پنجره پنجره ای به اطلاعات و مقالات فارسی
 our belief
a replay to: “belief of mahdism in shia imamia”
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a replay to: “belief of mahdism in shia imamia”


point

a replay to:

“belief of mahdism in shia imamia”

by: ayatollah lutfollah saafi golpayegani

translated by: dr. hasan najafi

in the name of allah


ادامه مطلب


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yarsan and their beliefs, learn more about yarsan in iran
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i’ve been struggling to show reality about yarsan belief and all yarsan activists care p ionately about equal right that always have proved by conciliatory efforts and peaceful demand expressed. you can read a lot about yarsan in persian and kurdish languages but lack of english essay propelled me to write in this way so this article deals with the belief systems of yarsan religion residing in the western part of iran. this work is followed by a thick description of ethnog hy of religious (culture) elements، religious texts from the past and characteristics of yarsan community through an emic approach. this study is essentially based on hermeneutic anthropology which seeks to put religious belief and interpretation holy texts of yarsan and the other people's stories which handed down from their ancestors. participant observation and interviews were employed as data collection strategies. the ethnog hic findings demonstrated that the religious aspect determines of their different states and quality of life. the result of this research may be useful in cultural and convergence discourses thus spontaneously needing to know about geog hical location and the government system of that area.



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criticize two beliefs in buddhism
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by ; mahdi gerami pour

4.contradiction between belief of negation of yoursehf and reincarnation : buddhist people on the one hand negates selfishness and sensuality, but on the other hand, defending the principle of reincarnation. requires acceptance of reincarnation, belief in yourself, because if the soul separates from the body and spreads to other body and it is constantly flowing, requires that human selfishness remain.

negation of god : indian rituals are divided into two categories; theist and godless. some hindu schools to believe in god, although sometimes their gods is different with god in abrahamic faiths and other religions. hindi some believe not in allah and are godless school. buddhism people fit in the latter category. in the buddhistthere hs no place to god and believe in it and in a sense buddhism is a secular system.



منبع: http://shia-fact. .. /


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a monster calls
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- many things that are true feel like a cheat...
i don't get it. who's the good guy here?
there is not always a good guy, conor o'malley. nor is there always a bad one. most people are somewhere in between.

- belief is half of all healing. belief in the cure, belief in the future that awaits. your belief is valuable, so you must be careful where you put it, and in whom.

- the eyes. the eyes, that's it. life is always in the eyes. if you get that, you'll be a proper artist. yeah. look. this is how we draw the eyes in. this is where the eyes catch the reflection. then we see the life in the eyes, see that? it's life.

• a monster calls - 2016 ‧ drama/fantasy ‧ 1h 48m - 7.5/10 imdb

• [tear up this town - keane]

i wanna hand you my heart and let you carry the load, nobody tells you anything you need to know, i need a friend but a friend is so hard to find, i need an answer but i’m always one step behind.

cause it takes time, learning to fly.

do you ever feel like all you want is to go home, to kiss the earth, to weave a way through this storm, some days i rage like a fire in the wilderness, some days i only need the darkness and a place to rest.

oh it takes time, (it takes time) learning to fly.

tear up this town, blinking in the sunlight as the walls come down, this fire will burn, digging for a truth that just can’t be found, don’t want your lessons in love, i want to tear it all up.

i need a friend but a friend is so hard to find, i need an answer but i’m always one step behind, oh it takes time, (it takes time) yes, it takes time, (it takes time) learning to fly

tear up this town, blinking in the sunlight as the walls come down, this fire will burn, digging for a truth that just can’t be found, don’t want your lessons in love, i want to tear it all up.


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پرسشنامه باورهای غیر منطقی جونز – 100 ماده ای irrational belief
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پرسشنامه باورهای غیر منطقی جونز 100 ماده ای  ادامه مطلب...



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masih
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picture of jesus christ as the good shepherd


(vitra oil painting on window church of st. john (st. john's) in sydney, australia)


born december 25 ah-or-sixth of january of the first year. m [a]

hrvdyn the four provinces of the roman empire [5] mrg30-33 ad [b]

judea, the roman empire


cause of death


according to the quran, muslims believe that jesus died and been resurrected [7]

according to christians, crucifixion [c] zadgahnasrh town, galilee [12] valdynbh christians believe was the son of god and the dvmtslys [13] [14] [15]


jesus christ, or jesus of nazareth or jesus the son of mary (hebrew: ישוע [jeshua], ancient greece: ἰησοῦς [asus]) the birth of his birth, is the beginning of the year to which they say the first day of the first year's christmas day, which later followers believed december 25, "was that day to know and celebrate christmas. jesus christ is the central figure in christianity and the divine prophets is the religion of islam. in christian belief, jesus tjsmkhda in the human body and began the mistaken belief of christianity. in bethlehem, of nazareth mntqhyhvdyh was born in the state. muslims to jesus as a prophet of god (but not the son of god) believe and some other religions also consider him an important figure. his mother mary to the will of god and no wife be e pregnant and gave birth to a son, god in the flesh of his christians, and muslims consider it a miracle.


shmalflstyn that he was remembered as a teacher and healer. most scholars agree that he was baptized by yhyyghsl in jerusalem under pontius pilate and was crucified on charges of sedition against the roman empire. [17] notwithstanding the comments and the results of such a small place, academic studies in the chronology of events, message training centre jesus was crucified because of her social cl or definitive conclusions reached so far. [18] although many researchers have looked into the bible as historical sources with caution, but most critics believe at least some of what bible scholars of jesus' life expressed correctly . [19] [20]


christians look to jesus based on belief in the divinity of jesus christ in the old testament prophecy as he is alive he is after his crucifixion. christians often consider jesus the son of god (usually it is interpreted that he is god the son, the second pillar trinity) is redemption and reconciliation with god on the earth. they also miraculous birth of jesus from a virgin, performed miracles, ascension into heaven, and believe he will return. while belief in the trinity is widely accepted by christians, a small, non-trinitarian views about the divinity of jesus. [21]


in islam, jesus is considered one of the prophets of god in the gospel important in your mobile and showcasing the miracles to prove his prophethood. [22] [23] jesus christ, but from an islamic perspective this also means godly not his. islam denies the crucifixion and his resurrection from the dead and ascended into heaven on the idea that he physically johannesburg. [24] as well as muslims, like christians believe that jesus was a virgin named mary and chosen by god to the world come.



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trump expected to pressure china's xi to rein in north korea: officials
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u.s. president donald trump is expected to pressure china’s president when they meet next month in beijing to do more to rein in north korea out of a belief that xi jinping’s consolidation of power should give him more authority to do so.

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روزنوشت.
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what is it, exactly, about being religious? what is this calmative belief that easily connects to part of our brain, which seems like placebo treatment for different human disorders? why most of the people think they have no power without religious relation? they are actually aware of this much of self-confidence, which i think is just an illusion! it seems to be unknown, and it actually is! and it seems ridiculous for someone like me to deny religion! and i do not. it seems funny too! there is a problem. some days i’m fully aware of this much of overthinking! and some days i’m just hypnotized by the amount of yesterday thinking! ..



منبع: http://twist-again. /


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citi halves forecast for iphone xs max production in q1
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citi research published on friday updated forecasts for the production numbers of apple's iphones in q1. according to the new estimate apple is expected to manufacture 45 million units for the quarter, down from the 50 million earlier forecast. more strikingly, the brokerage lowered its forecast for iphone xs max production in particular by 48%. an analyst at the company states that the updates in the estimates are caused by citi's belief that the iphone is entering a destocking phase, which is inevitably going to affect members of the supply chain and their future...



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hugo barra joins facebook as oculus leader
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hugo barra surprised everyone with his facebook post from several days ago that he leaves his position at xiaomi after 3.5 years in the company. he was behind the global expansion that transformed xiaomi from a startup to one of the top tech companies in the world. and now we know where he will continue to inspire people - oculus. barra is joining forces with mark zuckerberg as vice president of virtual reality at facebook and will lead the oculus team. zuckerberg himself first posted the news on his facebook page: hugo shares my belief that virtual and augmented reality will be...



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overcoming giant and dragon and monstor in literature and art
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meanings of overcoming giant and dragon and monstor in literature and art

in many literary and artistic works there is a hero who encounters with a giant or dragon or monster and she or he must fight with them and conquer the whole of them to achieve her or his goals.

these giant and monster and dragon are symbols in literature and art.in this short article,i indicate 2 general symbolic meanings of these groups of symbols and then i explain them briefly .these two main groups are as follow

the basic concepts

secondary meanings

in basic meanings there is a monster or dragon and hero destroys it.

but in secondary meanings hero faces with a person or thing that has no dragon's or monstor's appearance but indeed the inner of that enemy is like a devil dragon or monster. therefor dragon and monstor in these cases are

a) moral vices

b) fears

c) anxiety

d)wrong thought or belief

i want to clarify it with examples.in so many fairy tales or other kind of literary or artistic works an evil human or a fals belief or wrong thought can be the same dragon or giant that must be defeated.in the conference of the birds written by attar (iranian mystic poet) limited attitudes of birds toward themselves and life is their monster or dragon or mephisto in faust written by goethe or stepmother and stepsisters in cinderella are other symbols for this meaning.so the shape of this enemy is not important but what is notable is the form of facing with it .this is the case

basically in all these meanings hero conquers and dragon and monster defeated and destroyed

also it can be another symbolic meaning for alchemy. hero kills dragon or giant and by this victory her or his dark nigredo finished and her or his albedo and rubedo or self developing and actulizing happen.this is the real meaning of gold in alchemy






مشاهده متن کامل ...
overcoming giant and dragon and monstor in literature and art
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

meanings of overcoming giant and dragon and monstor in literature and art

in many literary and artistic works there is a hero who encounters with a giant or dragon or monster and she or he must fight with them and conquer the whole of them to achieve her or his goals.

these giant and monster and dragon are symbols in literature and art.in this short article,i indicate 2 general symbolic meanings of these groups of symbols and then i explain them briefly .these two main groups are as follow

the basic concepts

secondary meanings

in basic meanings there is a monster or dragon and hero destroys it.

but in secondary meanings hero faces with a person or thing that has no dragon's or monstor's appearance but indeed the inner of that enemy is like a devil dragon or monster. therefor dragon and monstor in these cases are

a) moral vices

b) fears

c) anxiety

d)wrong thought or belief

i want to clarify it with examples.in so many fairy tales or other kind of literary or artistic works an evil human or a fals belief or wrong thought can be the same dragon or giant that must be defeated.in the conference of the birds written by attar (iranian mystic poet) limited attitudes of birds toward themselves and life is their monster or dragon or mephisto in faust written by goethe or stepmother and stepsisters in cinderella are other symbols for this meaning.so the shape of this enemy is not important but what is notable is the form of facing with it .this is the case

basically in all these meanings hero conquers and dragon and monster defeated and destroyed

also it can be another symbolic meaning for alchemy. hero kills dragon or giant and by this victory her or his dark nigredo finished and her or his albedo and rubedo or self developing and actulizing happen.this is the real meaning of gold in alchemy






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seeking the savior in the bible
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jesus christ says about the apocalypse: “nations will be at war! famine, pestilence and earthquakes will occur! people will hate each other! the sun will darken and the moon will have no light!”
matthew, chapter24, verses 1to6

whatever is said, this prophecy is much scarier than the terrible flood of noah and the tale of lot's folk!!! more importantly, humanity must experience and p through all these calamities so that it can acquire the "merit" of believing in "the belief of salvation"! it is here that god does not get involved directly in "saving" but sends his messengers to save the believers! such as sending moses, like sending jesus

?is it not the time for our "savior seeking" to get deeper



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2. confidence in your new relationship with christ
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you can be confident in your new relationship with christ because you have been completely forgiven and accepted by god. only christ’s death on the cross is sufficient to provide this proper relationship with god.

read ephesians 2:8-9. what is declared in these verses?

three important words in these verses explain the basis of our acceptance before god:

grace: unmerited favor, an undeserved gift

q—what role did grace play in establishing your relationship with god?

a—you didn’t deserve this relationship nor did you earn it by any good works. rather it is a free gift from god that you accepted when you received christ through faith.

saved: rescued, spared from disaster

q—what do you think this verse means by saying you are saved? from what are you rescued?

a—romans 6:23 says that the final result of sin is death. when you received christ, you put your trust in christ and his death for your sin. you have been rescued from death and eternal separation from god.

faith: belief, trust, commitment of mind, attitude, action

q—what does faith have to do with receiving christ?

a—simply put, faith is believing or trusting god and his word. when you received christ, you put your trust in christ and his death for your sin. instead of believing in your own ability to earn god’s favor, you must now trust that you have been reconciled to god through what christ has done for you.

key question: suppose you were standing before god and he asked you, “why should i let you into my heaven?” what would you say?



منبع: http://maryamkhodadadi. /


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?what is the hijab
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نتیجه تصویری برای ع دختر چادری

hijab literally means to prevent, as cast between two separate things, cover and cover.

today, the term is meant to cover legal texts veils in public and religious language used by women.

hijab, rather than have individual aspects, social behavior, the wise man must, in addition and when dealing with others, in terms of coverage, requirements and limitations, accepts that the cultures, religions and societies are different.

in religious belief, principle, requirements and constraints and norms determines the presence of religion in society. and the veil tent




منبع: http://zibaiihijab. /


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سکوت
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i swear by the quiet silence of your paper house, i know your dreams are as beautiful as my fancies believable. you've got the mystic believe of love from my silence. i've got the final point of belief from your silence. maybe it's not possible to feel that the words we say about the paper world we've made are hearable. but we can start to paint the gray branches of the paper trees green. i know painting, you know painting too. so why don't you start? when i was a child, i didn't have any water color. i used to go to little garden near stream and cut all the color flowers and paint. if we search the paper garden near paper house for a short time, there have to be flowers to paint our believes the red color of love.

به سکوت آرام خانه کاغذی ات قسم که می دانم رویاهای تو به زیبایی خیالات من باور ی است. تو از سکوت من به باور عرفانی عشق رسیده ای. من از سکوت تو به نقطه نهایی ایمان رسیده ام. شاید نتوان درک کرد که گفته های ما از آن دنیای کاغذی که ساخته ایم، شنیدنی است. ولی می شود دست به کار شد و رنگ سبز به شاخه های خا تری درختهای کاغذی کشید. من که نقاشی می دانم. تو هم که نقاشی می دانی. پس چرا دست به کار نمی شوی؟ وقتی بچه بودم، برایم آبرنگ نمی یدند. می رفتم سراغ باغچه کنار رودخانه هر چه گلهای رنگی بود می چیدم و نقاشی می . اگر کمی در باغ کاغذی کنار خانه کاغذی مان جستجو کنیم حتما گلهای کاغذی دارد که رنگ قرمز عشق به باورهایمان بکشیم.




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chapter three
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chapter three

demand and supply

commodity

items that is bought or sold. the law of demand tell us that the quantity demanded of any commodity is inversely related to its price.

complements

two goods are complements when change in a price of one causes an opposite shift in the demand for the other.

computers and printers are complements goods.

demand

a schedule of showing how much o ood or service people will purchase at any price during a specified time period, other things being constant.

demand is one half of the market exchange process; the other is supply.

equilibrium

a situation in which supply and demand are matched and prices stable. any point that is not equilibrium is unstable and will not persist.

expectation

belief about (or mental picture of) the future.

expectation of a rise in income may cause consumer to want to purchase more of every thing today at today's price.

firm

a business organization that employs resources to produce goods or services for profit.

a firm normally owns and operates at least one plant or facility in order to produce.

if the number of firms increases, supply will increase.

quantity

the amount of good that is bought, sold, or traded among buyers and sellers. the law of demand states that a change in price causes a change in the quantity demanded in the opposite direction.

schedule

an ordered list of times at which things are planned to occur.

we can construct a supply schedule, which is table relating prices to the quantity supplied at each price.

substitutes

two goods are substitutes when a change in a price of one causes a shift in the demand of the other in the same direction as the price change.

er and margarine are substitutes goods.

surplus

a quantity much larger than is needed.

in economics surplus is a situation in which quantity supplied is greater than quantity demanded at a price above the market clearing price.

shortage

a state or situation in which something needed cannot be obtained in sufficient amounts.

in economics shortage is a situation in which quantity demanded is greater than quantity supplied at a price below the market clearing price.



منبع: http://mohammadifard. /


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the psychology of language and thought part one1
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in robert w. rieber (ed.), dialogues on the psychology of language and thought, plenum, 1983

question: what role does cognition play in the acquisition and development of language? do linguistic factors influence general cognitive development?

chomsky: i would like to re-phrase the first question and ask what role other aspects of cognition play in the acquisition of language since, as put, it is not a question i can answer. i would want to regard language as one aspect of cognition and its development as one aspect of the development of cognition. it seems to me that what we can say in general is this:

there are a number of cognitive systems which seem to have quite distinct and specific properties. these systems provide the basis for certain cognitive capacities — for simplicity of exposition, i will ignore the distinction and speak a bit misleadingly about cognitive capacities. the language faculty is one of these cognitive systems. there are others. for example, our capacity to organize visual space, or to deal with abstract properties of the number system, or to comprehend and appreciate certain kinds of .. al creation, or our ability to make sense of the social structures in which we play a role, which undoubtedly reflects conceptual structures that have developed in the mind, and any number of other mental capacities. as far as i can see, to the extent that we understand anything about these capacities, they appear to have quite specific and unique properties. that is, i don’t see any obvious relationship between, for example, the basic properties of the structure of language as represented in the mind on the one hand and the properties of our capacity, say, to recognize faces or understand some situation in which we play a role, or appreciate .. and so on. these seem to be quite different and unique in their characteristics. furthermore, every one of these mental capacities appears to be highly articulated as well as specifically structured. now it’s perfectly reasonable to ask how the development of one of these various systems relates to the development of others. similarly, in the study of, say, the physical growth of the body, it makes perfect sense to ask how the development of one system relates to the development of others. let’s say, how the development of the circulatory system relates to the development of the visual system.

but in the study of the physical body, nobody would raise a question analogous to the one you posed in quite this form. that is, we we would not ask what role physical organs and their function play in the development of the visual system. undoubtedly, there are relations between, say, the visual and circulatory systems, but the way we approach the problem of growth and development in the physical body is rather different. that is, one asks — quite properly — what are the specific properties and characteristics of the various systems that emerge — how do these various organs or systems interact with one another, what is the biological basis — the genetic coding, ultimately — that determines the specific pattern of growth, function and interaction of these highly articulated systems: for instance, the circulatory system, the visual system, the liver, and so on. and that seems to provide a reasonable analogy, as a point of departure at least, for the study of cognitive development and cognitive structure, including the growth of the language faculty as a special case.

question: it might help if you could define how you use the term “cognition” as opposed to the term “language.”

chomsky: well, i wouldn’t use the term “cognition” as opposed to the term “language.” rather, cognition is an overall term that includes every system of belief, knowledge, understanding, interpretation, perception, and so on. language is just one of many systems that interact to form our whole complex of cognitive structures. so it’s not a matter of language as compared with cognition any more than one could study, say, our knowledge of the structure of visual space as compared with cognition. furthermore, i don’t believe that one can think of “cognition” as a unitary phenomenon.

question: cognition is a way of knowing and language is a medium whereby we know?

chomsky: not as i am using the terms, the term “cognition” as far as i understand it simply refers to any aspect of our belief, knowledge, or understanding. now among the various cognitive systems and cognitive structures, one of them happens to be the system of language. we know language more or less as we have a system of beliefs and understanding about, say, the nature of the visual world.

question: so it’s a separate system, is it not?

chomsky: it’s one of the many systems entering into an array of interconnected cognitive structures. perhaps the analogy to physical organs is the best way to explain the way i see it. let’s just ask, how do we study the structure of the body? we begin by a process of idealization, in effect. we say there are — we .. ume there are — various systems that interact to constitute our physical body. for example, the visual system and the circulatory system and so on. now this is, of course, an idealization; the systems are not physically separable. the circulatory system interacts with the visual system physically.

question: but the cns and the ans are separable….

chomsky: only under a certain idealization, which is .. umed to be an appropriate one. well, you can study the structure of each of these systems and the mode of their interaction. everyone .. umes that this is a proper way to study anything as complicated as the human body: by isolating for investigation particular systems that have their own specific structure and a specific mode of development, recognizing of course that they are not isolated from one another — that the mode of their interaction is just as much genetically determined as are their specific characteristics. so, using the term organ, in a slightly extended sense, to include something like, say, the circulatory system — not the usual sense — we might regard the body as a system of physical organs, each with its specific properties and peculiarities and with a mode of interaction, all genetically determined in basic outline, but modified in various ways in the course of growth.

now, i think that there is every reason to suppose that the same kind of “modular” approach is appropriate for the study of the mind — which i understand to be the study, at an appropriate level of abstraction, of properties of the brain — and in particular for the general system of cognitive structures, which does not exhaust the mind, but is the part we’re talking about. that is to say, i’d like to think of the system of cognitive structures as, in effect, a system of “mental organs,” each of which is quite specific, highly articulated, developing in a particular manner that is intrinsically determined — if the biologists are right, genetically coded — with, of course, complex interactions that are also very largely predetermined. it seems to me that, insofar as we understand anything about cognition — about some aspects of cognition — we discover very specific mental structures developing in the course of growth and maturation in quite their own way. and language is simply one of these structures.

i’m sure if we were to study, to take another distinctly human characteristic, our capacity to deal with properties of the number system — it’s unique to humans, as far as we know, a specific capacity of the human mind — one might, for example, try to explore the properties of that system in the mature person. we might then ask how that system develops through childhood, what kind of stimulation from the environment is necessary for it to develop to its mature state, and so on. in doing so we would have studied the growth of a particular mental organ to its mature state, and if we could pursue this enterprise successfully, we could, at least on an abstract level, characterize the principles that determine the structure of this mental organ, principles that must be themselves genetically coded in some fashion. (the language system can be and, in fact, is being studied in essentially this way. similarly, we could study the other mental organs that i mentioned before or others.) in this way we could develop what seems to me a reasonable version of a “faculty psychology.”



منبع: http://alibakhshayesh13. .. /


مشاهده متن کامل ...
the psychology of language and thought part one1
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

in robert w. rieber (ed.), dialogues on the psychology of language and thought, plenum, 1983

question: what role does cognition play in the acquisition and development of language? do linguistic factors influence general cognitive development?

chomsky: i would like to re-phrase the first question and ask what role other aspects of cognition play in the acquisition of language since, as put, it is not a question i can answer. i would want to regard language as one aspect of cognition and its development as one aspect of the development of cognition. it seems to me that what we can say in general is this:

there are a number of cognitive systems which seem to have quite distinct and specific properties. these systems provide the basis for certain cognitive capacities — for simplicity of exposition, i will ignore the distinction and speak a bit misleadingly about cognitive capacities. the language faculty is one of these cognitive systems. there are others. for example, our capacity to organize visual space, or to deal with abstract properties of the number system, or to comprehend and appreciate certain kinds of al creation, or our ability to make sense of the social structures in which we play a role, which undoubtedly reflects conceptual structures that have developed in the mind, and any number of other mental capacities. as far as i can see, to the extent that we understand anything about these capacities, they appear to have quite specific and unique properties. that is, i don’t see any obvious relationship between, for example, the basic properties of the structure of language as represented in the mind on the one hand and the properties of our capacity, say, to recognize faces or understand some situation in which we play a role, or appreciate and so on. these seem to be quite different and unique in their characteristics. furthermore, every one of these mental capacities appears to be highly articulated as well as specifically structured. now it’s perfectly reasonable to ask how the development of one of these various systems relates to the development of others. similarly, in the study of, say, the physical growth of the body, it makes perfect sense to ask how the development of one system relates to the development of others. let’s say, how the development of the circulatory system relates to the development of the visual system.

but in the study of the physical body, nobody would raise a question analogous to the one you posed in quite this form. that is, we we would not ask what role physical organs and their function play in the development of the visual system. undoubtedly, there are relations between, say, the visual and circulatory systems, but the way we approach the problem of growth and development in the physical body is rather different. that is, one asks — quite properly — what are the specific properties and characteristics of the various systems that emerge — how do these various organs or systems interact with one another, what is the biological basis — the genetic coding, ultimately — that determines the specific pattern of growth, function and interaction of these highly articulated systems: for instance, the circulatory system, the visual system, the liver, and so on. and that seems to provide a reasonable analogy, as a point of departure at least, for the study of cognitive development and cognitive structure, including the growth of the language faculty as a special case.

question: it might help if you could define how you use the term “cognition” as opposed to the term “language.”

chomsky: well, i wouldn’t use the term “cognition” as opposed to the term “language.” rather, cognition is an overall term that includes every system of belief, knowledge, understanding, interpretation, perception, and so on. language is just one of many systems that interact to form our whole complex of cognitive structures. so it’s not a matter of language as compared with cognition any more than one could study, say, our knowledge of the structure of visual space as compared with cognition. furthermore, i don’t believe that one can think of “cognition” as a unitary phenomenon.

question: cognition is a way of knowing and language is a medium whereby we know?

chomsky: not as i am using the terms, the term “cognition” as far as i understand it simply refers to any aspect of our belief, knowledge, or understanding. now among the various cognitive systems and cognitive structures, one of them happens to be the system of language. we know language more or less as we have a system of beliefs and understanding about, say, the nature of the visual world.

question: so it’s a separate system, is it not?

chomsky: it’s one of the many systems entering into an array of interconnected cognitive structures. perhaps the analogy to physical organs is the best way to explain the way i see it. let’s just ask, how do we study the structure of the body? we begin by a process of idealization, in effect. we say there are — we ume there are — various systems that interact to constitute our physical body. for example, the visual system and the circulatory system and so on. now this is, of course, an idealization; the systems are not physically separable. the circulatory system interacts with the visual system physically.

question: but the cns and the ans are separable….

chomsky: only under a certain idealization, which is umed to be an appropriate one. well, you can study the structure of each of these systems and the mode of their interaction. everyone umes that this is a proper way to study anything as complicated as the human body: by isolating for investigation particular systems that have their own specific structure and a specific mode of development, recognizing of course that they are not isolated from one another — that the mode of their interaction is just as much genetically determined as are their specific characteristics. so, using the term organ, in a slightly extended sense, to include something like, say, the circulatory system — not the usual sense — we might regard the body as a system of physical organs, each with its specific properties and peculiarities and with a mode of interaction, all genetically determined in basic outline, but modified in various ways in the course of growth.

now, i think that there is every reason to suppose that the same kind of “modular” approach is appropriate for the study of the mind — which i understand to be the study, at an appropriate level of abstraction, of properties of the brain — and in particular for the general system of cognitive structures, which does not exhaust the mind, but is the part we’re talking about. that is to say, i’d like to think of the system of cognitive structures as, in effect, a system of “mental organs,” each of which is quite specific, highly articulated, developing in a particular manner that is intrinsically determined — if the biologists are right, genetically coded — with, of course, complex interactions that are also very largely predetermined. it seems to me that, insofar as we understand anything about cognition — about some aspects of cognition — we discover very specific mental structures developing in the course of growth and maturation in quite their own way. and language is simply one of these structures.

i’m sure if we were to study, to take another distinctly human characteristic, our capacity to deal with properties of the number system — it’s unique to humans, as far as we know, a specific capacity of the human mind — one might, for example, try to explore the properties of that system in the mature person. we might then ask how that system develops through childhood, what kind of stimulation from the environment is necessary for it to develop to its mature state, and so on. in doing so we would have studied the growth of a particular mental organ to its mature state, and if we could pursue this enterprise successfully, we could, at least on an abstract level, characterize the principles that determine the structure of this mental organ, principles that must be themselves genetically coded in some fashion. (the language system can be and, in fact, is being studied in essentially this way. similarly, we could study the other mental organs that i mentioned before or others.) in this way we could develop what seems to me a reasonable version of a “faculty psychology.”



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what's a top lake forest criminal defense lawyer?
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what's a top lake forest criminal defense lawyer? she or he is just a lawyer who organizes an incident as a way to signify a client who's charged with a crime.

these offenses incorporate crazy and intercourse, drug crimes that are items that aren't accredited by culture as observed in the regulations of this state.

{the work currently of the criminal-defense attorney is to fight for that client by shielding the client in start court in a court of these peers. when the court gives a judgment of not guilty sometimes, this individual is not unsuccessful. instances that are additional, the court will state that the charged is not innocent.

in the event the court does not possess a unanimous selection, the judge has to require a retrial although no option. should there be a mistake made in the test such as the jury's variety, the choose will state that it's a mistrial as soon as again, provide their scenario and both attributes must begin around.

you can find situations where the dad, as well as the top lake forest criminal defense lawyer, do not have to settle this matter in court. this might happen as both attributes include a contract and the judge approves this.

but how most does this happen? initially, a crime has to be committed. law enforcement authorities will likely then must figure out if they've data that was enough and what happen, a suspect is imprisoned.

the person who is imprisoned gets them to stay silent until their attorney exists during asking. then an attorney is going to be furnished thus also those that do not have income is going to be properly manifested in the event the individual cannot afford one.

the variation within the expenses of rights declares that anybody who's imprisoned gets them to a id trial and where the transgression was committed this has to be done, after being arraigned, the criminal-defense attorney will currently conduct a study by selecting witnesses, critiquing authority’s accounts and some other data that is related to the scenario.

the belief that is recharged together with the transgression can only just be charged in the event the scenario offered by the office of the top lake forest criminal defense lawyer is quite genuine. which means that a criminal-defense attorney could possibly get a consensus that is not guilty by placing holes to the safety of the justice? at these times, the client is opened. should factors go one other apart; an appeal can be made by the criminal-defense attorney to the higher court about the lower court's conviction.

may anybody become a defense attorney that is criminal? a lot of specialists claim no because unlike additional specializations within the training, several think it is extremely scary especially when the client that you just must signify is actually responsible for the transgression. but given that you're that individual's lawyer, it's your job to guard the charged against start for the greatest of one's capability to conclude.

considering the fact that transgression of most types and dynamics happen, several get put up their very own law companies that focus on the law that was legal. most who graduate from law school work for the federal government and are typically known as “public defenders." public defenders.



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ترجمه ، متن هشتم
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political preferences

each preference a person or a political party holds is often related to another preference in a clear fashion. for example, if you have a preference for increased gender equality you are likely to also have a preference for increased minority rights. it is precisely because of this close relationship between different preferences that people like dalton argue we can group them together and summarize them in a single dimension, such as the left–right. in contrast, benoit and laver were cautious of oversimplifying too much as people understand the left–right dimension to mean very different things in different contexts.

most modern political scientists think in terms of two distinct dimensions that are not necessarily related to each other. the first dimension we can think of as an economic left–right dimension. this dimension is concerned with how far the state or the political majority should intervene in the economic freedoms of its citizens. it is comprised of issues such as attitudes towards the welfare state, taxation and market regulation, where the left believes the majority should intervene while the right believes that the majority should not be able to intervene. the second dimension is a social left–right dimension. this is concerned with how far the state or the political majority should intervene in the social freedoms of its citizens. it is comprised of issues such as minority rights and lifestyle choices. here the left tends to advocate the belief that the majority should not intervene in the social freedoms of its citizens while the right is more in favor of social intervention. as such, the degree of intervention advocated by a person who places themselves on the left of a left–right dimension will depend on whether they are considering the economic or the social dimension.

liberalism first emerged in the nineteenth century and was in favor of extending social freedoms to greater proportions of society and also extending economic freedoms. conservatism, in many respects, evolved as a defense against the threat of liberalism to the social power of traditional authorities, such as the church and the aristocracy. as such, it was in favor of intervening in citizens’ lives socially, but it had common ground on the economic dimension with liberalism. given the hitherto agreement on the economic dimension between liberalism and conservatism, the emergence of socialism was the first time that the economic dimension be e activated as a source of political contestation. socialism be e a powerful political ideology with the extension of the voting franchise to working cl men. they represented a large m of the population and they demanded redistribution of wealth through the welfare state.

however, this movement was, initially at least, socially conservative with many socialists reluctant to extend the voting franchise to women and hesitant with regard to issues such as immigration due to the threat these were perceived as posing to white, working cl industrial men. as such, socialism was traditionally in favor of both economic and social intervention. the final ideology to consider is environmentalism, which evolved in the 1960s and 1970s and was non-interventionist on the social dimension, believing in the freedom of lifestyle choices, but much more comfortable with intervention on the economic dimension in order to protect the environment from abuse by private interests.



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the usage of in upland criminal defense attorney research q
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a lifetime career being sought by pupils in crime scene analysis should have a training that is good not just in arithmetic, but additionally in technology. upland criminal defense attorney utilizes q to solution the concerns elevated in a crime picture. q can be used to find out how offenses are not uncommitted, who committed these, as well as once they were committed.

trajectories

* whether its body leaks or topic holes, upland criminal defense attorney can utilize arithmetic to look for the flight of the item that is slipping. each item that's powered through the atmosphere drops within an arc that may be calculated that the item started to look for space and area. this is often put on crime scene analysis by identifying in which there was a topic terminated or even the peak and pressure where an injury was made centered on the way the blood-splattered.

designs

whenever thinning down thinks *, detectives should analyze genetics and fingerprints to produce a listing of characteristics that are hereditary existing. genetics evaluation is dependent on finding comparable designs from examples situated in the crime-scene and the individual test. this can be a procedure through which more designs produce a more good complement within the analysis. likewise, fingerprint id is achieved by calculating the routine of the images in addition to the length between lines, next evaluating two examples to locate factors of likeness.

obtaining information

* upland criminal defense attorney then evaluate these details to current directories to find out information such whilst the bodily faculties of the believer and collect information. for instance, when analyzing footprints in grime or dirt, detectives can decide by evaluating the level of the print just how much a belief is. the duration between footprints may also be used to decide the suspect's peak. these computations could be produced by planning a long level or the stride of the printing onto a chart of recognized information, locating the adjustable utilizing their recognized constants.

dimension

* section of upland criminal defense attorney entails whenever a dying happened to identify. this time around body could be built by utilizing dimensions like the heat of the surrounding region and also the sufferer. the extended there stays a body within a region, the nearer to the heat of the surroundings it becomes. evaluating this information can make a precise amount of time in that the offense transpired, incriminating others or judgment away thinks.

length

* utilizing the information gathered on whenever a crime happened, crime-picture detectives can connect these details into a formula that may decide how significantly a believe journeyed to dedicate a crime, and just how not even close to the crime picture they believe might have gotten since doing the crime. this really is achieved by evaluating it, and calculating the typical pace of someone or in an automobile. utilizing length and period, crime scene detectives can produce a radius where they believe might have journeyed to and from.



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word building in english
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english is a very flexible language and you can build on your vocabulary and learn how to make new words.
one way of doing this is to add prefixes (such as dis, pre or co) before the word.

here's a list of common prefixes with their meanings and some examples.

anti (= against)
antibodies, anti-social

auto (self)
autonomous, autobiog hy, automobile

bi (= two)
bicycle

co (= with)
cooperate, coordinate

contra (= against)
contradict, contravene

de (= remove)
deregulate, deselect

dis (= not)
disappear

il (= not)
illegal

im (= not)
immaterial, immature

inter (= between)

 

english is a very flexible language and you can build on your vocabulary and learn how to make new words.
one way of doing this is to add prefixes (such as dis, pre or co) before the word.

here's a list of common prefixes with their meanings and some examples.

anti (= against)
antibodies, anti-social

auto (self)
autonomous, autobiog hy, automobile

bi (= two)
bicycle

co (= with)
cooperate, coordinate

contra (= against)
contradict, contravene

de (= remove)
deregulate, deselect

dis (= not)
disappear

il (= not)
illegal

im (= not)
immaterial, immature

inter (= between)
international

mis(= badly/wrongly)
misinform, misbehave, misunderstand

multi (= many)
multinational

non (= opposite)
non-profit

out (= more than)
outperform, outdone

over (= too much)
oversleep, overwork

post (= after)
postpone, postnatal

pre (= before)
predict

re (= again)
rewrite, relive

sub (= under)
submarine

super (= higher/improved)
supermarket

trans (= across)
tran lantic

uni (= one)
uniform

under (= not enough)
underpaid, underfed

word endings

you can also make new words from the words you already know by using different endings. for example, "the person who employs me has a fast car". you can make this sentence simpler, by replacing "the person who employs me" with "my employer". this gives you "my employer has a fast car."

in english you can make nouns from verbs (to employ gives employer and employee). you can also make verbs from nouns or adjectives: government gives to govern, modern gives to modernise and so on. learning what endings you can put on words means you can expand your vocabulary and say what you mean more easily.

here are some common word endings:

nouns

-er /- or: a person who does something
adviser / advisor, teacher, learner

-ian
optician, mathematician

-ment: result of action
improvement, a ncement

-ism: name of system or belief
realism, optimism

-ist: the person who believes in the system
realist, optimist

-ion
confusion, apparition

-ness
happiness

-ship
leadership

-ence / ance
permanence, appearance

-acy
lunacy

-age
marriage

-ity
annuity

-y
p og hy

-cy
fluency

verbs

-ify
falsify, modify

-ise
modernise

adjectives

-ic
idiotic, periodic

-ful
awful, wonderful

 

-able / ible
comfortable, terrible

-proof / resistant
waterproof, childproof, fireproof

-free
alcohol free beer, nuclear free zone

-less: without
hopeless, childless

english-at-home.com




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how to hire the orange county unlawful termination attorney near me
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it really is not merely unfair that if your company desires time to be shown upon by you and do your job every day, you should be in a position to depend on him to cover anyone. you might need istance from an orange county unlawful termination attorney near me for one or more of them, although you have a few options if they don’t.
the fair labor standards work
us government has a legislations regarding paydays as well. a federal court has additionally tackled the problem of late pay, although the air job requirements act governs minimum wage and overtime regulations. in the case of gordon vs. belief healthcare companies, the national district court for pennsylvania's japanese section decided that's against the regulations, and that late payment of salaries is the same as not spending an employee. the court decided in favor of the worker, saying that the organization got broken the conditions of the flsa and stated that staff can be notably impacted by late payments to the budget of the pay scale. companies in violation of the flsa chance culpability solicitors expenses, for unpaid salaries, court expenses and liquidated problems-- the personnel has a directly to be monetarily compen ed for her difficulties.
what direction to go
you could want to act if your company regularly gives you late. you'll probably need istance from an orange county unlawful termination attorney near me if you want to sue and utilize the government standard of the flsa. national court isn’t really a place where you’d want to try to symbolize yourself, no matter how powerful your situation is. however, you involve some additional options as well, including filing a lawsuit in state court. certainly, several items are you need to do to pave the way for appropriate steps.
find law shows that lawsuit statements that are in small court for unpaid salaries can be filed by you. this could be an option if the late pay isn’t a serious, dilemma that is ongoing -- you simply desire what you're payable.
find law written down, requesting the amount of money you recommend making a complaint to your company payable. maintain a copy to your files.
if your company hasn’t paid you in just a reasonable period of time once you give published a notice to him, of course, if you're sure that they must have under your state's statutory deadlines, create a complaint to your state's division of work.
suggestion
* and an orange county unlawful termination attorney near me who focuses on work law should you decide you need to go to court -- apart from the small-claims court -- speak. if they feel you have a strong et for problems, he could consent to represent you in either state or government court over a dependent fee basis -- heck takes a percent of the amount of money you recover as opposed to requiring you to pay a retainer fee in a nce.
state demands for paydays
also, you still include bare wallets when monday moves around and if you generally receive money on friday, it could look like your employer is not early -- but height is not breaking what the orange county unlawful termination attorney near me states. aside from sc and al, all states include regulations identifying how long you are able to function before your company must give a paycheck to you. depending on where you function, this could be a week, two weeks or even a month on. if you're normally paid for a week’s function on friday and you also live in florida -- which needs that companies pay no less frequently than monthly -- your company isn’t until elapse 30-days, in violation of what the law states. find law publishes a chart on its website in order to see what the regulations are in your state. officially, companies are designed to pay by these deadlines.



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english version-the three financial roadmaps to wealth
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the three financial road maps to wealth

plotting your course to wealth and building your process starts with an examination of your current financial roadmap and the alternatives. there are three financial roadmaps:

1. the sidewalk roadmap

2. the slowlane roadmap

3. the fastlane roadmap

within these three roadmaps lies a psychology, a belief system that dictates actions relative to each roadmap. more importantly, each roadmap operates within a “universe” governed by a mathematical “wealth equation.” whatever roadmap you choose, your universe for wealth creation will abide by each map’s respective wealth equation. additionally, each roadmap is naturally predisposed toward a specific destination. those predispositions are:

• the sidewalk >— poorness

• the slowlane >— mediocrity

• the fastlane >— wealth

whichever financial roadmap you follow will predispose you to the destination inherent in the roadmap—the roadmap’s “true essence.”

what is true essence?

if you play blackjack and win 15 consecutive hands, you violate the true essence of randomness. the natural state of randomness is to not deliver 15 wins in a row. when a wild african lion is tamed to perform in a las vegas magic act, the lion is trained to violate its true essence. the lion naturally wants to be wild, to hunt, to kill, to feed, to mate. the lion wants to revert to its natural self, which is why some flamboyant magicians get their heads bitten off. you have to be special to bend the laws of true essence.

similarly, the roadmaps each possess a true essence that leads either to poorness, mediocrity, or wealth. for example, if you follow the sidewalk, you’ll likely end poor. while wealth is possible using any of the maps, finding it via a roadmap not predisposed to wealth is improbable.




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autumn
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autumn, as it always, be e cold and calm. the smell of childhood nostalgia made shame a bitter stroke. it was as if i was waiting for new news from the field of love, and i understood this from my dismay. the strange sense of my childish attitude was gutting me from last night, and i scattered like a child's school of poetry and memoirs. a warm and delightful flavor with the cold breeze of autumn brought me a memorable mindset. i was patiently sitting between my poems and looking at the fish that stared at me and my offices from behind the window, i wondered what autumn p ed and i felt unwittingly that i had lost my seasons . the moon smiled and kindly promised him to come. suddenly, the sound of his gentle caressed caressed the ears ... he e from far away! i've been waiting for years. the aroma of her spring filled my calm moments with refreshing and fresh, feeling that along my lonely alleys my life remained under the frozen leaves of the unseen, underneath the sun he looked fresh. as he e, every day a new sen ion sprouted in me, as i grew up and grow up in the presence of him in the presence of him. a strong and powerful husband of my belief, the shoots of my hope shook me so much that i began to forget oblivion from my poems. . i was euphoric about this hope and the awakening of the green, and i down to bed, the blooms of my feelings, though gossip, but the aroma of love and hope, sprouted from the herons. with a special elegance, the flowers w ped my feelings in paper cloth, and i was again seen with the aroma of the generosity of his hands.

days p ed, and i was waiting for the sweet and golden opportunity, the restlessness of the existential meeting, which was a manifestation of kindness and forgiveness. i was waiting for a miracle to allow the fancied imagination to touch closely, the kindness of the eyes and the generosity of his hands.

the warm summer greens promise perfume. at the end of the season, it's just like the bibi naz red house's apple. it was a feast at my glory. in her presence i was full of stamps, my hands and my lips cast a love. the existence of the cosmos was filled with a kind of perfume. an everlasting flower in golestan, i was blessed with the fact that i liked to flutter it around it. alas, at that time, i was still not afraid of the perfume, when the separation season e, he went, i stayed, and i stayed, and i stayed, and the dew that showed up on my cheeks.

but i smell her perfume when i smell far away, johnny again.my autumn autumn, with its perfume, is memorable and full of poetic events. i love your poems, my most beautiful poetic event.


farahnaz. harandi/sabur




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kalammarof کلام معروف
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ادارۀ عالی امر به معروف و نهی از منکرجهان

ادارۀ عالی امر به معروف و نهی از منکر افغانستان

(مکتب جهانی قرآن شریف)

(این آیات شریفه درمورد فرزندان ، اختلاف و قیامت ، داوری وتردید ، تکذیب آیات ودیگر چیزهای مهم دراین باره است)

***************************************************

(خداوندیگانه درسوره 10 یونس آیات 93- 98 می فرماید )

فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللّهِ مِنَ الشَّیْطَانِ الرَّجِیمِ

اعوذبالله من ال الرجیم

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِیمِ

وَلَقَدْ بَوَّأْنَا بَنِی إِسْرَائِیلَ مُبَوَّأَ صِدْقٍ وَرَزَقْنَاهُم مِّنَ الطَّیِّبَاتِ فَمَا اخْتَلَفُواْ حَتَّى جَاءهُمُ الْعِلْمُ إِنَّ رَبَّکَ یَقْضِی بَیْنَهُمْ یَوْمَ الْقِیَامَةِ فِیمَا کَانُواْ فِیهِ یَخْتَلِفُونَ ﴿93﴾فَإِن کُنتَ فِی شَکٍّ مِّمَّا أَنزَلْنَا إِلَیْکَ فَاسْأَلِ الَّذِینَ یَقْرَؤُونَ الْکِتَابَ مِن قَبْلِکَ لَقَدْ جَاءکَ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّکَ فَلاَ تَکُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُمْتَرِینَ ﴿94﴾وَلاَ تَکُونَنَّ مِنَ الَّذِینَ کَذَّبُواْ بِآیَاتِ اللّهِ فَتَکُونَ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِینَ ﴿95﴾إِنَّ الَّذِینَ حَقَّتْ عَلَیْهِمْ کَلِمَتُ رَبِّکَ لاَ یُؤْمِنُونَ ﴿96﴾ وَلَوْ جَاءتْهُمْ کُلُّ آیَةٍ حَتَّى یَرَوُاْ الْعَذَابَ الأَلِیمَ ﴿97﴾ فَلَوْلاَ کَانَتْ قَرْیَةٌ آمَنَتْ فَنَفَعَهَا إِیمَانُهَا إِلاَّ قَوْمَ یُونُسَ لَمَّآ آمَنُواْ کَشَفْنَا عَنْهُمْ عَذَابَ الخِزْیِ فِی الْحَیَاةَ الدُّنْیَا وَمَتَّعْنَاهُمْ إِلَى حِینٍ ﴿98﴾

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پناه میبرم به خدا از شر رانده شده

به نام خداوند بخشاینده مهربان

به راستى ما فرزندان را در جایگاه هاى نیکو منزل دادیم و از چیزهاى پاکیزه به آنان روزى بخشیدیم پس به اختلاف نپرداختند مگر پس از آنکه علم براى آنان حاصل شد همانا پروردگار تو در روز قیامت در باره آنچه بر سر آن اختلاف می ‏ د میانشان داورى خواهد کرد (93) و اگر از آنچه به سوى تو نازل کرده ‏ایم در تردیدى از انى که پیش از تو کتاب آسمانى می خواندند بپرس قطعا حق از جانب پروردگارت به سوى تو آمده است پس زنهار از تردیدکنندگان مباش (94) و از انى که آیات ما را دروغ پنداشتند مباش که از زیانکاران خواهى بود (95) در حقیقت انى که سخن پروردگارت بر آنان تحقق یافته ایمان نمی ‏آورند (96) هر چند هر گونه آیتى برایشان بیاید تا وقتى که عذاب دردناک را ببینند (97) چرا هیچ شهرى نبود که اهل آن ایمان بیاورد و ایمانش به حال آن سود بخشد مگر قوم یونس که وقتى در آ ین لحظه ایمان آوردند عذاب رسوایى را در زندگى دنیا از آنان برطرف کردیم و تا چندى آنان را برخوردار ساختیم (98)

(in the name of allah, most gracious, most merciful)

******

and certainly we lodged the children of israel in a goodly abode and we provided them with good things; but they did not disagree until the knowledge had come to them; surely your lord will judge between them on the resurrection day concerning that in which they disagreed (93) but if you are in doubt as to what we have revealed to you, ask those who read the book before you; certainly the truth has come to you from your lord, therefore you should not be of the disputers (94) and you should not be of those who reject the communications of allah, (for) then you should be one of the losers (95) surely those against whom the word of your lord has proved true will not believe, (96) though every sign should come to them, until they witness the painful chastisement (97) and wherefore was there not a town which should believe so that their belief should have profited them but the people of yunus? when they believed, we removed from them the chastisement of disgrace in this world's life and we gave them provision till a time (98

ناصردست ر

د افغانستان د امر بالمعروف او نهی عن المنکر عالی اداری رئیس



منبع: http://kalammarof. /


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given name muhammad
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given name muhammad
http://www.beytoote.com/images/stories/religious/hhr50.jpg
gender: masculine
other scripts: محمّد (arabic, urdu, shahmukhi, pashto), মুহাম্মদ (bengali), муҳаммад (tajik)
pronounced: mu-hahm-mahd (arabic)   [key]
meaning & history
means "praiseworthy", derived from arabic حمد (hamid) "to praise". this was the name of the prophet who founded the islamic religion in the 7th century. according to muslim belief, at age 40 muhammad was visited by the angel gabriel, who provided him with the first verses of the qur'an. approximately 20 years later he conquered mecca, the city of his birth, and his followers controlled most of the arabian peninsula at the time of his death in 632.since the prophet's time his name has been very popular in the muslim world. it was borne by several abbasid caliphs and six sultans of the ottoman empire (though their names are usually given in the turkish spelling mehmet). it was also borne by muhammad ibn musa al-khwarizmi, a 9th-century persian mathematician and scientist who devised algebra. other famous bearers include the founder of pakistan muhammad ali jinnah (1876-1948) and the american boxer muhammad ali (1942-2016).
related names
variants: mahomet, mahometus, mihammad, mohammad, mohammed, muhammed (arabic), mohamed (arabic (egyptian)), mohammad (urdu), mohammad (punjabi), mohammad (pashto), mohammad, mohammed (bengali), muhamad (indonesian), muhamad (malay)
other languages/cultures: mahammad (azerbaijani), muhamed (bosnian), magomed, magomet, mukhamed (chechen), magomed, magomet (dagestani), magomed, magomet (ingush), mehmed (ottoman turkish), mohammad (persian), mehmet, muhammed, muhammet (turkish), muhemmet (uyghur), mamadou (western african)



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political preferences

each preference a person or a political party holds is often related to another preference in a clear fashion. for example, if you have a preference for increased gender equality you are likely to also have a preference for increased minority rights. it is precisely because of this close relationship between different preferences that people like dalton argue we can group them together and summarize them in a single dimension, such as the left–right. in contrast, benoit and laver were cautious of oversimplifying too much as people understand the left–right dimension to mean very different things in different contexts.

most modern political scientists think in terms of two distinct dimensions that are not necessarily related to each other. the first dimension we can think of as an economic left–right dimension. this dimension is concerned with how far the state or the political majority should intervene in the economic freedoms of its citizens. it is comprised of issues such as attitudes towards the welfare state, taxation and market regulation, where the left believes the majority should intervene while the right believes that the majority should not be able to intervene. the second dimension is a social left–right dimension. this is concerned with how far the state or the political majority should intervene in the social freedoms of its citizens. it is comprised of issues such as minority rights and lifestyle choices. here the left tends to advocate the belief that the majority should not intervene in the social freedoms of its citizens while the right is more in favor of social intervention. as such, the degree of intervention advocated by a person who places themselves on the left of a left–right dimension will depend on whether they are considering the economic or the social dimension.

liberalism first emerged in the nineteenth century and was in favor of extending social freedoms to greater proportions of society and also extending economic freedoms. conservatism, in many respects, evolved as a defense against the threat of liberalism to the social power of traditional authorities, such as the church and the aristocracy. as such, it was in favor of intervening in citizens’ lives socially, but it had common ground on the economic dimension with liberalism. given the hitherto agreement on the economic dimension between liberalism and conservatism, the emergence of socialism was the first time that the economic dimension be e activated as a source of political contestation. socialism be e a powerful political ideology with the extension of the voting franchise to working cl men. they represented a large m of the population and they demanded redistribution of wealth through the welfare state.

however, this movement was, initially at least, socially conservative with many socialists reluctant to extend the voting franchise to women and hesitant with regard to issues such as immigration due to the threat these were perceived as posing to white, working cl industrial men. as such, socialism was traditionally in favor of both economic and social intervention. the final ideology to consider is environmentalism, which evolved in the 1960s and 1970s and was non-interventionist on the social dimension, believing in the freedom of lifestyle choices, but much more comfortable with intervention on the economic dimension in order to protect the environment from abuse by private interests.



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tadabor of rajab month dua
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tadabor of rajab month dua

#tadabor_of_rajab_month_dua: (1)


let's have a tadabor in a prayer of rajab month:


بسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِیْم

in the name of allah the beneficent the merciful


✅خابَ الْوَافِدُونَ عَلَى غَیْرِکَ،


run to a dead end the hoodwinked p engers who looked for the “ghayrallah” (other than thee),


❌ the reason of our chill and depression is that we look for others than allah to help us


✅ we shouldn't forget that vice-versa things cannot be added. it means that it's impossible for anyone to look for allah's help in a case and at the same time looking for other's help , too.


if anyone releases himself from the others and looks for allah's help, he wouldn't become chill:


as-saffat surreh:


إِلَّا عِبَادَ اللَّهِ الْمُخْلَصِینَ 40 أُولَئِکَ لَهُمْ رِزْقٌ مَّعْلُومٌ 41


but not the chosen servants of allah. (40) those will have a provision determined - (41)


(be continued)


ainaansarolmahdi-e.blog.ir


[email protected]


telegram.me/aheadtothearrivalofimam

************************************************

#tadabor_of_rajab_month_dua:(2)


in the name of allah the merciful the comp ionate


✅وخَسِرَ الْمُتَعَرِّضُونَ إلاّ لَکَ،


lost their way, lured and swindled, those who hanged onto and held fast anything that offers itself, not linked with thee,

*************

❌all the people are opposite to a loss, except those who turn to allah (both in their belief and in there deeds)


بسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِیمِ

وَالْعَصْرِ ١ إِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ لَفِی خُسْرٍ ٢ إِلَّا الَّذِینَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ ٣


al-asr surreh:

بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم

by time, (1) indeed, mankind is in loss, (2) except for those who have believed and done righteous deeds and advised each other to truth and advised each other to patience. (3)


❌ it's interesting that allah swore to an era and time which is the era of the arrival of imam mahdi(aj)


of course, the people at that era are more than the other people opposite to a loss.


and also in this surreh, he had mentioned that if we want to be saved from that great loss, we are supposed to do all those steps mentioned in it: a belief, righteous deeds, advising to truth and to patience


✅all of us have needs which is going to be provided through this world but the point is that our turning to our worldly desires shouldn't be actually returning back from god


(be continued)

ainaansarolmahdi-e.blog.ir


[email protected]


telegram.me/aheadtothearrivalofimam


******************************************

#tadabor_of_rajab_month_dua:(3)

in the name of allah the merciful the comp ionate

وضَاعَ الْمُلِمُّونَ إلاّ بِکَ،

"suffered those who turned towards anybody else but thee, and were destroyed, those who land at others' thresholds but thine."

it is referring to those who meet their needs with the help of others than allah.

it means that during our lifetime, in times of need, instead of asking allah, we turn to others and forget him.

what is important is the attention we have to pay to the divine, otherwise all of us have to use the world and its facilities for our needs.

allah wants our hearts...

if our hearts are purified and we pay attention only to allah, we would not use any means to achieve our ends but keep within religious limits.

now what is the reason for this lack of attention?

the reason for not paying full attention to the lord, is obedience of the self (nafs).

one who follows the whims of the self does not leave any place for paying attention to the lord.

that is the reason that the quran tells us to obey the immaculate imams (peace be upon them):

(yasin 21)

"follow those who do not ask you for any reward and are on the right path"

**********************************************************

#tadabor_of_rajab_month_dua:(4)

in the name of allah the merciful the comp ionate

اجْدَبَ‏ الْمُنْتَجِعُونَ اِلاَّ مَنِ انْتَجَعَ فَضْلَکَ،

"and they met with destitution, those who sought from other than your grace"

(those who beseeched others than your grace and munificence got nothing in return)

what is allah's grace?

grace is the unlimited bounty which allah showers on his creatures, much more than what they deserve, (the grace can be material and spiritual).

allah without any reason, showers unlimited blessings on his creation.

grace is showering without stinginess without recompen ion.

have we ever asked allah for his grace?

maybe the root cause of all our problems and difficulties could be that we have never asked god for his grace.

just as this verse of the dua of month of rajab states, those who seek other than from his grace end up in trouble and turmoil.

so allah,

in this holy month which belongs to you, the month of rajab, we beseech you for your grace, the ultimate of which is the appearance of the saviour of the world (may allah hasten his appearance)

of course we know that neither are we deserving nor you ever expect recompen ion and that itself is the greatest of grace to your creatures, insha'allah.

oh allah hasten the reappearance of your friend and our imam by your grace, oh munificent!!

(be continued)

*********************************************************

#tadabor_of_rajab_month_dua:(5)

in the name of allah the merciful the comp ionate

بابُکَ مَفْتُوحٌ لِلرَّاغِبِینَ،

the door [of your mercy] is wide open for the willings !

وخَیْرُکَ مَبْذُولٌ لِلطَّالِبِینَ،

,and your bless has been given to those who aspired it!

as a first setp human should long for god and simultaneously ask him from his ego!

however ,the household of prophet, and now the leader of time( imam mahdi aj) , are the door of god's path !

[so] mere entrance to his door is enough for those who want the proximity of god!

the prayer nodbah: where is the the door of allah's path that could enter from ..

-این باب الله الذی منه یوتی

we should reach ourselves to the gate [of god's path] through resorting imam mahdi and ask god for[ the arrival ] of him so anxiously and sincerely!

because the appearance of god's path , could make every one get close to him insha'allah..

(be continued)

********************************

#tadabor_of_rajab_month_dua:(6)

in the name of allah the merciful the comp ionate

وفَضْلُکَ مُبَاحٌ لِلسَّائِلِینَ،

thy favours are common and open to all when besought submissively,

ونَیْلُکَ مُتَاحٌ لِلآمِلِینَ،

they gifts come in long strides when asked for by the hopeful supplicants, tears in their eyes,

the grace of allah is for those who ask for it.

it is at this point that the devil leads man astray with the excuse that one has to be worthy of grace and that allah does not shower his grace on everybody that the person is left empty handed.

if a person's dearest wish is to be granted allah's grace, he will

surely grant him.

allah gives bountifully in this month of rajab inshallah

we should ask allah to hasten the reappearance of our master imam mahdi (ah).

(be continued)

*****************************************

#tadabor_of_rajab_month_dua:(7)

in the name of allah the merciful the comp ionate

ورِزْقُکَ مَبْسُوطٌ لِمَنْ عَصَاکَ،

the daily bread (from thee) is openly spread out for one and all, even the transgressors,

وحِلْمُکَ مُعْتَرِضٌ لِمَنْ نَاوَاکَ،

thy indulgence reach out (even) to those who keep themselves far from thee,

عادَتُکَ الإحْسَانُ إلَى الْمُسِیئِینَ وَسَبِیلُکَ الإبْقَاءُ عَلَى الْمُعْتَدِینَ.

thy usual disposition is to do favour (even) to those who stir up mischief,

your bounty is for all, even those who disobey you and your patience is for all, even those who are your enemies.

your habit is benefaction even to those who disobey you and it is your custom to give life even to the sinners.

special bounty is present from allah for all, even the rebellious and the disobedient (ofcourse with prayer)

praying is like sowing a seed

which grows, gives flowers and fruit and reaches its perfection.

praying should be like sowing a seed, we are sure the seed will grow, and we should have the same faith in our prayers.

not having faith may prevent the granting of the prayers

so in this remaining month of rajab, let us pray with full faith just as when we plant seedlings and are sure in its growth, we should pray for the reappearance of our imam mahdi (ah) insha'allah.

(be continued)

******************************************

#tadabor_of_rajab_month_dua:(8)

in the name of allah the merciful the comp ionate

اللّهُمَّ فَاهْدِنِی هُدَى الْمُهْتَدِینَ،

o my allah, therefore, keep me on the path of those who are rightly guided,

وارْزُقْنِی اجْتِهَادَ الْمُجْتَهِدِینَ،

give me courage to strive like those who exert themselves fully in thy way,

ولا تَجْعَلْنِی مِنَ الْغَافِلِینَ الْمُبْعَدِینَ،

and do not let me be among the negligent who have gone far in their forgetfulness,

واغْفِرْ لِی یَوْمَ الدِّینِ.

and forgive me on the day of judgment.

and place me not among the unaware and those distanced from your majesty and forgive my sins on the day of jud ent!

with all the descriptions about prayer we should ask for guidance and special bounties from him.

we ask for guidance to the way of the guided but if we make no efforts to reach them we will lose all that we have gained.

so, we must ask allah to help us in our efforts.

those who have gone astray from their lord have no knowledge of him and what nears us to his glory is our knowledge and comprehension of his glory and it is our sins which prevent us from gaining it.

so, in this month of rajab, we sincerely ask the lord to forgive our sins and give us knowledge so as to near ourselves to him insha'allah.

may allah hasten the reappearance of our imam mahdi (ah).

ainaansarolmahdi-e.blog.ir

@arbaeenmobaleghin

telegram.me/aheadtothearrivalofimam

ainaansarolmahdi-e.blog.ir

@arbaeenmobaleghin

telegram.me/aheadtothearrivalofimam



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leadership

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the generic term leader redirects here. for other specific uses of the word leader, see leader (disambiguation)

to comply with wikipedia's quality standards, this article may need to be rewritten.please help improve this article. the discussion page may contain suggestions.

the word leadership can refer to:

the process of leading.

those entities that perform one or more acts of leading.

the ability to affect human behavior so as to accomplish a mission designated by the leader

contents

[hide]

1 terminology, usage and conceptual scope

2 categories and types of leadership

3 the psychology of leadership

4 the embodiment of leadership

5 leadership ociated with positions of authority

5.1 leadership cycles

5.2 titles emphasizing authority

5.3 symbolism of leadership

6 leadership amongst primates

7 scope of leadership

8 orthogonality and leadership

9 support-structures for leadership

10 determining what makes "effective leadership"

10.1 suggested qualities of leadership

10.2 leadership "styles" (per house and podsakoff)

11 leadership and vision

12 leadership's relation with mana ent

13 leadership by a group

13.1 co-leadership

13.2 divided leadership

14 historical views on leadership

15 alternatives to leadership

16 see also

17 references

17.1 general references

18 external links

[edit] terminology, usage and conceptual scope

look up leadership inwiktionary, the free dictionary.

house defines "leadership" organizationally and narrowly as "the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members." organizationally, leadership directly impacts the effectiveness of costs, revenue generation, service, isfaction, earnings, market value, share price, social capital, motivation, enga ent, and sustainability.[citation needed] leadership is the ability of an individual to set rules for others and lead from the front. it is an attitude that influences the environment around us.

compare the discussions on group leadership and ad hoc leadership above. one can also characterize leadership by the period of the authority, as in "during the 1940s russia was under stalinist leadership". in formal the term can also serve to describe the position or relationships which allow and legitimize the exercising of what one might term "leadership behavior".

in some languages the term for a leader and the term for the principle of leadership have very different meanings. furthermore, note the different connotations of a synonym of the word "leader" adopted from the german: the word führer, and its accompanying ideas on the führerprinzip.

in would-be controlling groups such as the military, political parties, ruling élites, and other belief-based enterprises like religions or businesses, the idea of leadership can become a holy grail and people can come to expect transformational change stemming from the leader; such entities may encourage their followers and believers to worship leadership, to respect it, and to strive (whether realistically or not) to become effective in it. ideally, one cannot buy or sell leadership in the military; instead, leaders must ratify their position of command in the hearts and minds of their soldiers in order to obtain the best from them. followers in such a situation may become uncritically obedient. personal strategies that one can use to guard against the unrealistic expectations ociated with belief in leaders include:

maintaining a questioning attitude

bolstering confidence in one's own decision-making abilities

seeking independent verification through appropriate measurement and reporting infrastructures

wallis kinnng ociates

[edit] categories and types of leadership

one can categorize the exercise of leadership as either actual or potential:

actual - giving guidance or direction, as in the phrase "the emperor has provided isfactory leadership".

potential - the capacity or ability to lead, as in the phrase "she could have exercised effective leadership"; or in the concept "born to lead".

in both cases, as a result of the constancy of change some people detect within the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the act of learning appears fundamental to certain types of leading and leadership. when learning and leadership coalesce, one could characterize this as "learnership".

leadership can have a formal aspect (as in most political or business leadership) or an informal one (as in most friendships). speaking of "leadership" (the abstract term) rather than of "leading" (the action) usually implies that the entities doing the leading have some "leadership skills" or competencies.

[edit] the psychology of leadership

one of the differentiating factors between mana ent and leadership is the ability or even necessity to inspire. a leader, one who can instill p ion and direction to an individual or group of individuals, will be using psychology to affect that group either consciously or unconsciously.

those who seem to be "natural leaders" and effectively inspire groups without really knowing the strategies or tactics used are considered charismatic leaders. the conscious leader on the other hand applies a variety of psychological tactics that affect the “reactions” o roup to the environment they exist in.

in numerous "directive" (meaning to willfully direct as opposed to unconsciously do) organizational psychology disciplines such as “directive communication” by arthur f carmazzi and theories like “the ripple effect” by sigal barsade, leadership is a product of awareness and command of the reactions and influences o roup on the individual as well as the individual on the group.

a leader's successful application of directive organizational psychology by modifying specific leadership behaviors towards the group, will yield an organizational culture that is in essence “inspired”.

[edit] the embodiment of leadership

most research into leadership mistakenly focused on cognitive and intellectual processes, forgetting the important fact that every cognitive process is an embodied process. in the book leading people the black belt way, timothy warneka accurately points out that, “great leadership begins with the body.”

people are living, organic beings, and medical research is increasingly recognizing the truth that mind and body are, in fact, one. while we often speak about mind and body as separate entities, great leaders understand that mind and body are, in reality, two sides of the same coin. superior leaders recognize further that an awareness of their own physical selves is a critical component of their success. in a very real way, our toes, stomachs, and shoulders are on equal footing (pardon the pun) with our thoughts and ideas. as with any other tool, however, leaders must be trained to use embodied leadership technology appropriately and effectively.

in leadership, as in the martial arts, your stance is critical to your success. if you have a weak stance, then every way you lead will be fundamentally flawed. for example, if you have a weak stance in your emotional life, then you will have significant difficulties when you attempt to lead other people relationally. recalling that we are embodied beings, i do not mean the word stance to be understood only metaphorically. i am also using the word stance in the literal sense, in terms of how leaders actually carry themselves physically when they lead others. learning embodied stance will deepen your capacity for experiencing your own emotions, and better equip you to cope with the emotions of others, from the lighthearted to the highly conflicted. your stance, you will learn, has a very literal, not to mention enormous impact on your ultimate success as a leader.

[edit] leadership ociated with positions of authority

in on heroes, hero-worship, and the heroic in history, thomas carlyle demonstrated the concept of leadership ociated with a position of authority. in praising oliver cromwell's use of power to bring king charles i to trial and eventual beheading, he wrote the following: "let us remark, meanwhile, how indispensable everywhere a king is, in all movements of men. it is strikingly shown, in this very war, what becomes of men when they cannot find a chief man, and their enemies can." [1]

from this viewpoint, leadership emerges when an entity as "leader" contrives to receive deference from other entities who become "followers". and as the p age from carlyle demonstrates, the process of getting deference can become competitive in that the emerging "leader" draws "followers" from the factions of the prior or alternative "leaders".

in representative democracies the people retain sovereignty (popular sovereignty) but delegate day-to-day administration and leadership to elected officials. in the united states, for example, the constitution provides an example of recycling authority. in the constitutional convention of 1787, the american founders rejected the idea of a monarch. but they still proposed leadership by people in positions of authority, with the authority split into three powers: in this case the legislative, the executive, and the judiciary. under the american theory, the authority of the leadership derives from the power of the voters as conveyed through the electoral college. many individuals share


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leadership

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the generic term leader redirects here. for other specific uses of the word leader, see leader (disambiguation)

to comply with wikipedia's quality standards, this article may need to be rewritten.please help improve this article. the discussion page may contain suggestions.

the word leadership can refer to:

the process of leading.

those entities that perform one or more acts of leading.

the ability to affect human behavior so as to accomplish a mission designated by the leader

contents

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1 terminology, usage and conceptual scope

2 categories and types of leadership

3 the psychology of leadership

4 the embodiment of leadership

5 leadership ociated with positions of authority

5.1 leadership cycles

5.2 titles emphasizing authority

5.3 symbolism of leadership

6 leadership amongst primates

7 scope of leadership

8 orthogonality and leadership

9 support-structures for leadership

10 determining what makes "effective leadership"

10.1 suggested qualities of leadership

10.2 leadership "styles" (per house and podsakoff)

11 leadership and vision

12 leadership's relation with mana ent

13 leadership by a group

13.1 co-leadership

13.2 divided leadership

14 historical views on leadership

15 alternatives to leadership

16 see also

17 references

17.1 general references

18 external links

[edit] terminology, usage and conceptual scope

look up leadership inwiktionary, the free dictionary.

house defines "leadership" organizationally and narrowly as "the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members." organizationally, leadership directly impacts the effectiveness of costs, revenue generation, service, isfaction, earnings, market value, share price, social capital, motivation, enga ent, and sustainability.[citation needed] leadership is the ability of an individual to set rules for others and lead from the front. it is an attitude that influences the environment around us.

compare the discussions on group leadership and ad hoc leadership above. one can also characterize leadership by the period of the authority, as in "during the 1940s russia was under stalinist leadership". in formal the term can also serve to describe the position or relationships which allow and legitimize the exercising of what one might term "leadership behavior".

in some languages the term for a leader and the term for the principle of leadership have very different meanings. furthermore, note the different connotations of a synonym of the word "leader" adopted from the german: the word führer, and its accompanying ideas on the führerprinzip.

in would-be controlling groups such as the military, political parties, ruling élites, and other belief-based enterprises like religions or businesses, the idea of leadership can become a holy grail and people can come to expect transformational change stemming from the leader; such entities may encourage their followers and believers to worship leadership, to respect it, and to strive (whether realistically or not) to become effective in it. ideally, one cannot buy or sell leadership in the military; instead, leaders must ratify their position of command in the hearts and minds of their soldiers in order to obtain the best from them. followers in such a situation may become uncritically obedient. personal strategies that one can use to guard against the unrealistic expectations ociated with belief in leaders include:

maintaining a questioning attitude

bolstering confidence in one's own decision-making abilities

seeking independent verification through appropriate measurement and reporting infrastructures

wallis kinnng ociates

[edit] categories and types of leadership

one can categorize the exercise of leadership as either actual or potential:

actual - giving guidance or direction, as in the phrase "the emperor has provided isfactory leadership".

potential - the capacity or ability to lead, as in the phrase "she could have exercised effective leadership"; or in the concept "born to lead".

in both cases, as a result of the constancy of change some people detect within the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the act of learning appears fundamental to certain types of leading and leadership. when learning and leadership coalesce, one could characterize this as "learnership".

leadership can have a formal aspect (as in most political or business leadership) or an informal one (as in most friendships). speaking of "leadership" (the abstract term) rather than of "leading" (the action) usually implies that the entities doing the leading have some "leadership skills" or competencies.

[edit] the psychology of leadership

one of the differentiating factors between mana ent and leadership is the ability or even necessity to inspire. a leader, one who can instill p ion and direction to an individual or group of individuals, will be using psychology to affect that group either consciously or unconsciously.

those who seem to be "natural leaders" and effectively inspire groups without really knowing the strategies or tactics used are considered charismatic leaders. the conscious leader on the other hand applies a variety of psychological tactics that affect the “reactions” o roup to the environment they exist in.

in numerous "directive" (meaning to willfully direct as opposed to unconsciously do) organizational psychology disciplines such as “directive communication” by arthur f carmazzi and theories like “the ripple effect” by sigal barsade, leadership is a product of awareness and command of the reactions and influences o roup on the individual as well as the individual on the group.

a leader's successful application of directive organizational psychology by modifying specific leadership behaviors towards the group, will yield an organizational culture that is in essence “inspired”.

[edit] the embodiment of leadership

most research into leadership mistakenly focused on cognitive and intellectual processes, forgetting the important fact that every cognitive process is an embodied process. in the book leading people the black belt way, timothy warneka accurately points out that, “great leadership begins with the body.”

people are living, organic beings, and medical research is increasingly recognizing the truth that mind and body are, in fact, one. while we often speak about mind and body as separate entities, great leaders understand that mind and body are, in reality, two sides of the same coin. superior leaders recognize further that an awareness of their own physical selves is a critical component of their success. in a very real way, our toes, stomachs, and shoulders are on equal footing (pardon the pun) with our thoughts and ideas. as with any other tool, however, leaders must be trained to use embodied leadership technology appropriately and effectively.

in leadership, as in the martial arts, your stance is critical to your success. if you have a weak stance, then every way you lead will be fundamentally flawed. for example, if you have a weak stance in your emotional life, then you will have significant difficulties when you attempt to lead other people relationally. recalling that we are embodied beings, i do not mean the word stance to be understood only metaphorically. i am also using the word stance in the literal sense, in terms of how leaders actually carry themselves physically when they lead others. learning embodied stance will deepen your capacity for experiencing your own emotions, and better equip you to cope with the emotions of others, from the lighthearted to the highly conflicted. your stance, you will learn, has a very literal, not to mention enormous impact on your ultimate success as a leader.

[edit] leadership ociated with positions of authority

in on heroes, hero-worship, and the heroic in history, thomas carlyle demonstrated the concept of leadership ociated with a position of authority. in praising oliver cromwell's use of power to bring king charles i to trial and eventual beheading, he wrote the following: "let us remark, meanwhile, how indispensable everywhere a king is, in all movements of men. it is strikingly shown, in this very war, what becomes of men when they cannot find a chief man, and their enemies can." [1]

from this viewpoint, leadership emerges when an entity as "leader" contrives to receive deference from other entities who become "followers". and as the p age from carlyle demonstrates, the process of getting deference can become competitive in that the emerging "leader" draws "followers" from the factions of the prior or alternative "leaders".

in representative democracies the people retain sovereignty (popular sovereignty) but delegate day-to-day administration and leadership to elected officials. in the united states, for example, the constitution provides an example of recycling authority. in the constitutional convention of 1787, the american founders rejected the idea of a monarch. but they still proposed leadership by people in positions of authority, with the authority split into three powers: in this case the legislative, the executive, and the judiciary. under the american theory, the authority of the leadership derives from the power of the voters as conveyed through the electoral college. many individuals share


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ترجمه مقاله مدل ترکیبی از مدیریت کیفیت جامع و مدیریت منابع انسانی در کارهای مدیر
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عنوان اصلی لاتین : developing an integrated model of tqm and hrm on km activities


عنوان اصلی فارسی مقاله: ایجاد مدل ترکیبی از مدیریت کیفیت جامع و مدیریت منابع انسانی در فعالیت های مدیریت دانش.


مرتبط با رشته های : مدیریت


نوع فایل ترجمه : ورد آفیس(که دارای امکان ویرایش می باشد)


تعداد صفحات فایل ترجمه شده: 19 صفحه


کلمات کلیدی مربوطه با این مقاله: ندارد


برای دریافت رایگان نسخه انگلیسی این مقاله اینجا کلیک نمایید

_______________________________________
بخشی از ترجمه:
اه هدف این مقاله ایجاد یک مدل ترکیبی از مدیریت کیفیت جامع (tqm) و مدیریت منابع انسانی (hrm) به منظور روشن ساختن تاثیر عملکرد tqm و hrm بر فعالیت های مدیریت دانش (km) است.
روش شناسی تئوری مدیریت دانش به عنوان یک نقطه آغازین برای ایجاد مدل مفهومی ترکیبی در مورد ارتباط ویژگی های tqm و hrm عمل می کند. بر مبنای پیشینه تئوریک گسترده موجود، سه عملکرد tqm و سه عملکرد hrm در رفتار یک سازمان به منظور آزمایش تأثرات عملیات tqm و hrm بر فعالیت های مدیریت دانش مطرح شده اند.
دستاوردها این یافته ها مبنایی را برای ایجاد یک مدل پیشرفته hrm، tqm و مدیریت دانش فراهم می آورند.
ا امات عملیاتی دستاورد های عملیاتی این مطالعه می تواند برای مدیران تجاری که می خواند فعالیت های مدیریت دانش را از طریق پیاده سازی وظایف hrm و tqm که فعالیت های مدیرت دانش را پشتیبانی می کنندریال ارتقاء دهند، قابل استفاده است.
ارزش این مقاله به وسیله ایجاد یک مدل ترکیبی از hrm و tqm به عنوان یک مثال روش شناسی که می تواند برای شناسایی درجه تأثیر hrm و tqm بر فعالیت های مدیریت دانش قابل استفاده باشد، سهم قابل توجهی داشته است. سازمان ها می توانند از این چارچوب به منظور انجام پیش آزمایش های اندازه گیری خود و سپس ارزی مجدد تأثیرات هر یک از تغییرات hrm و tqm استفاده نمایند.
کلامات کلیدی: مدیریت کیفیت جامع، مدیریت منابع انسانی، مدیریت دانش
نوع مقاله مقاله ادراکی
مقدمه
در چند دهه اخیر، کیفیت جامع (tqm) و مدیریت منابع انسانی (hrm) به دلیل تآثیرشان بر عملکرد سازمانی و فردی، در تحقیقات مدیریت و ب و کار، موضوعات مهمی محسوب شده اند (ooi, et al., 2007). تحقیقات تجربی پیشین (مانند تحقیقات بوسلی و ویل ) تأثیرات معنا داری را از tqm و hrm بر عملکرد سازمانی بیان می کند. اکثر بررسی های صورت گرفته بر tqm و hrm، بر تأثیراتشان بر سطح سازمانی تمرکز داشته اند (boselie and wiele, 2002; choi and eboch, 1998;arthur, 1994).

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theory about kmalthough many authors have written about the significance of knowledge inmana ent, relatively little interest has been focused on how knowledge is created. inorder to understand km, it is important to first define knowledge. there have beenvarious definitions of knowledge. knowledgeis a multifaceted concept with multilayeredmeanings and is defined as a justified true belief that increases an entity’s capacity foreffective action (nonaka, 1994). bhatt (2001) stated that data are raw facts and when theyare processed and organized, they become information, and knowledge is the meaningfulinformation. the differences between data, information and knowledge could only bedistinguished between a user’s perspectives or external means (bhatt, 2001).knowledge can be conceptualized as tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge (nonaka,1994; guptaet al., 2000). tacit knowledge is the knowledge for which we do not havewords smith (2001). tacit knowledge is automatic and needs minimum or no time orthought, and it helps organizations to determine how they make decisions and influencethe collective behavior of their members (liebowitz and beckman, 1998; smith, 2001).tacit knowledge is a structural concept, describing a relation between different kinds ofknowledge and implies ‘‘unknown principles of operation’’ (mooradian, 2005).explicit knowledge is technical or academic data or information that is described informal language (smith, 2001). examples of explicit knowledge include manuals,mathematical expressions, copyright and patents (smith, 2001). explicit knowledgehas also been described as an expressed knowledge that is communicated to others(stover, 2004). tacit knowledge is rooted in action, commitment and involvement in aspecific context whereas explicit knowledge is the knowledge that is transmissible informal, systematic language (nonaka, 1994). both tacit knowledge and explici



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12 steps to building the ideal lifestyle

1. define the ideal lifestyle

for a start, ask yourself those two questions: “what do i want my life to be like?” and “who do i want to be in it?”. answer them in the best and most honest way possible, because this will be your definition of what you want in life and who you want to become, and will eventually become your reality after some time.

an important thing you don’t want to miss is accepting the idea that you need to become someone else in order to live another kind of lifestyle. many people thing what could they improve in the outer world and tend to forget that many inner changes will happen too that are often more crucial. so be aware of that and embrace the qualities you need to build to become that person.

2. eliminate the unnecessary

without doing this, you can’t go any further. because there are many things in your life right now that are preventing you from moving on. they may be people, thoughts, events, habits and so on. what you need

to do is to eliminate them because they don’t have a place in your ideal lifestyle.

i don’t want to repeat myself (i’ve already written about it in a previous post), so here are the things that hold you back.

3. find what works best for you

now that you have eliminated the unnecessary, you can make another step in your personal development. and this is the time to try and fail as much as possible. what i mean is, you need to find what works best for you. and the best way is to try as many different things as you can and preferably fail many times. because there is no better teacher than experience and once you fail at something, you will know whether or not it’s for you and if it’s worth working on it.

experiment with everything.you will eventually find our which is the best sport for you, the foods that give you energy and boost your metabolism, the best time during the day for personal projects or working, the habits you need to establish, how you want to look, talk and behave and so on. you may decide that waking up at 5 a.m. is just not your things and although it’s connected with productivity and most successful people do it, you’re just more productive around lunch, or in the evening. so listen to your instincts in this case and do what’s best for you.

test different sleep patterns, working hours, behavior, motivation strategies and so on. find your thing and stick to it.

4. build a few keystone habits

a keystone habit is a habit that provokes a chain of other activities that are good for you.

getting up early for me is connected to a morning ritual with a healthy breakfast, a quick workout and a positive start of the day. this usually includes reading affirmations out loud and writing something. going to the gym every day helps me stay on track. it’s followed by alternating and cold showers and staying motivated for the rest of the day. the earlier you build such habits, the better. once you make them stick], everything else will improve too. so work on them now and concentrate on other things later.

here are the best habits you can start implementing now:

working out;

meditating;

eating healthy;

getting up early;

planning your day from the night before;

they are proven to work wonders and it’s very important to stick to them no matter what. just make them lifelong habits and do the certain thing even if you’re on a vacation, even after you’ve had a bad day, even when everything seems pointless.

5. find you p ion

this can happen by listening to your inner voice, focusing on the things you enjoy doing, and trying new things.

the point is to not only find it, but also embrace it, get better in this things and make it an essential part of your daily life.

that will brings you such happiness, contentedness and purpose that you’ll never doubt it’s your thing.

تا انتهای این پاراگراف ترجمه کنید.

6. make it your job

here things get a little harder as you’ll need to work on your p ion as you’ve probably never worked before in your life. but the difference this time is that you’ll be doing something you love, so you can’t really call it working.

if you want to become a writer, write every single day, whenever you can. try to improve your writing at the same time and find ways to promote your work.

if you are a gym freak, master your performance in the gym. shape your body. learn everything in this niche and get a certificate. become a personal trainer and help others achieve the body you want. this way you’ll communicate only with people willing to improve themselves and

will spend most of your days in the gym. maybe open one of your own one day.

i gave two totally random examples because i wanted to show you how absolutely everything in this world can be mastered and turned into something prosperous. once you find what your p ion is, work hard on it, dedicate time, energy and effort, believe in it every single day, you’ll manage to make it your job.

and this will be a dream job. one that perfectly suits an ideal lifestyle.

7. decide what time you want to spend working

arrange things in such a way that you’ll be able to work every second week, a few hours each day, or 4 days in a week. it could be anything.

but this, of course, will be after you’ve worked hard enough and long enough (a year or so) and have turned what you love into a business.

8. travel often

traveling is one of the best things you can do in life. it’s important to make it something you’ll do at least once or twice a year. preferably every 2-3 months. most people usually travel to get out of reality and forget about their problems. but you’ve build such a lifestyle that has a great reality and you don’t want escape from it. traveling is just because you don’t want to get stuck, to miss out on the beautiful things the world has to offer. you will refind yourself too while doing it, learn a lot about other cultures and see the beauty of life.

this way your life will never be sedentary and you’ll never get bored.

9. have hobbies

find out other things you enjoy doing and dedicate time to them every now and then.

10. be always on the go

never miss an opportunity to learn something new. no matter who you are now and what your income is, you always have what to learn.

don’t neglect your spiritual and mental world. meditate, read good books and find inspiration.

11. always be open for new things

try to do something new and something you fear a few times a month.

it may be approaching strangers, bungee jumping, public speaking, dancing, visiting new countries, trying new sports, etc.

each of them will be an amazing experience and will make your life even more exciting.

12. give and be grateful

giving is the best investment and can make you way more contented than buying new stuff. so be able to give as much as you can, be it advice, help, encoura ent, money, stuff you don’t use and need. volunteer or give for charity. also never forget to be grateful. each step of this journey should go along with appreciation. everything you have, even when it’s not more, is amazing and a big reason to feel deeply grateful. express that feeling everyday towards the things, people, events and stuff in your life.

you see, building the ideal lifestyle may take some time, but it’s not impossible. actually anyone can have it. they just need a burning desire to achieve all that, willingness to sacrifice, patience and a strong belief. eventually, they’ll understand it’s all worth it. and enjoying the journey is one of the things that make the ideal lifestyle such a sweet experience.



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successful fireplaces in tight houses

a central location, a tall chimney, and controlled combustion are the keys to a good burn.

by john gullanda version of this article first appeared in the may 1999 edition of the journal of light construction

builders are beginning to hear more complaints that traditional masonry fireplaces leak smoke and burn too much wood for too little heat output. the fact is, open site-built masonry fireplaces have always been filthy, smoky, and inefficient, but these drawbacks were less noticeable in drafty, uninsulated houses. today’s tighter homes, however, are less forgiving, and their occupants are less tolerant.

in addition, many modern fireplaces are used strictly as a design element, and many designers have no training in what makes one work. on top of that, many of the masons and other heating contractors who build fireplaces carry over outdated design traditions that are at the root of performance problems.it doesn’t have to be that way. building scientists now understand why traditional fireplace designs perform poorly, and masons, manufacturers, and hearth installers have responded with new products and techniques that eliminate past problems.in this article, i’ll discuss the common causes of fireplace problems, and propose solutions for masonry fireplaces and heaters, as well as less expensive, efficient factory-built wood-burning fireplaces.

why fireplaces failwhen it comes to traditional open masonry fireplaces, masons have perpetuated outdated ideas about the smoke shelf, the mysteries of the smoke chamber, and the need for wide, but shallow-throat dampers.today, it is clear that all three of these features work against successful fireplace performance (see figure 1).

the smoke shelf and shallow-throat damper both act as obstacles to straight exhaust flow. and the smoke chamber actually reduces the strength of a chimney’s draft by slowing and cooling the fireplace exhaust. the performance of many brick fireplaces can be improved immediately by removing the throat damper and smoke shelf, and installing a chain-operated damper at the top of the chimney. the results are a smooth, straight path for the exhaust and less smoking when a fire burns.

figure 1. traditional fireplaces leak smoke into living space and don’t produce heat efficiently. the curving smoke chamber, the throat damper and the smoke shelf all decrease the strength and stability of the chimney draft.

cold hearth syndromebut the biggest source of trouble is the location of the fireplace. over the past 50 years of residential design, fireplaces have migrated from the center of the house to a position against the exterior walls, or even into chases that are completely outside the house. this causes the cold hearth syndrome, which is the source of most fireplace failures.the most dramatic effect of a cold hearth is a predictable blast of cold air when the fireplace doors are opened to build a fire. smoke fills the room when someone tries to light a kindling fire. this is a common, even chronic, characteristic of north american fireplaces.the syndrome usually has its origin in the decision to place a fireplace outside an exterior wall in a frame or brick chase (figure 2).

the cold outside air s warmth from the fireplace and chimney structure, causing the temperature of the air in the flue to drop. when the flue temperature is lower than the house temperature, air begins to flow down the chimney and onto the hearth. this is called a "cold backdraft" and contrary to common belief, it does not happen because cold air is heavy and falls down the chimney. the air is not falling — it is being ed down by the house.

figure 2. chimneys built on an outside wall, whether exposed or boxed with a chase, are prone to backdrafting (top). one solution is to move the chase inside and to vent it to the interior so warm air can circulate (middle). the best solution is to locate the system properly in the first place. the ideal location is in the center of the house (bottom), because the surrounding air will keep the chimney warm and the chimney will penetrate the roof at its highest point.

just as exhaust in a chimney produces a pressure difference called a draft, so the relatively warm air in a house produces a pressure difference called "stack effect" when it is cold outside the buoyant warm air rises, producing a slight low pressure zone downstairs and higher pressure upstairs. since most fireplaces are installed on lower floors, they experience negative pressure due to stack effect when it is cold outside. as soon as the air in the chimney falls below room temperature, the house becomes a better chimney than the chimney itself, and a cold backdraft gets started. the backdraft tends to stabilize because as the chimney becomes full of cold air, it cannot produce any draft to resist the suction of the


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