to repeat and make sure they learn the correct pronunciation of the sight

words.

3.3 for the last round of sight word reading, f irst ask a strong student to read the

words from sight word reading in the book, then practice with an average

student, and then ask the whole cl to read the words together.

3.4 if you consider it necessary, play the cd one more time and get them to repeat

to make sure each and every student reads f luently and pronounces correctly

با تشکر از همکار ارجمندجناب حسینی از شهرستان شهریار



مشاهده متن کامل ...
air crash s07e04 head on collision sight unseen
درخواست حذف اطلاعات



21.242 بازدید air crash s07e04 head on collision sight unseen air crash s07e04 head on collision sight unseen air crash s07e04 head on collision sight


لینک های : کیفیت 180p | کیفیت 360p |



مشاهده متن کامل ...
برخی از اصطلاحات رایج در صنعت شیشه
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

acid etching

this process for the decoration of gl involves the application of hydrofluoric acid to the gl surface. hydrofluoric acid vapours or baths of hydrofluoric acid salts may be used to give gl a matt, frosted appearance (similar to that obtained by surface sandblasting), as found in lighting gl .

gl designs can be produced by coating the gl with wax and then inscribing the desired pattern through the wax layer. when applied, the acid will corrode the gl but not attack the wax-covered areas.

acid polishing

a process used in the production of cut crystal to remove the opacity of etched surfaces where decoration has been applied. items to be polished are immersed in a mixture of demineralized water, sulphuric acid and hydrofluoric acid, and then rinsed. there may be a single short immersion in a stronger solution or, alternatively, a series of immersions in a weaker solution.

acid stamping

the process of acid etching a trademark or signature into gl after it has been annealed, using a device that resembles a rubber stamp.

air t , air lock

an air-filled void, which may be of almost any shape. air t s in stems are frequently tear-shaped or spirally twisted.

alkali-borosilicate gl

a special gl used for gl -to-metal seals, particularly suitable when electrical qualities are not important.

alumina-silicate gl (1)

alumina (aluminium oxide al2o3) is added to the gl batch in the form of commonly found feldspars containing alkalis in order to help improve chemical resistance and mechanical strength, and to increase viscosity at lower temperatures.

alumina-silicate gl (2)

a special gl used for gl -to-metal seals, particularly suitable when operating temperatures of electrical components are high (up to 750°c).

annealing

under natural conditions, the surface of molten gl will cool more idly than the centre. this results in internal stresses which may cause the gl sheet or object to crack, shatter or even explode some time later.

the annealing process is designed to eliminate or limit such stresses by submitting the gl to strictly controlled cooling in a special oven known as a "lehr". inside the lehr, the gl is allowed to cool to a temperature known as the "annealing point". when the gl reaches this point, the lehr temperature is stabilized for a specific length of time (depending on the gl type, its thickness, its coefficient of expansion and the amount of residual stress required) to allow stresses present in the gl to relax. this phase is followed by a period of cooling with a pre-defined temperature gradient.

armour plate gl

laminated gl , resistant to mechanical shock, composed of at least four panes of gl and usually at least 25 mm thick.

autoclave

a strong vessel used for the lamination of gl under hugh pressure and controlled temperature conditions.

azs refractories

refractory blocks or tiles in varying proportions of alumina-zirconiasilica; initially used for areas where corrosion resistance was important but now used in most parts of the furnace.

b

banding

the application of decorative bands of enamel or precious-metal compounds, normally by machine, to containers such as tumblers, cups, cosmetics bottles, etc.

barium crown gl

barium crown gl es contain larger proportions of boron oxide and barium oxide with a relatively low sio2 content. the gl can be stabilised against devitrification and weathering by adding small amounts of substances such as aluminium oxide

batch

a term used to refer to the raw materials required to produce the desired type of gl once they have been weighed and mixed, and are ready for melting.

bending

a process used widely in the production of bowls, plates, ashtrays, etc., whereby the shaped gl article (which may be pre-printed) still in sheet form is placed on a stainless steel, sheet steel or cast iron mould coated with talc or powdered chalk. the temperature is increased until the gl sheet sinks into shape in the mould.

bevelling

the production, by abrasion, of a sloping edge on the gl sheet.

commonly used on mirror gl .

blow-and-blow process

a production process used for gl container manufacturing with forming machines. the elongated gob of molten gl formed by the gob feeder falls into the inverted parison (blank) mould. it is blown down into the mould (settle blow) before being blown from below

(counter blow) back up into the now closed mould. the inverted parison is transferred to an upright position in the blow mould where it is reheated before compressed air is introduced into the parison bubble. during blowing, a vacuum is applied through the mould to any t ped air or other gases from the bottom of the mould. a takeout mechanism then lifts the container from the mould.

blowpipe

an iron or steel tube, usually about five feet long, for blowing gl .

blowpipes have a mouthpiece at one end and are usually fitted at the other end with a metal ring that helps to retain a gather.

borosilicate gl

gl made from silica and boric oxide. such gl is highly resistant to chemical corrosion and temperature change (thermal shock) and is particularly suitable for laboratory ware (test tubes, etc.), domestic cooking ware (oven dishes, etc.), high-power lamps and other technical gl ware. it is also used when gl has to be bonded to metal and low expansion is a key characteristic.

bottle-making machine

see i.s. machines

boudin process

a gl rolling process in which gl flow is controlled by the speed of the machine and fed directly onto the rollers over a refractory sill. as the ribbon of gl p es from the forming rollers, it is supported by an air cushion. the process can be adapted in order to introduce wire mesh into the gl ribbon. (see also "pilkington double-p wired gl process" and "wired gl ).

bubbles

gaseous inclusions in the gl melt which are removed by refining (see "fining"). fining agents are introduced to encourage the formation of larger bubbles which rise more idly to the surface of the melt, attracting smaller bubbles on their way.

larger bubbles which are not removed by fining are known as "blisters", smaller ones as "seeds" and longitudinally stretched bubbles as "air-lines". bubbles in gl are generally considered as defects but may also be intentionally created and used as a form of decoration (see "air twist")

bulletproof gl

armour plate gl which is more than 60 mm thick and which resists penetration by bullets.

burners

used to heat gl in furnaces of all sizes, burners mix air (or oxygen) and gas (natural gas or liquid petroleum gases) for efficient combustion.

bushings

platinum alloy electrically-heated boxes with numerous nozzles in their bases used as furnaces for the forming of continuous gl fibre.

gl can be fed into the heated bushing either in its molten state from a forehearth (direct melt) or, alternatively, as marbles to be melted (re-melt process).

c

cast gl

gl produced by 'casting', in other words by pouring molten gl into a mould or by heating gl already contained in the mould until the gl melts and umes the shape of the mould.

centrifuging process

a relatively new method for the production of hollow ware such as borosilicate gl columns in chemical plants, funnels, television tubes and other non-rotationally symmetrical items by spinning. molten gl is fed into a steel mould which rotates at the required speed. at high speeds, the gl can ume almost cylindrical shapes. when the gl has cooled sufficiently, rotation stops and the gl is removed.

chalcogenide gl

gl with electrical conductivity characteristics made with the addition of the chalcogen elements (sulphur, selenium and tellurium).

coating

a thin layer which covers the surface of an object. coatings may be applied to gl in order to alter the appearance or performance of the product in question e.g. anti-reflective coatings applied to auto mirrors to aid vision, coatings with p ocatalytic and hydrophilic properties to make self-cleaning windows.

cold end

the name given to the stage in gl production involving processing when the gl is cold. cold end processes include grinding, engraving, cutting, etc.

conductive coating

a gl coating which is electrically conductive. conductive coatings have been used to produce frost-free windscreens, and in a range of electro-optical applications. one way of producing a conductive coating is by depositing tin salts onto the gl .

containers, defects

defects in automatically produced containers are categorized as very critical (group 1), main faults (group 2) and secondary (group 3).

group 1 defects make the container dangerous and unusable; group 2 defects make the container unusable; containers with group 1 or group 2 defects must be discarded. group 3 defects represent a lowering of the quality of the container but do not affect the functionality of the container.

containers, enameling

the application of enamel as a means of applying decoration and/or labeling to containers. enamel patterning or labeling is typically applied by automated silk screening; all-over color can be applied by spraying. see also enamel

containers, forming

the process of turning a gob of molten gl into a hollow container was first mechanized towards the end of the 19th century. fully automatic machines were developed during the first quarter of the 20th century, principally in the usa, using the blow-and-blow process for narrow-neck ware and the press-and-blow process for wide-neck ware. the landmarks in the development of automatic forming of containers were the gob feeder in 1923, which automated delivery of consistently sized gobs of gl , and the individual section bottle making machine in 1925. the equipment in use today is descended from these innovations.

see also gob feeder, press-and-blow, blow-and-blow, i.s. machine, mould.

containers, inspection

inspection of gl containers includes the following: gauging or measuring; inspection for specific faults; proof testing.

gauging or measuring checks: height, diameter and verticality; choke (inner and outer dimension of the neck); dips and saddles in the finish area (mouth/seal of the container); wall thickness.

inspection for specific faults: cracks (also known as checks); stones; foreign material (tramps); spikes; birdswings; thin spots.

proof testing: simulated impact; vertical load.

crown gl

1. window gl blown into a crown or hollow globe that is flattened and cut before use. this is produced by reheating and spinning out a bowl-shaped piece of gl (bullion) that causes the gl to extend into a flat disk by centrifugal force. the gl is then cut into the size required

2. one of the two principal types of optical gl used in the production of compound lenses. the crown gl , which is an alkali-lime silicate optical gl , has a low index of refraction and low dispersion (its abbe v-value is larger than 50 or 55, depending on its index).

cutting

the technique whereby gl is removed from the surface of an object by grinding it with a rotating wheel made of stone, wood, or metal, and an abrasive suspended in liquid.

cylinder gl

a technique for producing sheet gl dating from the 11th century.

by blowing a hollow gl sphere and swinging it vertically, gravity pulls the gl into a cylindrical "pod" measuring up to 3 metres long, with a width of up to 45 cm. while still , the ends of the pod are cut off and the resulting cylinder cut lengthways and laid flat.

d

dalle gl

coloured gl produced in pot furnaces and cast in moulds to form plates in thicknesses of approximately 25 cms. dalle gl ("dalle" is french for "tile") is used in church and decorative glazing, as well as for furnishings such as door handles.

danner process

a widely used method for the production of gl tubing. the process was developed by an american engineer, edward danner, in 1912.

in the danner process, the gl flow falls onto a rotating, slightly downward pointing mandrel. air is blown down a shaft through the middle of the mandrel, thus creating a hollow space in the gl as it is drawn off the end of the mandrel by a tractor mechanism. the diameter and thickness of the gl tubing can be controlled by regulating the strength of the air flow through the mandrel and the speed of the drawing machine.

day tank

a gl -containing vessel made from refractory blocks mainly used for the melting of batch for coloured gl , crystal gl and soft special gl es. day tanks are refilled with batch daily, with melting usually done at night and gl production the following day. used for producing larger quantities of gl than is possible with pot furnaces (see "pot"). the type of gl to be melted can be changed at short notice.

doghouse

the name used to describe the batch feeding compartment within the furnace. the molten gl is covered with the batch material as it flows through the compartment.

dolomite

a raw material compound (caco3 + mgco3) of calcium carbonate and magnesium oxide, which helps lower the melting temperature in the production of flat gl .

domestic ware

the collective term for gl containers used in the home (oven dishes, bowls, jars, etc.).

drawn gl

a process for making sheet gl by drawing the molten gl as a sheet directly from the furnace. the thickness of the gl is determined by the drawing rate.

e

edging

the shaping or finishing of the edges o l surface, usually by grinding with an abrasive wheel.

electrode

a metal conductor through which electricity enters or leaves an electrolyte, gas, vacuum, etc.).

embossing

carving or moulding in relief. the forming or application of figures or patterns to an object so that they stand out from the surface.

enamel

a vitreous substance made of finely powdered gl colored with metallic oxide and suspended in an oily medium for ease of application with a brush. the medium burns away during firing in a low-temperature muffle kiln (about 965-1300°f or 500-700°c).

sometimes, several rings are required to fuse the different colors of an elaborately enameled object.

engraving

the production of a design in gl by cutting into the gl surface.

engraving methods include copper wheel engraving, diamond or tungsten point engraving, acid etching and sand blasting.

extrusion

a process for the production of continuous strips or rods of material such as gl and also the butyl used in the sealing of insulating gl units. the material, molten in the case of gl , is forced through a die and cut to the required length.

f

feeder

a mechanism mounted on the casing of the forehearth which delivers the gl in gobs. the rate of flow of the molten gl is regulated by the use of different sized orifices in the feeder spout and by a plunger which pushes the gl through the orifice. shears for the cutting of the gl flow into gobs are operated through the same system as that of the plunger to ensure constant gob size.

feldspar

also known as "felspar". any o roup of aluminium silicates of pot ium, sodium, or calcium. used in the batch as a means of adding alumina to the molten gl .

fibre gl

very fine strands of gl (normally with a high boric oxide and content) used in the form of gl wool for insulation, gl fibre for matting, etc., and also for the reinforcement of plastics.

the principal production process involves blowing jets of steam or air onto molten gl as it emerges from a tank furnace through very small diameter nozzles.

fining

the process by which gaseous inclusions are removed from the gl melt after all batch materials have been added. fining agents induce the formation of large bubbles which collect smaller bubbles as they rise to the surface.

firing

the process of bringing a gl furnace up to its operational temperature and then maintaining the temperature.

flat gl

all types of gl (rolled, float, plate, etc.) produced in a flat form, regardless of the method of production.

float process

a method for the production of high-quality sheet gl whereby a ribbon of molten gl is fed across a bath of heated liquid, usually molten tin, in a carefully controlled atmosphere. the process was developed by the uk firm pilkington brothers.

flue

a duct or channel for conveying heat or exhaust gases.

flux

a substance that lowers the melting temperature of another substance. for example, a flux is added to the batch in order to facilitate the fusing of the silica. fluxes are also added to enamels in order to lower their fusion point to below that of the gl body to which they are to be applied. potash and soda are fluxes.

foam gl

gl with a high bubble content, produced by adding additional gases or gas forming substances to the gl melt. the resulting gl has a very low density but a high compressive strength and dimensional stability, making it particularly suitable for thermally and acoustically insulating construction materials.

forehearth

a refractory tank whose function is to receive gl from the furnace, reduce its temperature to the desired level and discharge it to the feeder mechanism at a uniform temperature. the forehearth usually consists of two sections: a cooling section with burners and cooling ducts which allow the cooling process to be regulated, and a conditioning (equalising) section generally equipped only with burners which ensure uniform temperature distribution through the gl flow as it enters the feeder.

founding

the initial phase of melting batch. for many modern gl es, the materials must be heated to a temperature of about 2450°f 1400°c). this is followed by a maturing period, during which the molten gl cools to a working temperature of about 2000°f (1100°c).

frosting

the process of giving a gl surface a matt finish, thus reducing transparency. frosting may be by means of acid treatment (pouring hydrofluoric acid onto the gl ), sandblasting, special glue application and subsequent removal, or mechanical etching with a grinding wheel.

furnace

an enclosed structure for the production and application of heat. in gl making, furnaces are used for melting the batch, maintaining pots of gl in a molted state, and reheating partly formed objects at the glory hole.

furnace, pot

a pot furnace consists of a melting chamber lined with refractory brick, a vaulted roof or "crown" of silica brick, and external walls made of insulating brick. below the upper chamber in which there may be as many as twelve melting pots, there is a lower section for the pre-heating of the fuel gas.

pot furnaces are used today in the manufacture of mouth-blown gl objects and special gl es.

furnace, tank

see tank.

fusing

(1) the process of founding or melting the batch; (2) heating pieces of gl in a kiln or furnace until they bond (see casting and kiln forming); (3) heating enameled gl es until the enamel bonds with the surface of the object.

fusing gl -to-gl

gl es of different compositions can be fused together for decorative purposes and also in the sealing of electrical, medical and industrial components. the fusion temperature for soda-lime gl es is generally between 760°c and 820°c. particular attention must be paid to the thermal expansion coefficients of different gl types.

g

gl

a homogeneous material with a random, liquidlike (non-crystalline) molecular structure. the manufacturing process requires that the raw materials be heated to a temperature sufficient to produce a completely used melt, which, when cooled idly, becomes rigid without crystallizing.

gl -ceramics

materials produced from gl which have a polycrystalline structure.

most offer a ntages of low thermal expansion, making them suitable for uses such as cookware. others have high physical strength and can be machined like metals.

glory hole

a hole in the side o l furnace, used to reheat gl that is being fashioned or decorated. the glory hole is also used to fire-polish cast gl to remove imperfections remaining from the mould.

gob

a drop of still molten gl formed by the cutting of the stream of gl as it flows from the forehearth through a feeder into a spout/orifice of variable diameter; the greater the diameter, the larger the gob. the gobs are fed into the forming machine to be moulded into bottles and other gl objects.

gob feeder

a machine mounted at the end of the forehearth that dispenses gobs of molten gl of consistent size and weight for forming into gl containers. from the spout of the forehearth the molten gl flow out through an orifice, the size of which influences the flow rate of the gl . a cylindrical plunger moves up and down to accelerate or slow the flow of molten gl through the orifice. linked to the motion of the plunger is a shear that cuts the molten gl into gobs at the correct point in relation to the plunger action. the gobs are then fed down chutes to the forming machine.

grinding

the removal of gl with abrasives or abrasive (grinding) wheels in order to shape, polish or otherwise finish both flat and hollow gl .

grinding processes include milling, sawing, edging and drilling.

h

heat resistant gl

gl which has a low coefficient of expansion and which is therefore less liable to thermal shock. borosilicate gl is the most common type of heat resistant gl .

heating up

raising the temperature within the furnace to the required operating temperature under strictly controlled conditions, ensuring the homogenous expansion of refractory materials.

hollow ware

made generally of soda-lime gl , but also of crystal, lead crystal and special gl es, hollow ware includes a wide variety of containers and receptacles: container gl (bottles, jars, medical and packaging gl ), tableware (drinking gl es, bowls, etc.), construction hollow ware (gl building blocks, etc.), medico-technical gl ware (laboratory equipment, tubing, etc.) and lighting gl (lamps, bulbs, etc.).

spot

inside the furnace, the spot is that area on the surface of the melt which has reached the maximum temperature (at which batch reactions have been completed and dissolved gases have been reduced to acceptable levels). also known as the "spring" or "source".

i

i.s. machine

i.s. (independent/individual section) container forming machines are made up of individual but identical sections placed side by side in line. each section comprises an arran ent of mechanisms with gears enabling the sections to be started or stopped independently of the others, making the i.s. machine more flexible than continuous- or intermittent-motion rotary machines.

infrared lamp

an incandescent lamp working at a low filament temperature and consequently emitting relatively high amounts of infrared radiation.

infrared bulbs are usually made of borosilicate gl with molybdenum or tungsten wires.

inleakage

the unwanted entry of air into a furnace through expansion-created gaps in the furnace superstructure or through other areas such as burner ports, regenerators and exhaust flues. inleakage can result in decreased efficiency and increased fuel costs.

k

kiln

an oven used to process a substance by burning, drying, or heating.

in contemporary gl working kilns are used to fuse enamel and for kilnforming processes such as slumping.

kiln forming

the process of fusing or shaping gl (usually in or over a mould) by heating it in a kiln.

l

laminated gl

laminated (or compound) gl consists of two or more sheets of gl with one or more viscous plastic layers "sandwiched" between the gl panes. the solid joining of the gl es takes place in a pressurised vessel called an autoclave. in the autoclave, under simultaneous heating of the already processed layers of gl and special plastic, lamination occurs.

when laminated safety gl breaks, the pieces remain attached to the internal plastic layer and the gl remains transparent.

lathes

two distinct types of lathe exist, although both basically consist of a horizontal shaft rotated by a motor. the first type uses the shaft to spin an abrasive wheel (often at high speed) in order to cut, score or polish gl ; the second type uses the shaft to rotate a piece of gl so that it can be heated and manipulated.

lead crystal

the type of gl produced when lime in the batch is replaced by lead oxide. the omposition of lead crystal is 54-65% silicon dioxide (sio2), 18-38% lead oxide (pbo), 13-15% soda (na2o) or potash (k2o), and other oxides. such gl has a high refractive index and is particularly suited for decoration by cutting.

lehr

a special type of oven or kiln used specifically for annealing gl (see "annealing"). in industrial production, it usually has a moving belt to carry the gl through at controlled speeds, and is divided into different areas each with its own heat source, making it possible to carefully regulate the temperature gradient to which the gl is submitted.

in smaller workshops, the lehr may be a simple kiln with a shelf for the gl ware rather than a moving belt, and with electronic controls to programme the temperature cycle required.

libbey-owens process

a method for the production of sheet gl by means of a continuous drawing process. devised by the american, colburn, and further developed with the support of the us gl maker libbey-owens, the process was patented in 1905, and was first used for commercial production in 1917.

the gl ribbon is drawn vertically from the tank for about 70 cm by a metal "bait" before being bent over a roller into the horizontal plane ready for cutting and annealing. the drawing speed with the libbey-owens process is twice that of the fourcault process.

limestone

a sedimentary rock composed mainly of calcium carbonate which is added to the batch to provide calcium oxide.

low emissivity on low-e gl

commonly known as "low-e" gl and often used in double and triple glazing units, this window gl has a special thin-film metallic or oxide coating which allows the p age of short-wave solar energy into a building but prevents long-wave energy produced by heating systems and lighting from escaping outside. low-e gl thus allows light to enter while also providing thermal insulation.

m

melt

the fluid gl produced by melting a batch of raw materials.

mirror

polished gl with a reflective coating of silver deposited on the back.

mixed feed

the transfer of the various ingredients of the batch into the mixer by means of hoists, buckets and conveyor systems.

mould

a form, normally made of wood or metal, used for shaping and/or decorating molten gl . some moulds (e.g., dip moulds impart a pattern to the parison, which is then withdrawn, and blown and tooled to the desired shape and size; other moulds are used to give the object its final form, with or without decoration.

mould, block

a particular type of mould produced in a single piece of cast iron, hollowed into a specific shape using a cold-deformation process.

used in the production of pressed gl hollow ware.

mould, dip

a cylindrical, one-piece mould that is open at the top so that the gather can be dipped into it and then inflated.

mould, optic

an open mould with a patterned interior in which a parison of gl is inserted, then inflated to decorate the surface.

muffle kiln

a low-temperature kiln for refiring gl to fuse enamel, fix gilding, and produce luster. see kiln.

n

narrow-neck ware

gl containers, such as bottles, whose opening is tapered and of smaller diameter than the body of the vessel.

neck-ring

in the production of gl containers, the tool coupled with the blank mould (parison) which gives the shape to the neck of the container.

during the shaping process in the is machine, the neck ring transports the gl container into the blow mould (or finishing mould).

o

owens-illinois coating techniques

techniques developed by the owens illinois company for the surface treatment of gl containers. the two main types are stearate- and polyethylene-based.

stearate treatment using polyoxyethylene monostearate gives good lubricity and reduced friction. it is water-soluble and not waterrepellent, facilitating the application of labels. stearic acid is of vegetable origin, making this type of coating also suitable for her foods. however, since the stearate is destroyed by firing or any subsequent processing, the treatment needs to be repeated after the firing of applied colour labels.

polyethylene coatings are deposited from a water emulsion but are not water-soluble and can thus withstand washing and pasteurising. although they are slightly water-repellent, most glues used ensure isfactory adhesion. polyethylene coatings are transparent and give high lustre and lubricity to the gl surface.

p

pellet

a small block of compressed matter. pre-weighed and mixed batch materials are available in the form of pellets.

pelletising

the preparation of materials, e.g. batch ingredients, in pellet form (see also "pellet").

phial

see "vial".

philips process

a variation of the schuller up-draw process (patented in germany in 1931) for the mechanical manufacture of gl tubing and rod.

plate gl

flat gl made by the casting or rolling of molten gl which is then mechanically ground and polished to produce a smooth and transparent sheet.

plunger

a tool used in the production of gl containers during the first stage of shape forming in the is machine. the task of the plunger is to help give the gl container its final shape inside the parison (or blank mould).

pot

a fire clay container placed in the furnace in which the batch of gl ingredients is fused, and kept molten. the gl worker gathers directly from the pot.

pressed gl

gl ware formed by placing a blob of molten gl in a metal mould, then pressing it with a metal plunger or "follower" to form the inside shape. the resultant piece, termed "mould-pressed," has an interior form independent of the exterior, in contrast to mouldblown gl , whose interior corresponds to the outer form. the process of pressing gl was first mechanized in the united states between 1820 and 1830.

preston test

the means of verifying the bursting strength o l container during automatic inspection.

push-up

the base o l bottle (particularly of a wine bottle) which is pushed upwards inside the bottle during the forming process.

pyrometer

an instrument used to measure the temperature inside the furnace or kiln.

r

raw materials, for basic refractories

basic refractories are made up of various mixes of periclase (magnesium oxide), chromite (chrome ore) and forsterite (olivine).

bonding agents can also be added so that refractories can be shaped.

redox

the abbreviated form of "reduction-oxidation". the term "redox equilibria" is used to refer to the balance between reduction and oxidation in the gl furnace.

redox equilibra

used to refer to the balance between reduction and oxidation in the gl furnace.

refining

refining ensures that a homogenous gl is produced during founding by eliminating bubbles (see also "bubbles"). refining is achieved through the action of certain chemicals (refining agents) added to the batch recipe and also by keeping the gl above the liquidus temperature so that the bubbles rise to the surface.

refractive index

a standard of measurement used particularly to establish the qualities of optical gl . the index is the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence of a ray of light to the sine of the angle of refraction (the change in direction when a ray of light p es from one medium to another) by the gl . the second medium normally used to establish the index is a vacuum.

refractories

material capable of withstanding extremely high temperatures and thus used in furnaces for industries such as gl and steel where raw materials have to be heated to a molten form.

regenerative heating

as in recuperative heating (see "recuperative heating"), waste heat from the furnace is used to pre-heat combustion air.

regenerative heating is a cyclic process whereby exhaust gases p over and thus heat up refractory blocks in one of two pre-heating chambers. once the first chamber has been heated up, exhaust gases are diverted to heat the second chamber, while cold combustion gas is introduced into the first chamber to be pre-heated by the refractory blocks. continuous reversal of this process provides a permanent flow of pre-heated gas for combustion.

rolled gl

rolled (or cast) gl is a translucent gl with 50-80% light transmission, depending on its thickness and type of surface. it is used where transparency of the gl sheet is not important or not desired.

to produce rolled gl , molten gl pours from the melting tank over a refractory barrier (the "weir") and onto the machine slab where it flows under a refractory gate (the "tweel"), which regulates the volume of gl , and then between two water-cooled rollers. the distance between the rollers determines the thickness of the gl .

s

safety gl

gl which does not disintegrate into sharp and potentially dangerous splinters when it is broken. safety gl may be produced by laminating (see "laminated gl ") or by tempering (see "tempering").

sand

the most common form of silica used in making gl . it is collected from the seashore or, preferably, from deposits that have fewer impurities. for most present-day gl making, sand must have a low iron content. before being used in a batch, it is thoroughly washed, heated to remove carbonaceous matter, and screened to obtain uniformly small grains.

screen printing

a process for the decoration of gl whereby coloured ink is forced by a flexible "squeegee" through a fine-mesh screen, or "mask", (traditionally made of silk, now also made of nylon, polyester and stainless steel) onto the gl surface. a separate mask is used for the application of each colour.

considerable automation of the process has been developed, thus allowing extremely high printing speeds for even complex designs.

sheet gl processes

see the definitions for the following processes, listed in order from oldest to most recent: "crown gl " (definition 1), "cylinder gl ", "drawn gl ", "fourcault process", "libbey-owens process", "pittsburgh process", "float process". the float process is now the standard method of producing sheet gl world-wide.

silica

silicon dioxide, a mixture that is the main ingredient of gl . the most common form of silica used in gl making has always been sand.

soda

sodium carbonate. soda (or alternatively potash) is commonly used as the alkali ingredient of gl . it serves as a flux to reduce the fusion point of the silica when the batch is melted.

soda ash

sodium carbonate (na2co3), or 'soda ash', is the main source of sodium oxide (na2o), or 'soda'. this anhydrous, white powder is added to the gl batch, with sodium oxide becoming part of the gl and carbon dioxide being released.

soda-lime gl

the most common type of industrially produced gl . a typical soda-lime gl is composed of silica (71-75%), soda (12-16%) and lime (10-15%), plus small amounts of other materials to provide particular properties such as colour.

spinning, hollow ware

a relatively new method for the centrifugal production of hollow ware such as borosilicate gl columns in chemical plants, funnels, television tubes and other non-rotationally symmetrical items. molten gl is fed into a steel mould which rotates at the required speed. at high speeds, the gl can ume almost cylindrical shapes. when the gl has cooled sufficiently, rotation stops and the gl is removed.

staple fibre

short lengths of gl fibre, usually u-shaped, which intertwine and are used, in particular, to create insulation materials.

stemware

the collective term given to drinking gl es whose body is connected to the base by a thinner column of gl .

-blow process

a process used for gl container manufacturing with forming machines. gl is ed from the tank of molten gl into the parison mould and then cut by shears. a plunger inside the mould produces a hollow space in the gl which is then enlarged by blowing. following this initial blow, and then reheating, the parison is transferred to the finishing mould for the finishing blow.

suction cup

a semi-spherical cup of flexible material such as rubber. by pressing the cup onto a gl surface and removing air from inside the cup, the vacuum thus created holds the cup and gl together. suction cups are used in both the manual and automatic handling and conveyance of gl .

t

tank

a large receptacle constructed in a furnace for melting the batch. tanks replaced pots in larger gl factories in the 19th centry.

tempering

see toughening

thermal conductivity

the p age of heat through a material. insulation materials are defined as having 'low' thermal conductivity whereas metallic materials generally have 'high' thermal conductivity.

thermal shock testing

essing the effects on a material of id temperature change. in gl , the shock may derive from the external surface of gl expanding or contracting more idly than the interior surface as a result of heating or cooling. any such difference may lead to cracking or shattering.

thermocouple

a pair of different metals in contact at a point, generating a thermo-electric voltage which can serve as a measure of temperature.

the wires are encased in a protective sheath that can be introduced as a probe into the gl furnace or kiln.

toughening

special process of solidification o l sheet in order to make it particularly resistant to breakages. the process may be physical (thermal) or chemical. in the former, the gl sheet is heated to a temperature just below its softening point and then immediately cooled by special jets of cold-air. these harden the surface of the gl , giving the inside more time to cool. this allows the external layer to crystallize into a wider lattice while the inside solidifies with greater compression than in the crystal lattice. the result is a sheet of gl which is two or three times stronger than untempered gl and which, upon breakage, shatters into tiny pieces with blunt edges (the most common applications are for automotive gl ).

the chemical process, on the other hand, is based on the so-called ion-stuffing technique. different chemical elements possess different ionic radii and therefore different densities. hence, if gl containing sodium is cooled slowly in a salt bath of molten pot ium, the sodium ions will migrate from the gl to the salt, while the pot ium ions will move to the surface of the gl where, due to their wider radium, they create a denser and therefore stronger surface layer (of no less than 0.1 mm).

gl sheets which have been chemically tempered are five to eight times stronger than those which have not undergone any tempering process.

tube-drawing process

see danner process

tubing

hollow rods of gl used especially in the production of laboratory/medical equipment (ampoules, vials, etc.) and fluorescent lighting.

v

vapour deposition of thin fims

the term covers a wide range of techniques for applying a thin film on the surface of the gl to change its technical or aesthetic properties e.g. scratch resistance, solar control. the methods employed to deposit the film include spraying onto gl , conden ion in a vacuum and evaporation of the film material by heating.

vello process

a drawing process used for the production of gl tubing. gl from the furnace forehearth flows down through an orifice (ring) within which is a rotating conical-ended shaft (or mandrel) over and around which the gl flows. the tube-shaped gl is pulled from the end of the shaft by a tractor machine and turned through 90° into a horizontal position ready for cutting.

venturi tubes

short pieces of narrow tube between wider sections of tube, used for exerting suction or measuring flow rates and invented by the italian physicist g. b. venturi, who died in 1822.

vial

a small cylindrical gl vessel especially for holding liquid medicines.

viscosity

the quality or state of being viscous; the physical property of a liquid or semi-liquid that enables it to develop and maintain a certain amount of shearing stress dependent upon the velocity of flow and then to offer continued resistance to flow.

w

waste gas analysis

gases emitted by the melt in the furnace can be analysed either in the furnace itself (in order to ess melting efficiency, for example) or as they are discharged from the furnace stack (above all, for pollution control purposes).

furnace gas testing may be performed with or equipment (gases are absorbed selectively as they p through a series of specific solvents) or by means of instrumental analysis. paramagnetic detection may be used for oxygen analysis, and infrared absorption for carbon dioxide analysis. m spectrometry or gas chromatog hy are also used to analyse gas mixtures.

waste-heat recovery

an economy measure whereby the heat of exhaust gases is used in a cyclic process to pre-heat combustion air and/or fuel-gas. (see "regenerative heating").

weathering

changes on the surface of gl caused by chemical reaction with the environment. weathering usually involves the leaching of alkali from the gl by water, leaving behind siliceous weathering products that are often laminar.

wired gl

flat rolled gl reinforced with wire mesh and used especially for gl doors and roofing to prevent objects from smashing through the gl and also to hold pieces of broken gl together. by holding the gl together, it can also protect against break-in and the spreading of fire.

wired gl is produced by continuously feeding wire mesh from a roller into the molten gl ribbon just before it undergoes cooling.



مشاهده متن کامل ...
20+ best wordpress food, recipe, cooking and restaurant themes
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

20+ best wordpress food, recipe, cooking and restaurant themes

most poular
wordpress themes for food, recipes, cooking and restaurant are used to create a cake like a website. just use them and share your recipes on the internet.

with these amazing wordpress foods, recipe, cooking and restaurant themes, you can create an online food ordering service, share food recipes and cooking tips and create online restaurant to sell your items.

following is a list of top wordpress themes for restaurant, cooking and food & recipe type websites.

also check useful wordpress themes collections:

sweet cake – responsive wordpress theme

sweet cake - responsive wordpress theme - themeforest previewer 2013-10-12 15-17-07

the g hic is very sweet and creative, is ideal for bakeries, ice cream shops, restaurants and cake designers but if you want you can change the colors to adapt the theme for all activities. sweet cake is a one page responsive html5 css3 theme for wordpress perfect for your business.

the kitchen table: responsive recipes wp theme

the kitchen table responsive recipes wp theme

the kitchen table is a super simple recipes theme for wordpress. using built-in features of wordpress, the kitchen table is super easy to manage and control using the theme customizer.

koyorest – responsive retina wordpress theme

koyorest just another osey demo sites site

koyorest is a responsive one and multi page wordpress theme for cafes and restaurants.

iron bull restaurant wordpress theme

iron bull responsive restaurant template 2013-10-12 15-21-28

iron bull restaurant wordpress theme is a premium responsive wordpress restaurant theme. customize this anyway you like. this included google maps, a sticky navigation with scrollspy. it also includes menus that have prices and calorie counts.

eldar – responsive and retina multi-purpose theme

eldar example 1 - restaurant

eldar is responsive retina ready one+multi page wordpress theme for creative and beautiful restaurants, els, weddings, creative agencies and etc. unlimited colors, a lot of short-codes and features!

savory – responsive restaurant wordpress theme

savory 2013-10-12 15-24-51

savory responsive restaurant wordpress theme comes bundled with the retail menu cards plugin, allowing you to easily create menus using an interface you’re already familiar with. it is a responsive wordpress theme for restaurants, diners, bars, pizzerias, coffee shops, etc.

lamonte – modern restaurant wordpress theme

lamonte

lamonte modern restaurant wordpress theme is powered by klasik framework. please and install klasik framework first then install this theme. it is a modern restaurant wordpress theme. this theme suitable for restaurant, food, cafe, business and portfolio sites.

cafeteria responsive wordpress theme

cafeteria responsive wordpress theme

most poular
template for people, who’s going to create a cafeteria web site, or a restaurant web site, or other types (bistro, bar, fast food, cafeteria etc).

tasty crunch – food recipe and restaurant theme

tasty crunch restaurant wordpress theme 2013-10-12 15-28-16

tasty crunch is a wordpress theme specially designed for food recipe and restaurant websites. this template is easy to modify and ready to be up and running out of the box.

forkbite – food recipe and restaurant theme

forkbite - food recipe and restaurant theme - themeforest previewer 2013-10-12 15-29-39

forkbite is a wordpress theme specially designed for food recipe and restaurant websites. this template is easy to modify and ready to be up and running out of the box. the psd files included have been customized to allow fast skinning.

taste of japan – restaurant / food wordpress theme

taste of japan - restaurant food wordpress them - themeforest previewer 2013-10-12 15-30-54

taste of japan cl y and tasty wordpress template perfect for presentation of your restaurant, pubs, bars, wineries and other companies offering foods and drinks. each page has unique layout created to most poular
display data in well organized and visually attractive way.

delicieux – restaurant wordpress theme

delicieux - restaurant wordpress theme - themeforest previewer 2013-10-12 15-32-17

delicieux restaurant wordpress theme is exactly restaurant website should be. this theme also comes with super extensive admin panel. it has tons of features. delicieux is a super premium theme for retail/restaurant. it comes with very nice and friendly design.

a ah – modern culinary wordpress themes

a ah - modern culinary wordpress themes - themeforest previewer 2013-10-12 15-33-17

a ah is clean, simple and fresh wordpress theme. designed specifically to meet to many kinds of business projects. responsive design for tablet and mobile browser. compatible with the newest wordpress version.

delicioso wordpress recipe theme

delicioso

delicioso is a beautiful recipe theme for wordpress. it offers the user an easy way to create a recipe site and includes a bespoke delicious design, custom widgets, unlimited sidebars, a theme options panel and more!

ristorante responsive restaurant wordpress theme

ristorante responsive restaurant wordpress theme - themeforest previewer 2013-10-12 15-35-34

ristorante is very modern specialized wordpress theme for restaurants, bars and cafes. fullscreen design with fullscreen slider allows you to show nice restaurant premises or tasty food.

ingredients – a fresh recipe wordpress theme

ingredients - a fresh recipe wordpress theme - themeforest previewer 2013-10-12 15-36-42

ingredients is fresh looking wordpress theme made especially for people like you wanting to showcase your delicious recipes with friends and everyone on the web!

food recipes – wordpress theme

food recipes theme 2013-10-12 15-38-10

food recipes wordpress theme is perfect for professional chefs and cooking experts. food recipe wordpress theme makes it very easy to share cooking knowledge with complete information and videos support. it is a feature rich and beautifully designed wordpress theme for recipes websites.

cookingpress – recipe & food wordpress theme

cookingpress - recipe wordpress theme 2013-10-12 15-39-39

cookingpress is a wordpress theme for foodies. this recipe theme will let you share all your recipes and cooking tips with wide audience. it’s one of the first wordpress recipe themes with support for google recipe view.

wordpress foodme restaurant business theme

wordpress foodme restaurant theme 2013-10-12 15-41-09

elegant and minimal theme for your restaurant business.
adabtable layout for any kind of business website
step by step demo contents setup.
very simple theme options thanks to our new pk2011 framework.
20 skins (10 light and 10 dark).
2 css layouts: centered or left aligned contents.
full screen background images for any content.

palazzo di sole – wordpress theme

palazzo di sole - wordpress theme - themeforest previewer 2013-10-12 15-42-05

clear code and perfectly organized in sets psd files make everything clear and easy to find. palazzo di sole is great wordpress template excellent for restaurant, bar, pub or bistro. this template contains home page, general inner page, blog page and gallery page.

gourmet – restaurant bar el wordpress theme

gourmet a responsive restaurant el bar wordpress theme

gourmet is a recipe & food blog wordpress theme, which makes it easy for you to share your recipes with the custom recipe options built in to this theme.

bar + grill: wp for restaurants & local businesses

bar

bar + grill is a responsive wordpress restaurant theme first and foremost.



مشاهده متن کامل ...
20+ best wordpress food, recipe, cooking and restaurant themes
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

20+ best wordpress food, recipe, cooking and restaurant themes

most poular
wordpress themes for food, recipes, cooking and restaurant are used to create a cake like a website. just use them and share your recipes on the internet.

with these amazing wordpress foods, recipe, cooking and restaurant themes, you can create an online food ordering service, share food recipes and cooking tips and create online restaurant to sell your items.

following is a list of top wordpress themes for restaurant, cooking and food & recipe type websites.

also check useful wordpress themes collections:

sweet cake – responsive wordpress theme

sweet cake - responsive wordpress theme - themeforest previewer 2013-10-12 15-17-07

the g hic is very sweet and creative, is ideal for bakeries, ice cream shops, restaurants and cake designers but if you want you can change the colors to adapt the theme for all activities. sweet cake is a one page responsive html5 css3 theme for wordpress perfect for your business.

the kitchen table: responsive recipes wp theme

the kitchen table responsive recipes wp theme

the kitchen table is a super simple recipes theme for wordpress. using built-in features of wordpress, the kitchen table is super easy to manage and control using the theme customizer.

koyorest – responsive retina wordpress theme

koyorest just another osey demo sites site

koyorest is a responsive one and multi page wordpress theme for cafes and restaurants.

iron bull restaurant wordpress theme

iron bull responsive restaurant template 2013-10-12 15-21-28

iron bull restaurant wordpress theme is a premium responsive wordpress restaurant theme. customize this anyway you like. this included google maps, a sticky navigation with scrollspy. it also includes menus that have prices and calorie counts.

eldar – responsive and retina multi-purpose theme

eldar example 1 - restaurant

eldar is responsive retina ready one+multi page wordpress theme for creative and beautiful restaurants, els, weddings, creative agencies and etc. unlimited colors, a lot of short-codes and features!

savory – responsive restaurant wordpress theme

savory 2013-10-12 15-24-51

savory responsive restaurant wordpress theme comes bundled with the retail menu cards plugin, allowing you to easily create menus using an interface you’re already familiar with. it is a responsive wordpress theme for restaurants, diners, bars, pizzerias, coffee shops, etc.

lamonte – modern restaurant wordpress theme

lamonte

lamonte modern restaurant wordpress theme is powered by klasik framework. please and install klasik framework first then install this theme. it is a modern restaurant wordpress theme. this theme suitable for restaurant, food, cafe, business and portfolio sites.

cafeteria responsive wordpress theme

cafeteria responsive wordpress theme

most poular
template for people, who’s going to create a cafeteria web site, or a restaurant web site, or other types (bistro, bar, fast food, cafeteria etc).

tasty crunch – food recipe and restaurant theme

tasty crunch restaurant wordpress theme 2013-10-12 15-28-16

tasty crunch is a wordpress theme specially designed for food recipe and restaurant websites. this template is easy to modify and ready to be up and running out of the box.

forkbite – food recipe and restaurant theme

forkbite - food recipe and restaurant theme - themeforest previewer 2013-10-12 15-29-39

forkbite is a wordpress theme specially designed for food recipe and restaurant websites. this template is easy to modify and ready to be up and running out of the box. the psd files included have been customized to allow fast skinning.

taste of japan – restaurant / food wordpress theme

taste of japan - restaurant food wordpress them - themeforest previewer 2013-10-12 15-30-54

taste of japan cl y and tasty wordpress template perfect for presentation of your restaurant, pubs, bars, wineries and other companies offering foods and drinks. each page has unique layout created to most poular
display data in well organized and visually attractive way.

delicieux – restaurant wordpress theme

delicieux - restaurant wordpress theme - themeforest previewer 2013-10-12 15-32-17

delicieux restaurant wordpress theme is exactly restaurant website should be. this theme also comes with super extensive admin panel. it has tons of features. delicieux is a super premium theme for retail/restaurant. it comes with very nice and friendly design.

a ah – modern culinary wordpress themes

a ah - modern culinary wordpress themes - themeforest previewer 2013-10-12 15-33-17

a ah is clean, simple and fresh wordpress theme. designed specifically to meet to many kinds of business projects. responsive design for tablet and mobile browser. compatible with the newest wordpress version.

delicioso wordpress recipe theme

delicioso

delicioso is a beautiful recipe theme for wordpress. it offers the user an easy way to create a recipe site and includes a bespoke delicious design, custom widgets, unlimited sidebars, a theme options panel and more!

ristorante responsive restaurant wordpress theme

ristorante responsive restaurant wordpress theme - themeforest previewer 2013-10-12 15-35-34

ristorante is very modern specialized wordpress theme for restaurants, bars and cafes. fullscreen design with fullscreen slider allows you to show nice restaurant premises or tasty food.

ingredients – a fresh recipe wordpress theme

ingredients - a fresh recipe wordpress theme - themeforest previewer 2013-10-12 15-36-42

ingredients is fresh looking wordpress theme made especially for people like you wanting to showcase your delicious recipes with friends and everyone on the web!

food recipes – wordpress theme

food recipes theme 2013-10-12 15-38-10

food recipes wordpress theme is perfect for professional chefs and cooking experts. food recipe wordpress theme makes it very easy to share cooking knowledge with complete information and videos support. it is a feature rich and beautifully designed wordpress theme for recipes websites.

cookingpress – recipe & food wordpress theme

cookingpress - recipe wordpress theme 2013-10-12 15-39-39

cookingpress is a wordpress theme for foodies. this recipe theme will let you share all your recipes and cooking tips with wide audience. it’s one of the first wordpress recipe themes with support for google recipe view.

wordpress foodme restaurant business theme

wordpress foodme restaurant theme 2013-10-12 15-41-09

elegant and minimal theme for your restaurant business.
adabtable layout for any kind of business website
step by step demo contents setup.
very simple theme options thanks to our new pk2011 framework.
20 skins (10 light and 10 dark).
2 css layouts: centered or left aligned contents.
full screen background images for any content.

palazzo di sole – wordpress theme

palazzo di sole - wordpress theme - themeforest previewer 2013-10-12 15-42-05

clear code and perfectly organized in sets psd files make everything clear and easy to find. palazzo di sole is great wordpress template excellent for restaurant, bar, pub or bistro. this template contains home page, general inner page, blog page and gallery page.

gourmet – restaurant bar el wordpress theme

gourmet a responsive restaurant el bar wordpress theme

gourmet is a recipe & food blog wordpress theme, which makes it easy for you to share your recipes with the custom recipe options built in to this theme.

bar + grill: wp for restaurants & local businesses

bar

bar + grill is a responsive wordpress restaurant theme first and foremost.



مشاهده متن کامل ...
نرم افزار کم حجم sight words
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

نرم افزار کم حجم sight words بصورت اسلاید شو مناسب کلاس هوشمند برای پایه هشتم

می توانید جهت روی ع ها هم کلیک نمایید.

sight words-lesson 5 prospect 2

فایل با حجم 1,647.69 کیلوبایت فرمت exe

sight words-lesson 6 prospect 2

فایل با حجم 1,547.77 کیلوبایت فرمت exe

prospect 2 sight words-lesson 7

فایل با حجم 1,645.97 کیلوبایت فرمت exe

منبع: زبان اسان رضوی طراح جناب آقای یوسف زاده



مشاهده متن کامل ...
نرم افزار کم حجم sight words
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

نرم افزار کم حجم sight words بصورت اسلاید شو مناسب کلاس هوشمند برای پایه هشتم

می توانید جهت روی ع ها هم کلیک نمایید.

sight words-lesson 5 prospect 2

فایل با حجم 1,647.69 کیلوبایت فرمت exe

sight words-lesson 6 prospect 2

فایل با حجم 1,547.77 کیلوبایت فرمت exe

prospect 2 sight words-lesson 7

فایل با حجم 1,645.97 کیلوبایت فرمت exe

منبع: زبان اسان رضوی طراح جناب آقای یوسف زاده



مشاهده متن کامل ...
تحقیق قواعد متحدالشکل اعتبارات اسنادی ups 500
درخواست حذف اطلاعات
اختصاصی از اینو دیدی تحقیق قواعد متحدالشکل اعتبارات اسنادی ups 500 با و پر سرعت .

لینک و ید پایین توضیحات

فرمت فایل word  و قابل ویرایش و پرینت

تعداد صفحات: 27

 

uniform customs and practice for documentary credits )1993 revision)

contents

please note that the title or cl ification on the heading of each article is for reference as to intent and purpose. it is not to be construed as being other than solely for the benefit or guidance and there should be no legal imputation.

 

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

a. general provisions and definitions

article 1. application of ucp

the uniform customs and practice for documentary credits, 1993 revision, icc publication no. 500, shall apply to all documentary credits (including to the extent to which they may be applicable, standby letter(s) of credit) where they are incorporated into the text of the credit. they are binding on all parties thereto, unless otherwise expressly stipulated in the credit.

article 2. meaning of credit

for the purposes of these articles, the expressions "documentary credit (s)" and "standby letter(s) of credit" (hereinafter referred to as "credit (s) "), rmean any arran ent, however named or described, whereby a bank(the "issuing bank") acting at the request and on the instructions of a customer (the "applicant") or on its own behalf,

  i) is to make a payment to or to the order of a third party(the "beneficiary"), or is to accept and pay bills of exchange(draft(s)) drawn by the beneficiary, or

  ii) authorises another bank to effect such payment, or to accept and pay such bills of exchange(draft(s)), or

  iii) authorises another bank to negotiate, against stipulated document(s), provided that the terms and conditions of the credit are complied with. for the purposes of these articles, branches of a bank in different countreis are considered another bank.

article 3. credits v. contracts

a. credits, by their nature, are separate transactions from the sales or other contract(s) on which they may be based and banks are in no way concerned with or bound by such contract(s), even if any reference whatsoever to such contract(s) is included in the credit. consequently, the undertaking of a bank to pay, accept and pay draft(s) or negotiate and/or to fulfil any other obligation under the credit, is not subject to claims or defences by the applicant resulting from his relationships with the issuing bank or the beneficiary.

b. a beneficiary can in no case avail himself of the contractual relationships existing between the banks or between the applicant and the issuing bank.

article 4. documents v. goods/services/performances

in credit operations all parties concerned deal with documents, and not with goods, services and/or other performances to which the documents may relate.

article 5. instructions to issue/amend credits

a. instructions for the issuance of a credit, the credit itself, instructions for an amendment thereto, and the amendment itself, must be complete and precise. in order to guard against confusion and misunderstanding, banks should discourage any attempt

  i) to include excessive detail in the credit or in any amendment thereto;

  ii) to give instructions to issue, advise or confirm a credit by reference to a credit previously issued (similar credit) where such previous credit has been subject to accepted amendment(s), and/or unaccepted amendment(s),

b. all instructions for the issuance of a credit and the credit itself and, where applicable, all instructions for an amendment thereto and the amendment itself, must state precisely the document(s) against which payment, acceptance or negotiation is to be made.

b. form and notificatioin of credits

article 6. revocable v. irrevocable credits

a. a credit may be either

  i) revocable, or

  ii) irrevocable.

b. the credit, therefore, should clearly indicate whether it is revocable or irrevocable.

c. in the absence of such indication the credit shall be deemed to be irrevocable.

article 7. advising bank's liability

a. a credit may be advised to a beneficiary through another bank(the "advising bank") without enga ent on the part of the advising bank, but that bank, if it elects to advise the credit, shall take reasonable care to check the apparent authenticity of the credit which it advises. if the bank elects not to advise the credit, it must so inform the issuing bank without delay.

b. if the advising bank cannot establish such apparent authenticity it must inform, without delay, the bank from which the instructions appear to have been received that it has been unable to establish the authenticity of the credit and if it elects nonetheless to advise the credit it must inform the beneficiary that it has not been able to establish the authen, ticity of the credit.

article 8. revocation of a credit

a. a revocable credit may be amended or cancelled by the issuing bank at any moment and without prior notice to the beneficiary.

b. however, the issuing bank must:

  i) reimburse another bank with which a revocable credit has been made available for sight payment, acceptance or negotiation-for any payment, acceptance or negotiation made by such bank-prior to receipt by it of notice of amendment or cancellation, against documents which appear on their face to be in compliance with the terms and conditions of the credit,

   ii) reimburse another bank with which a revocable credit has been made available for deferred payment, if such a bank has, prior to receipt by it of notice of amendment or cancellation, taken up documents which appear on their face to be in compliance with the terms and conditions of the credit.

article 9. liability of issuing and confirming banks

a. an irrevocable credit constitutes a definite undertaking of the issuing bank, provided that the stipulated documents are presented to the nominated bank or to the issuing bank and that the terms and conditions of the credit are complied with:

  i) if the credit provides for sight payment-to pay at sight;

 ii) if the credit provides for deferred payment-to pay on the maturity date(s) determinable in accordance with the stipulations of the credit;

  iii) if the credit provides for acceptance;

    (a) by the issuing bank-to accept draft(s) drawn by the beneficiarq on the issuing bank and pay them at maturity, or

    (b) by another drawee bank-to accept and pay at maturity draft(s) drawn by the beneficiary on the issuing bank in the event the drawee bank stipulated in the credit does not accept draft(s) drawn on it, or to pay draft(s) accepted but not paid by such drawee bank at maturity;

  iv) if the credit provides for negotiation-to pay without recourse to drawers and/or bona fide holders, draft(s) drawn by the benefici ary and/or document(s) presented under the credit. a credit should not be issued available by draft(s) on the applicant. if the credit nevertheless calls for draft(s) on the applicant, banks will consider such draft(s) as an additional document(s).

b. a confirmation of an irrevocable credit by another bank (the"confirminn bank") upon the authori ion or request of the issuing bank, constitutes a definite undertaking of the confirming bank, in addition to that of the issuing bank, provided that the stipulated documents are presented to the confirming bank or to any other nominated bank and that the terms and conditions of the credit are complied with:

  i) if the credit provides for sight payment-to pay at sight;

  ii) if the credit provides for deferred payment-to pay on the maturity date(s) determinable in accordance with the stipulations of the credit;

  iii) if the credit provides for acceptance:

    (a) by the confirming bank-to accept draft(s) drawn by the beneficiary on the confirming bank and pay them at maturity, or

    (b) by another drawee bank-to accept and pay at maturity draft(s) drawn by the beneficiary on the confirming bank, in the event the drawee bank stipulated in the credit does not accept draft(s) drawn on it, or to pay draft(s) accepted but not paid by such drawee bank at maturity;

  iv) if the credit provides for negotiation-to negotiate without recourse to drawers and/or bonafide holders, draft(s) drawn by the beneficiary and/or document(s) presented under the credit. a credit should not be issued available by draft(s) on the applicant. if the credit nevertheless calls for draft(s) on the applicant, banks will consider such draft(s) as an additional document(s).

c. i) if another bank is authorised or requested by the issuing bank to add its confirmation to a credit but is not prepared to do so, it must so inform the issuing bank without delay.


با


تحقیق قواعد متحدالشکل اعتبارات اسنادی ups 500


مشاهده متن کامل ...
تحقیق و بررسی در مورد قواعد متحدالشکل اعتبارات اسنادی ups 500
درخواست حذف اطلاعات
اختصاصی از هایدی تحقیق و بررسی در مورد قواعد متحدالشکل اعتبارات اسنادی ups 500 با و پر سرعت .

لینک و ید پایین توضیحات

فرمت فایل word  و قابل ویرایش و پرینت

تعداد صفحات: 27

 

uniform customs and practice for documentary credits )1993 revision)

contents

please note that the title or cl ification on the heading of each article is for reference as to intent and purpose. it is not to be construed as being other than solely for the benefit or guidance and there should be no legal imputation.

 

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

a. general provisions and definitions

article 1. application of ucp

the uniform customs and practice for documentary credits, 1993 revision, icc publication no. 500, shall apply to all documentary credits (including to the extent to which they may be applicable, standby letter(s) of credit) where they are incorporated into the text of the credit. they are binding on all parties thereto, unless otherwise expressly stipulated in the credit.

article 2. meaning of credit

for the purposes of these articles, the expressions "documentary credit (s)" and "standby letter(s) of credit" (hereinafter referred to as "credit (s) "), rmean any arran ent, however named or described, whereby a bank(the "issuing bank") acting at the request and on the instructions of a customer (the "applicant") or on its own behalf,

  i) is to make a payment to or to the order of a third party(the "beneficiary"), or is to accept and pay bills of exchange(draft(s)) drawn by the beneficiary, or

  ii) authorises another bank to effect such payment, or to accept and pay such bills of exchange(draft(s)), or

  iii) authorises another bank to negotiate, against stipulated document(s), provided that the terms and conditions of the credit are complied with. for the purposes of these articles, branches of a bank in different countreis are considered another bank.

article 3. credits v. contracts

a. credits, by their nature, are separate transactions from the sales or other contract(s) on which they may be based and banks are in no way concerned with or bound by such contract(s), even if any reference whatsoever to such contract(s) is included in the credit. consequently, the undertaking of a bank to pay, accept and pay draft(s) or negotiate and/or to fulfil any other obligation under the credit, is not subject to claims or defences by the applicant resulting from his relationships with the issuing bank or the beneficiary.

b. a beneficiary can in no case avail himself of the contractual relationships existing between the banks or between the applicant and the issuing bank.

article 4. documents v. goods/services/performances

in credit operations all parties concerned deal with documents, and not with goods, services and/or other performances to which the documents may relate.

article 5. instructions to issue/amend credits

a. instructions for the issuance of a credit, the credit itself, instructions for an amendment thereto, and the amendment itself, must be complete and precise. in order to guard against confusion and misunderstanding, banks should discourage any attempt

  i) to include excessive detail in the credit or in any amendment thereto;

  ii) to give instructions to issue, advise or confirm a credit by reference to a credit previously issued (similar credit) where such previous credit has been subject to accepted amendment(s), and/or unaccepted amendment(s),

b. all instructions for the issuance of a credit and the credit itself and, where applicable, all instructions for an amendment thereto and the amendment itself, must state precisely the document(s) against which payment, acceptance or negotiation is to be made.

b. form and notificatioin of credits

article 6. revocable v. irrevocable credits

a. a credit may be either

  i) revocable, or

  ii) irrevocable.

b. the credit, therefore, should clearly indicate whether it is revocable or irrevocable.

c. in the absence of such indication the credit shall be deemed to be irrevocable.

article 7. advising bank's liability

a. a credit may be advised to a beneficiary through another bank(the "advising bank") without enga ent on the part of the advising bank, but that bank, if it elects to advise the credit, shall take reasonable care to check the apparent authenticity of the credit which it advises. if the bank elects not to advise the credit, it must so inform the issuing bank without delay.

b. if the advising bank cannot establish such apparent authenticity it must inform, without delay, the bank from which the instructions appear to have been received that it has been unable to establish the authenticity of the credit and if it elects nonetheless to advise the credit it must inform the beneficiary that it has not been able to establish the authen, ticity of the credit.

article 8. revocation of a credit

a. a revocable credit may be amended or cancelled by the issuing bank at any moment and without prior notice to the beneficiary.

b. however, the issuing bank must:

  i) reimburse another bank with which a revocable credit has been made available for sight payment, acceptance or negotiation-for any payment, acceptance or negotiation made by such bank-prior to receipt by it of notice of amendment or cancellation, against documents which appear on their face to be in compliance with the terms and conditions of the credit,

   ii) reimburse another bank with which a revocable credit has been made available for deferred payment, if such a bank has, prior to receipt by it of notice of amendment or cancellation, taken up documents which appear on their face to be in compliance with the terms and conditions of the credit.

article 9. liability of issuing and confirming banks

a. an irrevocable credit constitutes a definite undertaking of the issuing bank, provided that the stipulated documents are presented to the nominated bank or to the issuing bank and that the terms and conditions of the credit are complied with:

  i) if the credit provides for sight payment-to pay at sight;

 ii) if the credit provides for deferred payment-to pay on the maturity date(s) determinable in accordance with the stipulations of the credit;

  iii) if the credit provides for acceptance;

    (a) by the issuing bank-to accept draft(s) drawn by the beneficiarq on the issuing bank and pay them at maturity, or

    (b) by another drawee bank-to accept and pay at maturity draft(s) drawn by the beneficiary on the issuing bank in the event the drawee bank stipulated in the credit does not accept draft(s) drawn on it, or to pay draft(s) accepted but not paid by such drawee bank at maturity;

  iv) if the credit provides for negotiation-to pay without recourse to drawers and/or bona fide holders, draft(s) drawn by the benefici ary and/or document(s) presented under the credit. a credit should not be issued available by draft(s) on the applicant. if the credit nevertheless calls for draft(s) on the applicant, banks will consider such draft(s) as an additional document(s).

b. a confirmation of an irrevocable credit by another bank (the"confirminn bank") upon the authori ion or request of the issuing bank, constitutes a definite undertaking of the confirming bank, in addition to that of the issuing bank, provided that the stipulated documents are presented to the confirming bank or to any other nominated bank and that the terms and conditions of the credit are complied with:

  i) if the credit provides for sight payment-to pay at sight;

  ii) if the credit provides for deferred payment-to pay on the maturity date(s) determinable in accordance with the stipulations of the credit;

  iii) if the credit provides for acceptance:

    (a) by the confirming bank-to accept draft(s) drawn by the beneficiary on the confirming bank and pay them at maturity, or

    (b) by another drawee bank-to accept and pay at maturity draft(s) drawn by the beneficiary on the confirming bank, in the event the drawee bank stipulated in the credit does not accept draft(s) drawn on it, or to pay draft(s) accepted but not paid by such drawee bank at maturity;

  iv) if the credit provides for negotiation-to negotiate without recourse to drawers and/or bonafide holders, draft(s) drawn by the beneficiary and/or document(s) presented under the credit. a credit should not be issued available by draft(s) on the applicant. if the credit nevertheless calls for draft(s) on the applicant, banks will consider such draft(s) as an additional document(s).

c. i) if another bank is authorised or requested by the issuing bank to add its confirmation to a credit but is not prepared to do so, it must so inform the issuing bank without delay.


با


تحقیق و بررسی در مورد قواعد متحدالشکل اعتبارات اسنادی ups 500


مشاهده متن کامل ...
جملات رایج زبان انگلیسی، در مورد انواع مزه ها
درخواست حذف اطلاعات


1- این غذا طعم خیلی خوبی ندارد.

this food doesn’t taste very nice.

2- چه طعمی دارد؟

what does it taste like?

3- مزه انبه می دهد.

it tastes of mangoes.

4- چه طعمی دوست داری؟

what flavor do you like?

5- نمی توانم این سوپ را بچشم. سرما خورده ام.

i can’t taste this soup. i have got a cold.

6- ترش / تلخ / شیرین/ شور است.

it’s sour/ bitter/ sweet/ salty.

7- ممکنه لطفاً این کیک میوه ای را بچشید؟

would you please have a taste of the fruitcake?

8- خوشمزه است، اما کمی شور است.

it’s tasty/delicious, but it’s a little salty.

9- خوشمزه است.

it tastes good/ delicious.



مشاهده متن کامل ...
جوانه چشاییی
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

جوانه چشایی

سلولهای چشایی درون ساختمانهای خاصی به نام جوانه چشایی (پاپیلای زبان) قرار دارند. این ساختمانها عمدتاً روی زبان و کام نرم هستند. جوانه های چشایی روی زبان داخل پاپیلا قرار گرفته اند (ساختمانهای کوچکی که به زبان، منظره موّاجی می دهند). به تدریج که انسان رشد می کند، جوانه های چشایی در طرفین و سقف دهان از بین می روند و فقط روی سطح زبان باقی می مانند. علاوه بر بالا رفتن سن، عوامل دیگری هم می توانند روی حس چشایی اثر بگذارند. به طور مثال بعضی داروها یا بعضی بیماری ها (ماننددیابت، سیگارکشیدن، کمبود ویتامین ها، تومورهای مغز و سر و گردن و مواد شیمیایی) می توانند موجب اختلال در حس چشایی افراد شوند.


انواع جوانه چشایی

اکثر پاپیلاهای روی زبان، از نوع نخی شکلهستند؛ که فاقد جوانه های چشایی هستند و در درک حس فیزیکی ناشی از تماس با غذا موثرند .پاپیلاهای قارچ شکلکه در جلوی زبان قرار دارند دارای جوانه های چشایی هستند. پاپیلاهای قارچی شکل به صورت نقاط صورتی در لبه های زبان پخش هستند؛ و بعد از خوردن شیر یا غذا بهتر مشاهده می شوند. در عقب زبان ۱۲ پاپیلای جامیحاوی جوانه چشایی قرار دارد . در کناره های انتهای زبان نیز پاپیلای برگه ایوجود دارند.

منابع:

حس چشایی

از دست دادن حس چشایی

اختلال حس چشایی




مشاهده متن کامل ...
sistanian yellow kishk ,alchemist food drug
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

sistanian yellow kishk ,alchemist food drug

ref: noorzaei abbas, zaboli kashk e zard, a plan for home-base business, menarid international project, forest, rangeland and watershed organization, sistan & balouchestan province, i.r.iran. 2014.

sistan, with its prosperous history, has always been considered as one of the areas frequented iran. artifacts from archaeological sites kooh e khajeh, zahedan e kohneh,dahaneye gholaman, especially shahr e sookhteh span, unique story of boom agriculture, animal husbandry, fishing, hunting and industry in this country

the results of archaeological excavations carried out in sistan shahr e sookhteh, the story o reat civilization that many scientists and archaeologists previous beliefs about history, major economic issues, social and cultural world has changed.

this sculpture is part of the vast country of iran have regular streets and houses, water pipes and sewage pipes, the clay has been urban planning

the first precise measurement tools, the meter, the first animated world, the first brain surgery macrocephalia method, the oldest backgammon world's first artificial eye, sistan considered part of civil historic glory.

take a look at how to prepare and process the sistanian yellow kishk, feed ingredient public use sistan families and interactions of its production, shows that a purely scientific achievements and environmentally sustainable, indigenous formulations and sistanian yellow kishk production.

the study tries to compare the sistanian yellow kishk in iran and a number of countries have 13 common kishk. the results indicate the fact that this type of kishk, has unique properties that make it very rich and useful as a food drug and rich and poor families has been used.

what is sistanian yellow kishk?

fermented and dried mixture of bulgur wheat, feed, seed, seeds or black cumin, coriander, turmeric powder, salt and dough. this is set to leave for two to three weeks in cotton bag, the fermented material is removed from the bag and then kneading, for granulation in turn and over time are used as a takeaway food.

sistanian yellow kishk, yogurt fermented wheat product that is traditionally in sistan region over centuries and as thickening formulas formed a thick soup of high digestibility, a lot of consumers.

sistanian yellow kishk benefit

1. the lack of heat in the production process:

in the manufacturing process, do not use heat, therefore the kishk, be exposed to lower temperatures, its nutritional value will be higher

2. do not use a catalyst in the production process:

fermented cereal and ermilk together and without catalyst, and to amend the act "the paste ripening" takes place quite naturally.

so sistanian yellow kishk, the product is completely organic and healthy and is recommended even in the form of industrial production, do not use of catalysts to accelerate the process of reaching its paste, siatan has the unique feature of sistanian yellow kishk remain viable.

3. do not use stabilizers and chemical preservatives:

typically used in food additives dangerous to take, to take a ntage of this property, the turmeric and garlic mix the ingredients in the kishk used is therefore independent of conventional chemicals.

4. sistanian yellow kishk moisture content is very low:

the moisture content of the kiashk, the kinds of kishks produced in different places is very low and the humidity is less, is preferable in terms of nutrients and spoilage ability is lower.

5. the taste and smell of sistanian yellow kishk:

it is so pleasant taste in the mouth, it feels nice, mild sour taste and smell of it in the environment, sophisticated and man to bring appetite.

6. the least amount of germs may grow in sistanian yellow kishk:

to destroy germs in other types of kishks, boiled them, but the composition of the kishk, turmeric and garlic are used, so the germs are not allowed to grow, in a study of 40 samples of the kishks produced in different regions of sistan, the microbes escherichia coli has been detected in it.

sistanian yellow kishk properties:

- memory improvement

- the types of dairy products for people who have gastric or duodenal ulcer.

- increased intestinal peristalsis and prevent constipation and intestinal bloating

- prevention of osteoporosis

- the treatment of diarrhea and intestinal antiseptic environment

- treatment of lactose intolerance in people who can not drink milk.

- treat high blood pressure

- rich in b vitamins such as niacin, and folic acid pyridoxine

- positive impact on beauty and skin

- takeaway food and always available, food rations for field operations

- as an additive to foods and glazes that can be used.

- best digestible food supplement for children

- the kishk, a vaccine against the common cold.

how to cook sistanian yellow kishk?

first, put the pot on the stove flame after a little warm two tablespoons of oil in it too. it should be noted that oil should not be too . (add garlic and onions at this stage depends on individual taste, in the production of sistanian yellow kishk, garlic has been used, add onions if you want).

to each one tablespoon of whey powder in the pot poured a few seconds heading to its original form is preserved.

then for every 5 tablespoons of cottage cheese 4 cups of water (water should be cold) added to it and we are constantly on a medium heat until enough concentration and a slight stretch.

after 15 to 20 minutes the food is ready. now it should be minced bread, whipped out.

this is due to high-calorie food and prevent frequent breakdowns recommended for those who are overweight.

this is due to high-calorie food and prevent frequent breakdowns recommended for those who are overweight. also for those who are suffering from colds or diseases such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, constipation and kidney disease suffer helpful.



مشاهده متن کامل ...
(مجموعه مستند طعم ایران)a.taste.iran
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

(مجموعه مستند طعم ایران)a.taste.iran

مستند طعم ایران نام مجموعه تلویزیونی مستندی است که بدست صادق صبا برای شبکه جهانی در سال ۲۰۰۸ ساخته شد. برای تهیه این مجموعه صادق صبا از تلویزیون به ایران سفر کرد تا جهانیان را با تاریخ ، فرهنگ ، مناطق مختلف و دیدنی ، آشپزی و غذاها و دیگر جذ ت ها و سنت های ایران آشنا سازد. او با این فکر اقدام به ساختن این مجموعه نمود تا تصویر مخدوش و ناقصی که مردم جهان از ایران دارند و با توجه به اینکه هیچ اثری از فرهنگ و تمدن غنی ایران از لابلای تصاویر تلویزیونی غرب پخش نمی شود، تصمیم گرفت مخاطبان جهانی را با فرهنگ و قومیت و موسیقی و زیباییهای و مردم خون گرم ایران آشنا سازد. در این سفر او با زبده ترین تیم صدابرداری، برداری و تولید از شمال ایران که زادگاهش بود تا جنوب ایران را زی ا گذاشت تا ایران را به تصویر کشید.

بخشها

این مستند به صورت ۴ بخش ۴۵ دقیقه ای تهیه شده است که در هر بخش او زندگی روزمره مردم ا و روستاهای مختلف و فرهنگ ها و آداب و رسوم آنان را به تصویر کشیده است. در این مجموعه مستند که شاید بهترین مستندی است که در سالهای اخیر در باره ایران ساخته شده است، سعی شده است تا فرهنگ و زیبایی های این کشور به تمام دنیا نشان داده شود.

کارگردانی

قسمت اول و چهارم “ایران من” را مهرداد اسکویی مستند ساز پر تلاش کارگردانی کرد و دو قسمت دیگر را بهمن کیارستمی که کارگردانی صاحب نامی است ساخته است.

تهیه

ایده ساخت مجموعه مستند تلویزیونی طعم ایران که از شبکه فارسی تحت عنوان “ایران من” پخش شد، بیش از دو سال پیش به ذهن من (صادق صبا) راه یافت، زمانی که بحران پرونده اتمی ایران بالا گرفته بود و صدای طبل جنگ گوش دوستداران صلح، بخصوص ایرانیان، را می اشید. احساس می تصویری که مردم دنیا از ایرانیان دارند، مخدوش و ناقص است و هیچ اثری از فرهنگ و تمدن غنی آنها در لابه لای تصاویر تلویزیونی غرب از سانتریفیوژ ها و موشکها دیده نمی شود. تصمیم گرفتم تصویری از تنوع فرهنگی، قومی، موسیقی و غذایی ایرانی را به مخاطبان جهانی ارائه کنم. می دانستم در دنیا به عنوان رسانه ای مستقل و منصف شناخته شده و بر آن شدم از این مقبولیت بهره بگیرم تا جهانیان دیدی کاملتر از ایران داشته باشند، دور از هیاهوی قطعنامه های تنبیهی شورای امنیت و سه دهه بگو و مگوی غرب و تهران. ایده را به مدیران سرویس جهانی پیشنهاد دادم و آنها با ساخت مجموعه ای چهار قسمتی برای معرفی جنبه های کمتر شناخته شده زندگی نان ایران زمین موافقت د. تنها مشکل گرفتن مجوز از مقامات ایران بود، ولی امید داشتم که بتوانم موافقت آنها را بگیرم.

از تالش تا خلیج فارس

اواسط سال ۱۳۸۶ به ایران رفتم و با مقامات وزارت فرهنگ و ارشاد ی وارد گفتگو شدم. بعد از چندین جلسه که بین خود داشتند، نهایتاً موافقتشان را ابراز د و بدون شرط و شروطی این مجوز را دادند. به نظر می رسید خود آنها نیز متوجه شده اند که وجهه بین المللی ایران نیاز به جلای تازه ای دارد. سپس کار انتخاب تیم تولید شروع شد و به همراه مازیار بهاری تهیه کننده اجرایی و الیزابت امان پور تهیه کننده مجموعه، توانستیم گروهی از زبده ترین کارگردانان، برداران، صدابرداران و مدیران تولید و… را گردهم بیاوریم و اگر تلاشهای بی دریغ آنها نبود، این پروژه به چنین موفقیتی نمی رسید. این نمونه موفق یک کار گروهی بود. ابتدا چند نقطه ایران را برای برداری دستچین کردیم: گیلان، اصفهان، یزد، شیراز، بوشهر و جزایر خلیج فارس. قسمت اول و چهارم “ایران من” را مهرداد اسکویی، مستند ساز پر تلاش کارگردانی کرد و دو قسمت دیگر را بهمن کیارستمی ساخته که کارگردانی صاحب نام است. کار با هر دو آنها مسرت بخش بود. در حقیقت، روزهایی که صرف ساخت “ایران من” ، از بهترین ایام زندگی من در سالیان اخیر بود. ما از کوه های تالش در شمال سرسبز ایران تا جزیره هرمز در خلیج نیلگون فارس برداری کردیم و جز صفا و صمیمیت ایرانیان چیزی ندیدیم.

مهمان نوازی بی همتا

بعد از اتمام این پروژه احساس می کنم دلبندی ام به ایران صد چندان شده زیرا دیدم با وجود این همه رنگارنگی قومی و زبانی و دینی، مردم خود را ایرانی می دانند و چقدر به تاریخ و فرهنگ خود مباهات می کنند.از همه مهمتر، به این نتیجه رسیدم که مهمان نوازی ایرانیان بی همتاست. در بازار رشت، موقعی که برداری می کردیم، هر گاه مردم می فهمیدند بدنبال معرفی فرهنگ و زندگی گیلان به جهانیان هستیم، بسیار خوشحال می شدند و حتی اصرار می د که پول اجناس یا غذا را از ما نگیرند. یا مثلاً در یکی از روستاهای دورافتاده یزد، یک روستایی مهربان با این که موقع آبیاری مزرعه اش فرا رسیده بود، سخاوتمندانه وقت باارزش و کمیاب آبیاری را رها کرد تا از ما پذیرایی کند. او ما را به خانه برد و یک خوراک خوشمزه یزدی به نام “کله جوش” پخت که جای شما بسیار خالی بود. با صراحت می توانم بگویم در مجموع، در تمام این مدت هیچ مشکلی برای ما پیش نیامد.

پخش

این مجموعه تلویزیونی برای نخستین بار در روز شنبه ۷ فبریه سال ۲۰۰۹ ساعت ۱۸:۱۰ دقیقه به وقت گرینویچ به روی آنتن شبکه جهانی رفت و تا کنون ۱۶ بار از طریق شبکه های مختلف از جمله فارسی باز پخش گردیده است.

استقبال خیره کننده

این مجموعه مستند ابتدا از تلویزیون جهانی در بهمن و اسفند ۱۳۸۷ تحت عنوان a taste of iran پخش شد. صادق صبا در این باره می گوید: همیشه مطمئن بودم اگر این مجموعه از کانال جهانی پخش شود، بشدت مورد استقبال قرار می گیرد، ولی هرگز تصور نمی با چنین استقبال گسترده مردم نقاط مختلف دنیا مواجه شود. بعد از پخش قسمت اول از تلویزیون جهانی ، نظرسنجی از مخاطبان نشان می داد که ۸۸ درصد آنها این برنامه را به عنوان محبوبترین برنامه طی آن هفته برگزیده اند. صدها ایمیل چه مستقیماً به و چه شخصاً به خودم ارسال شد و همگی اظهار سندی می د که چنین مجموعه خوبی از ایران پخش کرده که بجای رنگ و بوی سیاست، طعم مردم ایران را می دهد. بسیاری با شگفتی می گفتند که نمی دانستند ایرانی ها اینقدر مهمان نوازند و برخی می گفتند علاقه مند شده اند از ایران بازدید کنند و راهنمایی می خواستند. حتی عده ای هم بدنبال دستور پخت غذاهای معرفی شده در این مجموعه چهار قسمتی بودند. یک اسراییلی ایرانی تبار هم یکبار به من تلفن زد و گفت که تماشای این مجموعه را به دوستان اسراییلی خود توصیه کرده و آنها با تماشای آن نگاه کاملاً متفاوتی نسبت به ملت و فرهنگ ایران پیدا کرده اند. بسیاری از ایرانیان مقیم خارج هم می گفتند حالا بیشتر به ایرانی بودن خود افتخار می کنند و با مباهات از فرهنگ و مردم خود نزد دوستانشان سخن می گویند.

گروه تهیه

مجری: صادق صبا

کارگردانان: بهمن کیارستمی و مهرداد اسکوئی

تهیه کننده : لیزی امانپور

نویسنده : صادق صبا

هزینه ساخت

۲۵۷٬۴۷۹ دلار

برای مجموعه بر روی لینک (اینجا) کلیک نمایید.



مشاهده متن کامل ...
تحقیق درمورد طرح درس
درخواست حذف اطلاعات
اختصاصی از یارا فایل تحقیق درمورد طرح درس با و پر سرعت .

لینک و ید پایین توضیحات

فرمت فایل word  و قابل ویرایش و پرینت

تعداد صفحات: 5

 

طرح درس

این نمونه یک طرح درس هفتگی در مدرسه مانی هست. هر آ  هفته معلم اصلی طرح درس هفته بعد را برای والدین می فرستد.  طرح درس شامل اه آموزشی هفته و مواد درسی میشه. و همینطور فعالیت های برنامه ریزی شده برای رسیدن به اون اه . گاهی حضور مانی در طراحی بعضی از فعالیت های آموزشی تاثیر داره. مثلا این هفته موضوع اصلی سفر بود. و یکی از کشورهایی که بچه ها در موردش شنیدند و مثلا سفر د ایران :)

دوشنبه ها من هم یکی از معلم های کمکی هستم. پنج شنبه ها هم تو دفتر وول می خورم.

(فرمت طرح درس کمی اینجا به هم میریزه.)

 

target letter: h h

sight words: he, here

learning objectives:

oral language: 2:5a identifies familiar objects, people, and events circle time- vocabulary

2:5b describes familiar objects, people, events, and their attributes with general and

specific words and phrases activity-time oral language – circle time-shared writing

2:5c uses new and expanding vocabulary and grammar, including: positional and

directional words (e.g. in, out, on under, off, beside, behind) activity time-oral language

2:3c child describes familiar modes of transportation using general and specific

words and phrases activity time-independent writing – story time-literature response

phonological awareness: 2:3c identify syllables in words by clapping, snapping or other rhythmic

movement circle time phonological awareness

alphabet and print: 2:4a recognizes the letter

h circle

& activity times- letters and sounds

3:1a child uses a variety of materials to write/copy/trace letter

h circle

& activity times- letters and sounds

2:4e makes some letter/sound matches circle & activity times- letters and sounds

math:

big math unit 4

group 1:

group 2:

group 3:

social studies: 1:1a child seeks information from a variety of sources (i.e. people, books, videos,

globes, maps, calendars, etc.)

fine arts: 3:3b adds details and new elements to dramatic play situations over time.

 

 

 

target vocabulary: travel, fare, luggage, pack, p port<><><><><><>

 

required books

first flight

the bag i’m taking to grandma’s

 <><><><><>

 <><><><><><>

nursery rhymes & songs

“the wheels on the bus”

“row, row, row your boat”<><><><><><>

talk it out: lesson #12

 <><><><><><>

dramatic play

going to  iran, and mexico<><><><><><>

post office pals: send a postcard to your pal from where you went.

 <><><><><><>

additional trophies activities

circle time - oral language,

story time – big book of rhymes and songs, nursery rhymes anthology

 <><><><><><>

 

 

 

 

monday

10:15-10:30 1:45-2:00

outside time

activity –children practice saying “good morning” to friends and other adults.

children will play “hide and seek.” seeker will use positional words (with teacher’s istance) when finding a child and say, “he is in (on, under, beside, behind)…” “come out of your hiding spot!”

vocabulary: children will lift two suitcases and say, “this luggage is heavy” “this luggage is light” (jocabed)

10:30-10:45

2:00-2:15

 

transition-

bathroom & washing hands

the children will pick a card, find the rhyming word, and say rhyme out loud as they clap out the syllables.

the teachers will introduce the day’s activities.

10:45-11:55

2:15-3:25

center work-

teaching tables and open centers

teaching table 1: big math: unit 3, activity 4. children will copy, extend, and describe repeating sound patterns.

(jocabed)

teaching table 2: the children will put a transportation floor puzzle together, and say “i think ___has the most expensive fare.” the teacher will use positional words guide children through the puzzle.

teaching table 3: children write their first and last name two times and place it in their binder.

sensory: children will transfer ice cubes from one cup to another using tweezers, and say, “i made a big effort!”

“the ice melted because…”

writing: children will trace a car, airplane, train, or submarine, decorate it, and say, “i will travel to…”

art: easel. children will put apron on, tape painting paper on the easel, and write name on the paper before starting to paint. children will use two cars to paint and say, “i am going to...” “i will travel to…”

blocks/manipulatives: children will build transportation vehicles at the workshop.

snack: the children will talk about methods of transportation they have seen (bike, car, bus, airplane…)

 

11:55-12:05 3:25-3:35

cleanup & transition

al hat. when the stops, the child with the hat on will point to the words “he” and “here” before going to reading group.

12:05-12:25 3:35-3:55

dialogic reading

book a – the bag i’m taking to grandma’s 

book b- first flight

target letter: children will write letter hh on a board and say “capital h” “lower case h” before going back to the circle time rug.

12:25-12:45 3:55-4:15

circle time-review letter, sight words, vocabulary, mystery box

the children will sing “row, row, row your boat” in pairs, and “the wheels on the bus” as a group.

talk it out lesson # pals 12

 

 

 

 

tuesday

10:15-10:30 1:45-2:00

outside time

activity – children practice saying “good morning” to friends and other adults.

children will play “hide and seek.” seeker will use positional words (with teacher’s istance) when finding a child and say, “he is in (on, under, beside, behind)…” “come out of your hiding spot!”

vocabulary: children will lift two suitcases and say, “this luggage is heavy” “this luggage is light” (jocabed)

10:30-10:45

2:00-2:15

 

transition-

bathroom & washing hands

the children will pick a card, find the rhyming word, and say rhyme out loud as they clap out the syllables.

the teachers will introduce the day’s activities.

 

10:45-11:55

2:15-3:25

center work-

teaching tables and open centers

teaching table 1: the children will put a transportation floor puzzle together, and say “i think ___has the most expensive fare.” the teacher will use positional words guide children through the puzzle.

teaching table 2: children will play “guess who” game to ask questions using inflection, “is it a boy? does he have brown hair? does he wear gl es?” extension: using an earth globe children will point to a country and say “i think he/she lives in…”

teaching table 3: children write their first and last name two times and place it in their binder.

sensory table: children will roll play dough, and think of a way to represent a country. the teacher will point to countries and oceans. child will say, “i want to travel to…”

writing: children will trace a car, airplane, train, or submarine, decorate it, and say, “i will travel to…”

art: easel. children will put apron on, tape painting paper on the easel, and write name on the paper before starting to paint. children will use two cars to paint and say, “i am going to...” “i will travel to…”

blocks/manipulatives: children will build transportation vehicles at the workshop.

snack : the children will talk about methods of transportation they have seen (bike, car, bus, airplane…)

 

11:55-12:05 3:25-3:35

cleanup & transition

the children will find a partner to travel, sing “row, row your boat” together, point to a place on a map, and say, “i am traveling to…”

12:05-12:25 3:35-3:55

dialogic reading

first flight

the bag i’m taking to grandma’s

target letter: children will write letter hh on a board and say “capital h” “lower case h” before going back to the circle time rug.

12:25-12:45 3:55-4:15

circle time-review letter, sight words, vocabulary, mystery box

shared writing:

the teacher will review the vocabulary words of the week, ask the children where they would like to travel to, and record their answers on a big piece of paper.

 

 

 

thursday

10:15-10:30 1:45-2:00

outside time

activity –children practice saying “good morning” to friends and other adults.

children will play “hide and seek.” seeker will use positional words (with teacher’s istance) when finding a child and say, “he is in (on, under, beside, behind)…” “come out of your hiding spot!”

vocabulary: children will lift two suitcases and say, “this luggage is heavy” “this luggage is light” (jocabed)

10:30-10:45

2:00-2:15

 

transition-

bathroom & washing hands

the children will pick a card, find the rhyming word, and say rhyme out loud as they clap out the syllables.

the teachers will introduce the day’s activities.

10:45-11:55

2:15-3:25

center work-

teaching tables and open centers

teaching table 1: post office pal. children will send a postcard to post office pal, and say, “dear____, i went to…”

teaching table 2: language enrichment with kelly.

teaching table 3: children write their first and last name two times and place it in their binder.

dramatic play: children will make a p port to travel to iran in the morning and to syria in the afternoon. they will pack their clothes, take their luggage to the airport, and pay their fare. children will take turns being travelers.

(jocabed and heather)

reading center: the children will listen to a book on tape independently.

book checkout with heather our librarian.

computer center: groups 1-4 starfall.com (jocabed)

3 year olds: let’s get ready to read, abc’s (letter hh)

4 year olds: learn to read, play (an/at) or book-zac the rat

science: children will look at a national geog hic book with jocabed, and find an animal that does not live in the dessert. using the earth globe, jocabed will point to the place where animal lives.

snack : the children will name one place they have traveled to.

 

**reading and writing centers are always open.

11:55-12:05 3:25-3:35

cleanup & transition

al hat. when the stops, the child with the hat on will point to the words “he” and “here” before going to reading group.

12:05-12:25 3:35-3:55

dialogic reading

book a – the bag i’m taking to grandma’s 

book b- clifford magazine

target letter: children will write letter hh on a board and say “capital h” “lower case h” before going back to the circle time rug.

12:25-12:45 3:55-4:15

circle time-review letter, sight words, vocabulary, mystery box

the teachers will ask children what they would need to put in their luggage before traveling to another city/country. their answers will be recorded on a piece of paper.

mystery box-one child states 3 clues (one at a time). the other children take turns guessing what is in the box or ask a question to gather more information about the item.

 

 

 

friday

10:15-10:30 1:45-2:00

outside time

activity –children practice saying “good morning” to friends and other adults.


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تحقیق درمورد طرح درس


مشاهده متن کامل ...
پاو وینت بیماری های cucumber
درخواست حذف اطلاعات
اختصاصی از فایل هلپ پاو وینت بیماری های cucumber با و پر سرعت .

 

دسته بندی : پاو وینت 

نوع فایل:  ppt _ pptx

( قابلیت ویرایش )

 


 قسمتی از اسلاید متن پاو وینت : 

 

تعداد اسلاید : 20 صفحه

عنوانبیماری های cucumber powdery mildew caused by the fungus erysiphe cichoracearum, affects cucumber, muskmelon, pumpkin, and squash.
it is caused by a fungus that appears as a white powdery growth on leaves.
crown leaves are affected first and may wither and die.
the fungus can be introduced on greenhouse-grown plants or by wind from areas with relatively warm winter climate where the fungus can over-winter.
disease development is favored by high temperatures.
downy mildew on cucumber and muskmelon is caused by the fungus pseudoperonospora cubensis.
irregularly shaped yellowish to brown spots appear on upper sides of leaves, usually at the center of plants.
under moist conditions, a purplish mildew develops on the underside of leaf spots.
leaves die as spots increase in size.
spread is id from the crown toward new growth.
the causal fungus overwinters in areas with a relatively warm climate and can be introduced to other areas by wind.
moist conditions favor disease development.
target spot caused by corynespora c iicola, is similar to downy mildew in appearance.
leaf spots begin as small yellow flecks which become angular or as circular spots with light brown centers and dark brown spots.
spots vary from 1/8 to 3/8 inch in diameter.
lesion coalescence may result in large areas of dead tissue, which may shred and fall out.
cercospora leaf spot caused by cercospora citrullina, affects cantaloupe and watermelon.
leaf spots are small, dark brown to black with a white center, and may have a yellow halo.
alternaria leaf spot caused by the fungus alternaria cucumerina, occurs primarily on muskmelons but also on cucumbers and other cucurbits.
leaf spots are small, circular, and water-soaked at first, and then expand up to 1/2 inch in diameter with dark concentric rings within the spots.
spots coalesce to affect large areas of leaves and cause defoliation that begins on crown leaves.
this disease-causing fungus overwinters on and in seed, as well as in residue from diseased plants.
fungus spores (reproductive structures) are spread by wind, by running and splashing water, on workers, and on tools and implements.
weak and senescing plants are more susceptible to alternaria leaf spot than are vigorous plants.
anthracnose caused by the fungus colletotrichum lagenarium, affects cucumbers, muskmelons, and watermelons.
muskmelon and cucumber leaf spots begin as yellowish or water-soaked areas that enlarge idly, turn brown, and shatter to form a ragged hole within the spot.
leaf spots on watermelons turn black.
elongated dark spots with light centers often develop on petioles and stems and can cause death of t

  متن بالا فقط قسمتی از محتوی متن پاو وینت میباشد،شما بعد از پرداخت آنلاین ، فایل را فورا نمایید 

 


  لطفا به نکات زیر در هنگام ید  پاو وینت:  توجه فرمایید.

  • در این مطلب، متن اسلاید های اولیه قرار داده شده است.
  • به علت اینکه امکان درج تصاویر استفاده شده در پاو وینت وجود ندارد،در صورتی که مایل به دریافت  تصاویری از ان قبل از ید هستید، می توانید با پشتیبانی تماس حاصل فرمایید
  • پس از پرداخت هزینه ،ارسال آنی پاو وینت ید شده ، به ادرس ایمیل شما و لینک فایل برای شما نمایش داده خواهد شد
  • در صورت  مشاهده  بهم ریختگی احتمالی در متون بالا ،دلیل آن کپی این مطالب از داخل اسلاید ها میباشد ودر فایل اصلی این پاو وینت،به هیچ وجه بهم ریختگی وجود ندارد
  • در صورتی که اسلاید ها داری ج و یا ع باشند در متون پاو وینت قرار نخواهند گرفت.
  • هدف فروشگاه پاو وینت کمک به سیستم آموزشی و رفاه دانشجویان و علم آموزان میهن عزیزمان میباشد. 


 

فایل  پرداخت آنلاین 


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پاو وینت بیماری های cucumber


مشاهده متن کامل ...
biofilm
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

handbook of hygiene control in the food
industry
biofilm risks

introduction: biofilm formation and detection

biofilm formation, sampling and detection methods, pathogens in biofilms, persistent and non-persistent microbes, prevention of biofilm formation and biofilm removal as well as future trends in biofilm control in the food industry.

microbes that inhabit contact and environmental sites in food processing are mostly harmful because microbial communities in the wrong places lead to contamination of surfaces and of the product produced in the process.

this study showed that the slow-growing strains covered tested surfaces with 2±4% biofilm in 10 days; fast biofilm producers had already covered the whole surface in 2 days.

in addition to the problems in food industry, biofilm formation also causes problems in food-related systems, e.g. industrial water systems as well as the paper and packaging industry.

on the positive side, however, biofilms have also been applied successively in food-related processes, e.g. in brewing and in water treatment .

factors affecting biofilm formation

in order to be able to survive hostile environmental factors such as heat and chemicals, microbes in micro colonies have a tendency to form protective extracellular matrices, which mainly consist of polysaccharides and glyco- proteins, and are called biofilms.

the microcolony formation is the first stage in biofilm formation, which occurs under suitable conditions on any surface ± both inert and living.

microbes can start up this formation when there is water or moisture available.

physical parameters such as fluid flow rate, charge, hydrophobicity and micro-topog hy of the surface material affect the attachment of cells to the surface.

cells must overcome the energy-intensive repulsion barrier, which affects the particle surfaces.

bacteria with pili could conceivably overcome this barrier to achieve micro-coloni ion and biofilm formation.

it has been found that temperatures below 50°c promote biofilm formation.

in the food industry, equipment design plays the most important role in combating(نبرد) biofilm formations.

the choice of materials and their surface treatments as well as roughness, e.g. grinding and polishing, are important factors for inhibiting the formation of biofilm and making surfaces easier to clean.

treating surface materials so that they reject biofilms can be performed actively to remove or p ively to retard biofilm reoccurrence.

the cleanliness of surfaces, training of personnel and good manufacturing and design practices are the most important tools in combating biofilm problems in the food industry.

biofilm formation on food processing surfaces

it is also important to remember that about 85±96% of a biofilm consists of water, which means that only 2±5% of the total biofilm volume is detectable on dry surfaces.

biofilm can generally be produced by any microbes under suitable conditions, although some microbes naturally have a higher tendency to produce biofilm than others.

a biofilm consists of microbial cell clusters with a network of internal channels or voids in the extracellular polysaccharide and glycoprotein matrix.

this allows nutrients and oxygen to be transported from the bulk liquid to the cells.

it has been suggested that the mechanisms of microbial attachment and biofilm build-up occur in 2, 3,5 and eight-step processes.

the two-step process is divided into reversible and irreversible biofilm formation.

the reversible phase involves the ociation of cells near to but not in contact with the surface.

biofilm formation on food processing surfaces

cells ociated with the surface synthesise exopolymers, which irreversibly bind the cells to the surface.

characklis described biofilm build-up using the following five steps:

biofilm formation on food processing surfaces

1- transportation of cells to a wetted surface, absorption of the cells into a conditioning film, adhesion of microbial cells to the wetted surface, reaction of the cells in the biofilm and detachment of biofilm from the surface.

bryers and weightman (1995) divided the biofilm build-up into the following eight steps:

1-preconditioning of the surface by macromolecules, 2- transport of cells to the surface,3 and 4- reversible and irreversible adsorption to the surface, 5- cell replication, 6- transport of nutrients and metabolism, 7- production of extracellular polymers and, finally,8- detachment.

sampling and detection of biofilm formation in food processing sites

methods for studying biofilm formation include microbiological, chemical, microscopical and molecular biological methods.

practical methods for essing microbes and organic soil on processing surfaces are needed to establish the optimal cleaning frequency of the equipment.

hygiene monitoring is currently based on conventional cultivation using swabbing, rinsing or contact plates.

surface sampling can be improved by wetting the surface in a nce.

in methods that use swabs, sponges or something similar, the detachment of surface-bound microbes is a limiting factor.

sampling and detection of biofilm formation in food processing sites

in the cultivation of biofilm microbes, it is important for the sample to be detached and mixed properly.

sampling and detection of biofilm formation in food processing sites

agitation used too forcefully in the detachment of the biofilm from the surface may harm the cells, making them unable to grow on the agar plates, whereas insufficient mixing may result in clumps and inaccurate results.

ultrasonics detaches about ten times the number of cells from the surface compared with swabbing.

sampling and detection of biofilm formation in food processing sites

in biofilm detection the planktonic cell counts of processing fluids should be interpreted with caution because they are not always representative of the sessile(چسبیده) organisms found on surfaces, especially in badly designed equipment and process lines.

sampling and detection of biofilm formation in food processing sites

organisms from extreme environments are difficult to culture and therefore standard plate counts do not give accurate estimates.

the choice of agar and incubation conditions during the cultivation is governed by the characteristics of the microbes that are considered to be the most important.

sampling and detection of biofilm formation in food processing sites

conventional culturing techniques are used to measure the number of viable cells able to grow on the chosen agar at given circumstances.

the plates and slides are usually incubated at 25±30 °c for 2±3 days.

the agars are either nutrient agars, which may contain tryptose, yeast, glucose and agar-agar, or selective agars based on growth inhibitors, e.g. nutritional, antibiotic or acidic compounds.

sampling and detection of biofilm formation in food processing sites

the international standard methods for the detection and enumeration of spoilage and pathogenic microbes are based on culturing techniques.

impedance techniques can be used to enumerate microorganisms directly on surfaces as the increase in conductance and capacitance due to the metabolic activity of the microbes in the sample leads to a decrease in the impedance.

the measurement of the change in impedance value at suitable time intervals provides an impedance curve and thus the detection time of microbial growth in the sample.

the detection time depends on the number of microbes in the sample.

results are achieved more idly with impedance measurements than with cultivation.

impedance measurement is used in the food industry to control product quality and to ess the effect of cleaning agents and disinfectants.

the chemical methods used in the essment of biofilm formation are indirect methods based on the utili ion or production of specific compounds, e.g. organic carbon, oxygen, polysaccharides and proteins, or on the biofilm microbial activity, e.g. living cells and atp (adenosine 5' -triphosphate) content.

atp measurement is a luminescence method based on the luciferine ± luciferase reaction.

the atp content of the biofilm is proportional to the number of living cells in the biofilm and provides information about their metabolic activity.

kinetic data obtained for freely suspended cells should not be used to ess immobilised biom growth, e.g. biofilm.

the atp method is insensitive and therefore not suitable for hygiene measurements in equipment where absolute sterility is needed, because with most of the reagents used today a count of at least 103 bacterial cells is needed to obtain a reliable atp value.

important tools in modern biotechnology-related research are based on microscopical techniques.

one a ntage of microscopical analysis is that it can measure surface-adhered cells, rather than cells that have been detached from the surface.

various microscopical techniques for studying cell adhesion and biofilm formation on surface materials are available including:

epifluorescence, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, fourier transformation infrared spectrometry, quartz-crystal microbalance and infrared spectroscopy as well as confocal laser scanning and atomic force microscopying techniques.

fluorescence is a type of luminescence in which light is emitted from molecules for a short period of time following the absorption of light.

fluorescence occurs when an excited electron returns to a lower-energy orbit and emits a p on of light.

many different fluorochromes have been used for the staining of microbes in food samples, biofilms and environmental samples.

flow cytometry using fluorescent probes is a direct optical technique for the measurement of functional and structural properties of individual cells in a cell population.

the cells are forced to flow in single file along a idly moving fluid stream through a powerful light source.

this technique has been used to determine the viability of protozoa, fungi and bacteria.

it measures the viability of a statistically significant number of organisms (5000±25 000 cells per sample).

the a ntages of flow cytometry are accuracy, speed, sensitivity and reproducibility.

in the food industry, the first step is to identify the biofilm problems in a particular process or site.

subsequently, it is important to use the best possible methods for isolation and detection of the biofilm for further characteri ion in the laboratory using molecular biology and biochemical methods.

these methods can be utilized in the detection and identification of microbes in two ways by performing identification either directly from sample material or indirectly from pure cultures obtained from the samples.

the two major techniques applied in the molecular detection and identification of bacteria are the polymerase chain reaction and the hybridi ion technique.

pathogens in biofilms

it is somewhat alarming to know that pathogens such as escherichia coli o157:h7, listeria monocytogenes, salmonella typhimurium, pylobacter jejuni and yersinia enterocolitica can easily produce biofilms or be part of biofilm communities that cause severe disinfection and cleaning problems on surfaces in the food industry.

according to a study by peters et al. (1999) pathogens were isolated from biofilm communities.

in this study listeria spp. were found in 35% of food contact sites and 42% of environmental sites, with staphylococcus aureus being
present in a total of 7% and 8%, respectively.

joseph et al. (2001) have reported pathogenic bacteria such as klebsiella spp., pylobacter spp. and entero- haemorrhagic e. coli in biofilms.

in laboratory studies, specific properties of pathogens in biofilms have been studied, and it has been found that biofilm cells of listeria were more resistant than planktonic cells to disinfectants containing, e.g., chlorine, iodine, quaternary ammonium and anionic acid compounds.

l. monocytogenes strains in biofilm studies on gl surfaces at static conditions of 37 °c for up to 4 days.

after 3 h incubation bacterial cells from all 13 strains had attached themselves to the gl slides and they formed biofilms within 24 hours.

two poultry isolates of salmonella were used to study biofilm formation on three commonly used food contact surfaces viz. plastic, concrete and stainless steel.

both isolates, i.e. salmonella weltevreden and salmonella fcm 40, showed similar patterns in the biofilm formation with the greatest growth on plastic followed by concrete and stainless steel.

in the following chapters there are more examples of the biofilm formation capability of some gram-negative and gram-positive pathogenic bacteria.

salmonella biofilms

salmonella is a genus within the family enterobacteriaceae in which approxi- mately 2200 serotypes are recognised.

some of these strains are specifically adapted to hosts and largely restricted to them, e.g. s. typhi in man and s.dublin in cattle.

salmonella is a non-spore-forming rod-shaped, motile gram- negative bacterium with non-motile exceptions such as s. gallinarum and s. pullorum.

salmonella serotypes are traditionally named as if they were separate species but, because of their genetic similarity, a single species, s. enterica, has been proposed, with food-poisoning serotypes mostly cl ified subspecies, also named enterica.

the growth range for salmonellae is 5±47 ëc at ph 4.0±9.0, with optimum growth at 35±37 ëc and ph 6.5±7.5. salmonellae are not particularly salt-tolerant, although growth can occur in the presence of 4% the lower limit of water activity (aw) permitting growth is 0.93.

foods commonly ociated with the disease include raw meats, poultry, eggs, milk and dairy products.

milk-borne salmonellosisis common in parts of the world where milk is neither boiled nor pasteurised.

it occurs, but much less frequently, in developed countries where the main products implicated are pasteurised milk, powdered milk and certain cheeses.

formation of a biofilm by salmonella on various types of surfaces used in the food processing industry has been reported by several groups.

these studies have shown that salmonella spp. can form biofilms on food contact surfaces and that the cells in biofilms are much more resistant to sanitisers compared to planktonic cells.

mokgatla and co-workers (1998) studied the resistance of salmonella sp. isolated from a poultry abattoir and found out that it will grow in the presence of in-use concentrations of hypochlorous acid.

the presence of pseudomonas fluorescens in the biofilm resulted in the increased resistance of s. typhimurium to chlorine.

escherichia coli biofilms

escherichia coli is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium.

because many microbes from faeces are pathogenic in animals and humans, the presence of the intestinal bacterium e. coli in water and foods indicates a potential hygiene hazard.

most strains of e. coli are harmless. however, a few strains with well- characterised traits are known to be ociated with pathogenicity.

those of greatest concern in water and foods are the intestinal pathogens, which are cl ified into five major groups:

the enterohaemorrhagic e. coli (ehec), the enterotoxigenic e. coli (etec), the enteroinvasive e. coli (eiec), the enteropathogenic e. coli (epec) and the enteroaggregative e. coli (eaec).

growth can occur at 7±46 ëc with the maximal growth rate at 35±37 ëc. the minimum aw for growth ranges from 0.94 and 0.97.

escherichia coli biofilms

the optimum ph for growth is approximately 7.0, with a minimum and maximum ph for growth of 4.5 and 9.0. ehec has been shown to grow poorly at temperatures of 44 °c.

escherichia coli has been isolated from a large number of foods and drinks, e.g. fermented meat sausage, dairy products, vegetables, meat, poultry and fish products, water and apple cider.

these agents can cause diarrhoeal outbreaks.

unpasteurised milk is a common vehicle of e. coli o157:h7 transmission to humans .

e. coli can also survive for extended periods of time in several acidic foods, e.g. cheese and yogurt.

acid-adapted e. coli o157:h7 has shown enhanced survival and prevalence in biofilms on stainless steel surfaces.

in a hygiene survey performed in the food industry by holah et al. (2002), microbial strains, e.g. e. coli and l. monocytogenes, were found either on surfaces or in productsor in both, and some of these strains were persistent.

faille et al. (2002, 2003) found out that e. coli cells were poorly adhered to surfaces.

the cells were embedded in the organic matrix of the biofilm, which shows that the structure ofthe biofilm formed affects the way in which the surfaces should be cleaned.

oulahal-lagsir et al. (2003) showed in their studies that proteolytic and glycolytic enzyme treatment together with ultrasonics enhance the removal of e. coli biofilm from stainless steel soiled with milk.

these findings correspond with results obtained in the food industry.

pylobacter biofilms

listeria monocytogenes biofilms

staphylococcus aureus biofilms

bacillus cereus biofilms

clostridium perfringens biofilms

mycobacterium biofilms

biofilms and microbial contamination in food processing

prolonged or persistent contamination of some listeria monocytogenes strains, which means that they have caused food plant contamination for long periods of up to several years, has been reported in several food industry areas, e.g. meat, poultry, fish, dairy and fresh sauces.

biofilms and microbial contamination in food processing

escherichia coli and salmonella isolates are also known to be persistent in food and fish feed factories.

persistent l. monocytogenes plant contamination appears to be the result of the interaction of several different factors.

properties that influence survival, including enhanced adherence to food contact surfaces and adaptation to disinfectants, in addition to such predisposing factors in the processing line as complex processing machines and poor zoning may lead to persistent plant contamination.

biofilms and microbial contamination in food processing

the eradication of persistent contamination of l. monocytogenes has been shown to be difficult but not impossible.

targeted and improved sanitation has led to successful eradication.

in studies performed by lundeân (2004), persistent l. monocytogenes strains were observed to adhere to stainless steel surfaces in higher cell numbers than non-persistent strains after short contact times.

such enhanced adherence increases the likelihood of the survival of the persistent strains due to increased resistance against prevention methods and may have an effect on the initiation of persistent plant contamination.

if the adherence period of strains was prolonged then the adherence level of non-persistent strains was close to the adherence level of persistent strains.

the initial resistance of persistent and non-persistent l. monocytogenes strains to disinfectants varied, and the increase in resistance was similar for persistent and non-persistent strains.

prevention of biofilm formation and biofilm removal

harmful microbes may enter the manufacturing process and reach the end-product in several ways, e.g. through raw materials, air in the manufacturing area, chemicals employed, process surfaces or factory personnel.

once a biofilm is formed, either on food contact or environmental surfaces, it can be a source of contamination for foods p ing through the same processing line.

for example, listeria monocytogenes is difficult to remove from the factory environment once it has become a part of the house microbiota.

therefore, it is especially important for the persistent growth of pathogenic and harmful microbes to be prevented in the food processing line using all available means.

in the food industry, equipment design and the choice of surface materials are important in fighting microbial biofilm formation.

attention should also be paid to the quality of additives and raw materials as well as the processing water, steam and other additives, because using poor quality materials leads to the easy spoiling of the process.

prevention of biofilm formation and biofilm removal

the aim of microbial control in a process line is two-fold: to reduce or limit the number of microbes in liquids and products and to reduce or limit their activity and to prevent and control the formation of biofilms on surfaces.

at present the most efficient means for limiting the growth of microbes are good production hygiene, the rational running of the process line, and the well-designed use of cleaning and decontamination processes.

the cleanliness of surfaces, the training of personnel and good manufacturing and design practices are important in combating biofilm problems in the food industry.

hygienic equipment design

several conferences and literature reviews have shown that the design of the equipment and process line in the food processing and packaging industry are important in preventing biofilm formation to improve the process and production hygiene.

the most significant laws regarding the food industry are the eu directive 98/37/eu and machine standard en 1672-2:1997.

en 1672 draws particular attention to dead spaces, corners, crevices, cracks, gaskets, seals, valves, fasteners and joints owing to their ability to harbour microorganisms that can subsequently endure adverse/harmful process conditions.

equipment that causes problems in food processing and packaging includes slicing and cutting equipment, filling and packing machines, conveyors, plate heat exchangers and tanks with piping.

these types of equipment can cause contamination through spoilage microbes and pathogens as they are difficult to clean, e.g. the pathogen listeria monocytogenes is often ociated with harbourage in poorly designed equipment.

biofilm removal

the elimination of biofilms is a very difficult and demanding task, because many factors affect the detachment, such as temperature, time, mechanical forces and chemical forces.

sanitation, i.e. cleaning and disinfection, is carried out in food processing plants in order to produce safe products with an acceptable shelf-life and quality.

the key to the effective cleaning of a food plant is the understanding of the type and nature of the soil and of the microbial growth on the surfaces to be removed.

the intelligent integration of decontamination programmes in the manufacturing are essential to achieve both successful cleaning and business profit.

lelieveld as early as 1985 wrote that there is a trend towards longer production runs with short intervals for sanitation, because the sanitation should be performed as cost- effectively and safely as possible.

the mechanical and chemical power, temperature and contact time in the cleaning regime should be carefully chosen to achieve an adequate cleaning effect.

an efficient cleaning procedure consists of a sequence of rinses and detergent and disinfectant applications in various combinations of temperature and concentration, finally letting the equipment and process lines dry in well-ventilated areas.

the basic task of detergents is to reduce the interfacial tensions of soils so that the soil attached to surfaces, for example biofilm, becomes miscible(مخلوط شدنی) in water.

the effect of the surfactants is increased by the mechanical effect of turbulent flow or water pressure, or by abrasives, for example salt crystals.

prolonged exposure of the surfaces to the detergent makes removal more efficient.

detergents to be used in the cleaning of open systems are formulated to be effective at temperatures in the range 35±50 c.

in closed systems the detergents are formulated to be used at temperatures in the range of 55±80 c.

elimination of biofilms in open systems is performed as follows: gross soil should be removed by dry methods, e.g. brushing, s ing or vacuuming, and, if the process is wet, the visible soil can be rinsed off with low-pressure water.

the effective elimination of biofilms from open systems is achieved by dismantling the equipment in the process line and cleaning is then carried out using either foam or gel.

foams are most effective in situations where contact with the soil for an extended contact time is necessary.

the surfactants, which suspend the adhered particles and microbes from the surfaces in the water, are added to increase the cleaning effect, which is also increased by using water of sufficient volume at the correct temperature and pressure.

the dismantled equipment and utensils should thereafter be stored on racks and tables, not on the floor.

the cleaning is mostly carried out in combination with a final disinfection, because viable microbes on the surfaces are likely to harm production.

in the cleaning regime for closed processes, pre-rinsing with cold water is carried out to remove loose soil.

cleaning-in-place (cip) treatment is normally performed using cleaning solutions, but cold solutions can also be used in the processing of fat-free products.

the warm alkaline cleaning solution, normally 1% sodium hydroxide, is heated to 75±80 ëc and the cleaning time is 15±20 min.

the equipment is rinsed with cold water before the acid treatment is performed at approximately 60±70 ëc for 5 min.

the effect of chlorine-based agents can be divided into three phases: loosening of the biofilm from the surface, breakage of the biofilm and the disinfective effect of the active chlorine.

the cleaning solutions should not be re-used in processes in order to achieve total sterility because the reused cleaning solution can contaminate the equipment.

single-phase cip is more commonly used nowadays because the processing industry wants to save time.

in single-phase cleaning procedures the time it takes to carry out one cleaning process, normally the acid treatment, and a rinsing step can be saved .

the p obacterial test can be used to test that rinsing has been performed properly.

bacterial biofilm, bacillus subtilis (scale bar is 10 μm), which grows in big colonies, all packed together in parallel chains.

biofilm on a stainless steel surface

scanning electron microscopy p omicrog h of a 6 old b. cereus biofilm formed on a stainless steel surface. x 6330 magnification; bar = 5 micron

biofilm formation

scanning electron microg h of p. fragi on stainless steel surface grown in tryptic soy broth for 24 h at 23°c. thin, hair-like projectiles can be seen going from the cell wall to the stainless steel surface. these frimbrils physically attach the cell to the surface and are the first phase in the development of a biofilm. the other material visible on the slide is debris from the culture medium[10].

five stages of biofilm development: (1) initial attachment, (2) irreversible attachment, (3) maturation i, (4) maturation ii, and (5) dispersion. each stage of development in the diagram is paired with a p omicrog h of a developing p. aeruginosa biofilm. all p omicrog hs are shown to same scale.

an image from an electron scanning microscope of a staphylococcus aureus biofilm on a vascular prosthesis.

thermophilic bacteria in the outflow of mickey springs, oregon, approximately 20 mm thick



مشاهده متن کامل ...
vitamin d and prostate cancer
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

urology news august 10,2014

vitamin d in blood and risk of prostate cancer: lessons from the selenium and vitamin e cancer prevention trial and the prostate cancer prevention trial

gary g. schwartz1,2,3,*departments of 1cancer biology, 2urology, and 3epidemiology and prevention, wake forest university school of medicine, winston-salem, north carolina

the effects of blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin d (25-ohd) on the risk of total, low-, and high-grade prostate cancer were examined in the selenium and vitamin e cancer prevention trial (select) and the prostate cancer prevention trial (pcpt). in the select study, plasma 25-ohd levels were ociated with a linear decrease in prostate cancer risk for high-grade cancers in african american men and an apparent “u”-shaped effect in other men. the “u-shaped” curve may reflect detection bias. in the pcpt study, in which detection bias was minimized, serum 25-ohd levels were ociated with a linear decrease in the risk of high-grade prostate cancers. the results from these large prevention trials support the hypothesis that circulating levels of 25-ohd decrease the risk of clinically relevant prostate cancers. cancer epidemiol biomarkers prev; 23(8); 1447–9. ©2014 aacr. may 9, 2014

plasma vitamin d and prostate cancer risk: results from the selenium and vitamin e cancer prevention trial

alan r. kristal1,3,*, cathee till2, xiaoling song1, catherine m. tangen1,2, phyllis j. goodman2, marian l. neuhauser1, jeannette m. schenk1, ian m. thompson5, frank l. meyskens jr6, gary e. goodman3,4, lori m. minasian7, howard l. parnes7, and eric a. klein81cancer prevention program; 2swog statistical center, fred hutchinson cancer research center; 3departments of epidemiology and 4environmental health, university of washington, seattle, washington; 5department of urology, university of texas–san antonio health science center, 6chao family comprehensive cancer center, university of california irvine, irvine, california; of cancer prevention, national cancer institute, national institutes of health, bethesda, maryland; and 8glickman urological and kidney institute, cleveland clinic, cleveland, ohio

background: in vitro, animal, and ecological studies suggest that inadequate vitamin d intake could increase prostate cancer risk, but results of biomarker-based longitudinal studies are inconsistent.

methods: data for this case (n = 1,731) and cohort (n = 3,203) analysis are from the selenium and vitamin e cancer prevention trial. cox proportional hazard models were used to test whether baseline plasma vitamin d (25-hydroxy) concentration, adjusted for season of blood collection, was ociated with the risk of total and gleason score 2–6, 7–10, and 8–10 prostate cancer.

results: there were u-shaped ociations of vitamin d with total cancer risk: compared with the first quintile, hrs were 0.83 [95% confidence interval (ci), 0.66–1.03; p = 0.092], 0.74 (95% ci, 0.59–0.92; p = 0.008), 0.86 (95% ci, 0.69–1.07; p = 0.181), and 0.98 (95% ci, 0.78–1.21; p = 0.823), for the second through fifth quintiles, respectively. for gleason 7–10 cancer, corresponding hrs were 0.63 (95% ci, 0.45–0.90; p = 0.010), 0.66 (95% ci, 0.47–0.92; p = 0.016), 0.79 (95% ci, 0.56–1.10; p = 0.165), and 0.88 (95% ci, 0.63–1.22; p = 0.436). among african american men (n = 250 cases), higher vitamin d was ociated with reduced risk of gleason 7–10 cancer only: in the a posteriori contrast of quintiles 1–2 versus 3–5, the hr was 0.55 (95% ci, 0.31–0.97; p = 0.037), with no evidence of dose–response or a u-shaped ociation.

conclusions: both low and high vitamin d concentrations were ociated with increased risk of prostate cancer, and more strongly for high-grade disease.

impact: the optimal range of circulating vitamin d for prostate cancer prevention may be narrow. supplementation of men with adequate levels may be harmful. cancer epidemiol biomarkers prev; 23(8); 1494–504. ©2014 aacr.april 8, 2014.

serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d concentrations and risk of prostate cancer: results from the prostate cancer prevention trial

jeannette m. schenk1,*, cathee a. till2, catherine m. tangen2, phyllis j. goodman2, xiaoling song1, kathleen c. torkko4, alan r. kristal1,3, ulrike peters1, and marian l. neuhouser11fred hutchinson cancer research center, cancer prevention program; 2swog, statistical center; 3department of epidemiology, university of washington, seattle, washington; and 4department of pathology, university of colorado denver, aurora, colorado

background: epidemiologic studies have reported inconsistent ociations of vitamin d and prostate cancer risk; however, few have adequately controlled for detection bias related to prostate-specific antigen (psa) screening, and the results of many studies may be affected by occult prostate cancers among controls.

methods: data for this nested case–control analysis (n = 1,695 cases/1,682 controls) are from the prostate cancer prevention trial. baseline serum was analyzed for 25-hydroxyvitamin d [25(oh)d]. the presence or absence of cancer was subsequently determined by prostate biopsy. polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate ociations of 25(oh)d with risk of total, gleason 2–6, gleason 7, and gleason 8–10 prostate cancer. results are presented for placebo and finasteride arms separately and combined.

results: there were no ociations of serum 25(oh)d with total prostate cancer risk. for gleason 2–6 cancers, results were inconsistent across treatment arms with a suggestion of increased risk in the placebo arm only; however, there was no dose–response relationship. for gleason 8–10 prostate cancers, 25(oh)d concentrations were ociated with a linear decrease in risk among combined treatment arms [quartile 4 vs. 1: or, 0.55; 95% confidence interval (ci), 0.32–0.94; ptrend = 0.04]. these findings were somewhat stronger among men ≥65 versus 55–64 years at baseline (quartile 4 vs. 1: or, 0.40; 95% ci, 0.18–0.88 vs. or, 0.73; 95% ci, 0.35–1.52, respectively; pinteraction = 0.52).

conclusions: higher serum 25(oh)d may modestly increase risk of gleason 2–6 disease and more substantially reduce risk of gleason 8–10 prostate cancer.

impact: vitamin d may have different effects for different stages of prostate cancers. cancer epidemiol biomarkers prev; 23(8); 1484–93. ©2014 aacr. may 23, 2014.



مشاهده متن کامل ...
all about you
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

you could be my dirty secret (i could be yours)

we could only be a rumor (never be sure)

you could meet me in the backseat (late night)

a ticket up in first cl (mile high)

cause hey baby, baby you got me so, so good

hey baby, baby, i got it so, so bad

think you\'re all about me? but i\'m all about you

turn the lights down, let me show you its true

get a little taste of what i\'m into

think you\'re all about me? but i\'m all about you, you

i don\'t want to keep a secret (let the combo)

this is more than just a little thing (baby fo\' sho\')

i can\'t wait until the next time (we meet)

gotta kiss you in the daylight (out on the beach)

cause hey baby, baby you got me so, so good

hey baby, baby, i got it so, so bad

think you\'re all about me? but i\'m all about you

turn the lights down, let me show you its true

get a little taste of what i\'m into

think you\'re all about me? but i\'m all about you, you

midnight eyes, oh you e as a surprise

you were right on time

think you\'re all about me? but i\'m all about you (hey, oooh)

think you\'re all about me? but i\'m all about you (hey, oooh)

think you\'re all about me? but i\'m all about you

think you\'re all about me? but i\'m all about you

turn the lights down, let me show you its true

get a little taste of what i\'m into

think you\'re all about me? but i\'m all about you, you





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all about you
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

you could be my dirty secret (i could be yours)

we could only be a rumor (never be sure)

you could meet me in the backseat (late night)

a ticket up in first cl (mile high)

cause hey baby, baby you got me so, so good

hey baby, baby, i got it so, so bad

think you\'re all about me? but i\'m all about you

turn the lights down, let me show you its true

get a little taste of what i\'m into

think you\'re all about me? but i\'m all about you, you

i don\'t want to keep a secret (let the combo)

this is more than just a little thing (baby fo\' sho\')

i can\'t wait until the next time (we meet)

gotta kiss you in the daylight (out on the beach)

cause hey baby, baby you got me so, so good

hey baby, baby, i got it so, so bad

think you\'re all about me? but i\'m all about you

turn the lights down, let me show you its true

get a little taste of what i\'m into

think you\'re all about me? but i\'m all about you, you

midnight eyes, oh you e as a surprise

you were right on time

think you\'re all about me? but i\'m all about you (hey, oooh)

think you\'re all about me? but i\'m all about you (hey, oooh)

think you\'re all about me? but i\'m all about you

think you\'re all about me? but i\'m all about you

turn the lights down, let me show you its true

get a little taste of what i\'m into

think you\'re all about me? but i\'m all about you, you





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cola song ft. j balvin
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

we got that coca cola bottle shape shape shape

we got that sugar, do you wanna taste taste taste?

we take it all around the globe,

baby everywhere we go make it when mama arrives

shake! shake! shake!

like ooh, you know they wanted

ey, andale!

ooh, you know we got it

aah, smile we say!

soy latina baby

soy latina baby

ok, let\'s party! say ole!

soy latina y la noche we own it baby

ok, let\'s party! say ole! ole!

i got that coca cola bottle shape shape shape

but how much cola can your body take take take?!

everytime i come around, oh you know

it\'s going down, make it when mama arrives

shake! shake! shake!

like ooh, you know they wanted

ey, andale!

ooh, you know we got it

aah, smile we say!

soy latina baby

soy latina baby

ok, let\'s party! say ole!

soy latina y la noche we own it baby

ok, let\'s party! say ole! ole!

[j balvin:]

j balvin, inna la combinacion mondial!

soy latina baby

soy latina baby

ok, let\'s party! say ole!

soy latina y la noche we own it baby

ok, let\'s party! say ole! ole!





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cola song ft. j balvin
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

we got that coca cola bottle shape shape shape

we got that sugar, do you wanna taste taste taste?

we take it all around the globe,

baby everywhere we go make it when mama arrives

shake! shake! shake!

like ooh, you know they wanted

ey, andale!

ooh, you know we got it

aah, smile we say!

soy latina baby

soy latina baby

ok, let\'s party! say ole!

soy latina y la noche we own it baby

ok, let\'s party! say ole! ole!

i got that coca cola bottle shape shape shape

but how much cola can your body take take take?!

everytime i come around, oh you know

it\'s going down, make it when mama arrives

shake! shake! shake!

like ooh, you know they wanted

ey, andale!

ooh, you know we got it

aah, smile we say!

soy latina baby

soy latina baby

ok, let\'s party! say ole!

soy latina y la noche we own it baby

ok, let\'s party! say ole! ole!

[j balvin:]

j balvin, inna la combinacion mondial!

soy latina baby

soy latina baby

ok, let\'s party! say ole!

soy latina y la noche we own it baby

ok, let\'s party! say ole! ole!





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