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 serving utensils b01kjcnhj4
آیا دنبال یه سرویس کارد، قاشق و چنگال خوب میگردی؟؟؟؟؟؟؟
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سلام همراهان عزیز اگر دنبال یه سرویس کارد، قاشق و چنگال شیک برای پذیرایی از مهمان هاتون هستید من بهتون سایت لوازم خانگی و لوازم آَشپزخانه سینباد معرفی می کنم که میتونید ازش ید اینترنتی انجام بدید با بهترین قیمت لوازم خانگی.

برای دیدن محصولاتش و ید هم میتونید از این لینک استفاده کنید.

ید سرویس کارد، قاشق و چنگال

این سایت یه سایت عالی برای ید لوازم برقی و جهزیه هم هست حتمااااا سر بزنید.

ید زیر لیوانی و زیر بشق

ید پارچ و لیوان و بطری

اینستاگرام- - آپارات- یوتویوب- توییتر



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ید عمده ظروف پذیرایی سرامیکی و چینی
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بازار صالح آباد تهران | عمده فروشی آنلاین

صالح آباد تهران|عمده فروشی آنلاین|سایت عمده


پخش عمده ظروف سرامیکی و چینی آشپزخانه

فروش مستقیم و بدون واسطه ظروف سرو و پذیرایی آشپزخانه

سایت صالح آباد تهران |پخش ظروف دکوری و پذیرایی

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****لطفا جهت ید محصول یا ب اطلاعات بیشتر بر روی تصویر آگهی کلیک کنید****

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فروش عمده ظروف سرامیکی و چینی پذیراییبه صورت مستقیم با قیمت رقابتی

(همراه با هولوگرام درج شده روی بسته بندی کالا)

(با ضمانت کیفی محصول و تعویض کالا یا بازگشت وجه در صورت عدم رضایت مشتری)

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بازار صالح آباد تهران | عمده فروشی آنلاین

 

صالح آباد تهران|عمده فروشی آنلاین|سایت عمده

 



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عمده فروشی ظروف آشپزخانه سرامیکی
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

بازار صالح آباد تهران | عمده فروشی آنلاین

صالح آباد تهران|عمده فروشی آنلاین|سایت عمده

پخش عمده ظروف سرامیکی و چینی آشپزخانه

فروش مستقیم و بدون واسطه ظروف سرو و پذیرایی آشپزخانه

سایت صالح آباد تهران |پخش ظروف دکوری و پذیرایی

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****لطفا جهت ید محصول یا ب اطلاعات بیشتر بر روی تصویر آگهی کلیک کنید****

صالح آباد دات کام

www.salehabad.com

related image

فروش عمده ظروف سرامیکی و چینی پذیراییبه صورت مستقیم با قیمت رقابتی

(همراه با هولوگرام درج شده روی بسته بندی کالا)

(با ضمانت کیفی محصول و تعویض کالا یا بازگشت وجه در صورت عدم رضایت مشتری)

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بازار صالح آباد تهران | عمده فروشی آنلاین

صالح آباد تهران|عمده فروشی آنلاین|سایت عمده



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لوازم سرو و پذیرایی مدرن
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

خانواده های ایرانی به مهمان نوازی شهرت دارند زیرا مهمان نوازی آد دارد و ایرانیان به خوبی آن را بجا می آورند.شما می توانید از طریق فروشگاه اینترنتی سینباد و با ورود به بخش ظروف سرو پذیرایی شیک ترین و متنوع ترین محصولات سرو و پذیرایی را بصورت اینترنتی یداری نمایید و در کوتاهترین زمان با پست ا پرس دریافت نمایید. محصولات سینباد شامل انواع سرویس غذاخوری،زیربشق ،قاشق چنگال و کارد،سوپ خوری،سس خوری، دسرخوری، آسیاب نمک و فلفل، میوه خوری، آجیل خوری،کیک خوری، سرویس چایخوری، سینی، پارچ،لیوان، بستنی خوری،اردور خوری، سرویس آرگوپال و... می باشد. شما می توانید محصولات متنوع را که توسط تولیدکنندگان معتبر مانند چینی زرین ایران (zarin iran ) ، زیباسازان (zibasazan)، صنایع استیل ایران (sanaye steel iran) ، لومینارک (luminarc)، پژو (peugeot)، ویلکنز (wilkens)، سیلیکا (silica)، ، گالیک (galic) بی.وی.کی(b.v.k)، ویکتورینو (victorinox)و ...به بازار عرضه شده است باضمانت اص کالا، تضمین کیفیت و قیمت از طریق فروشگاه اینترنتی سینباد آنلاین یداری نمایید.



برای ید این محصول کلیک کنید!!!

برای ید این محصول کلیک کنید!!!


فروشگاه اینترنتی لوازم خانگی و آشپزخانه سینباد با گردآوری مجموعه ای عظیم از محصولات لوازم خانگی و لوازم آشپزخانه و امکان ید آنلاین این محصولات، رفاه حال شما دوستان عزیز را در نظر گرفته و برندهای معتبر دنیا را با قیمتی استثنایی در اختیار شما قرار داده است.

لینک شبکه های اجتماعی فروشگاه لوازم خانگی سینباد :

آپارات-یوتیوب-گوگل پلاس-اینستاگرام-تویتر-لینکدین-کلوب-ویمئو-پینترست







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افزایش اجاره ماشین در سفرآلامو
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

افزایش اجاره ماشین در سفرآلامو

در سال 2003 سفرآلامو با یک ناوگان از 20 وسیله نقلیه که در سالن رفت و آمد شهر سفرآلاموقرار دارد، در سال 2003 تاسیس شده است. سفرآلامو بزرگترین در با ناوگان پیک با بیش از 800 خودرو بوده است.

سفرآلامو دارای مکان هایی است که به فرودگاه ، اجاره ماشین فرودگاه های بالکان کمک می کند.

این مقاله در ابتدا در مجله بین المللی دیجیتال افتتاحیه بین المللی خودرو ما عرضه شد که شامل بازار اجاره ی اروپا می شد.

سفرآلامو، مدیر بازاری آنلاین، گفت: “با کارهای بسیار سخت، اجاره خودرو تصمیمات درست و مشارکت های کلیدی ما موفق به تبدیل شدن به بزرگترین شرکت اجاره مستقل خودرو در سفرآلاموشدیم.” “ما با درک نیاز به یک شرکت بزرگ اجاره اتومبیل داخلی و این فرصت را در اختیار گرفتیم.”

سفرآلامودر یک پرسش و پاسخ با اخبار اجاره خودرو، درباره رشد و رقابت بالا اجاره اتومبیل، بازار اجاره اتومبیل و چالش های ب و کار در جنوب شرقی اروپا صحبت می کند.

اجاره خودرو

. منابع اولیه مشتریان اجاره چه هستند؟

a. ما به حضور آنلاین ما به عنوان منبع مشتری رنت ماشین اصلی ما تکیه می کنیم. البته، ما برای ب و کار از سیستم های رزرو جهانی، سیستم های توزیع جهانی، اپراتورهای تور، آژانس های مسافرتی و ب و کارهای محلی بسیار مهم است.

q. چه منابع ب و کار جدید در حال توسعه هستید؟

a. امروز ما با موفقیت در زمینه طیف وسیعی از ب و کارها کرایه ماشین مانند زنجیره های هتل، اپراتورهای تور، آژانس های مسافرتی، آژانس های املاک و غیره کار می کنیم.

ما هرگز به دنبال مشارکت های جدید، به طور عمده شرکت های مبتنی بر آنلاین و ب و کارهای محلی نیستیم. همراه با اجاره ماشین، ما در حال توسعه خدمات اضافی مانند اجاره عملیات و فروش ماشین.

پرسش: چگونه بازار اجاره اتومبیل در بلغارستان طی 10 تا 20 سال گذشته تکامل یافته است؟

a. بازار دهقانی خودرو در ده سال گذشته به دلیل رشد روز افزون توریست های ورودی در بلغارستان، رشد سریع داشته است. 20 سال پیش هیچ کار اجاره اتومبیل وجود نداشت. در سال های اخیر رقابت شدید به دلیل رکود اقتصادی.



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تعبیر خواب پلو
درخواست حذف اطلاعات
معنی خواب پلو

منوچهر مطیعی تهرانی گوید:

پلو یا برنج پخته حاجت است. چنانچه در خواب دیدید که از برنج پلو می پزید یا دیگری برنج پخته و پیش روی شما نهاده حاجت شما روا می شود و به آرزویی که دارید می رسید که بیشتر جنبه مالی دارد نه معنوی. دادن برنج پخته یا پلو به دیگران برآوردن حاجت آنهاست و خوردن پلو بهره مندی از خیر و نیکی و نعمت است. اگر روی پلو زعفران ریخته بودند در راه رسیدن به هدفی که دارید ملال و اندوهی پیش می آید که زود رفع می شود. خوردن پلو با ترشی غم است. با ماست خشم است. با دوغ غم و اندوه است. چنانچه ببینید که پلو را با ماست می خورید حاجت شما برآورده می شود اما به علتی خشمگین می شوید. به هر حال دیدن پلو در خواب بد نیست. دختران جوان دم بخت اگر در خواب ببینند که پلو می خورند یا پلو پیش روی آنها نهاده اند و یا سر سفره ای نشسته اند که ظرف های پلو در آن چیده شده شوهر می کنند. خوردن پلو در خواب با مرغ بهتر از خوردن پلو با گوشت است. چنانچه در خواب دیدید که پلو می خورید اما پلوی شما شلتوک یا شن و ریگ دارد برای شما زحمت به وجود می آورند و ی هست که خیانت می کند و دروغ می گوید.

متن از سایت تعبیر خواب جامع

motiee manouchehr tehrani says:
rice or cooked rice is needed. the cooked rice or rice to meet the needs of their people and eating utensils benefit from the goodness and blessing. if you had poured over rice saffron in achieving the goal that you have depression and grief happens that quickly fades. eating rice with pickled sadness. with our anger. dough is with sadness. if you feel that you need utensils to eat with us are isfied but get angry cause. however, table view is not a bad dream. young s of marriageable if you dream of eating utensils or dishes are placed before them, or sitting at the table rice within it are arranged husband. eating rice with chicken sleeping better, eating rice and meat. if you saw in a dream that you eat rice, but rice or sand and gravel polowi you there for you bother to bring, and the one who betrays and lies.
text from the site of dream interpretation

لینک تعبیر خواب از سایت بلاگ اسکای

و یا لینک گول سایت

تعبیر خواب پلو , تعبیر خواب برنج پخته , تعبیر خواب برنج , خواب دیدن پلو , خواب دیدن برنج پخته , خواب دیدن برنج , رویای پلو , رویای برنج پخته , رویای برنج , تعبیر پلو , تعبیر برنج پخته , تعبیر برنج , خواب پلو , خواب برنج پخته , خواب برنج ,

مشاهده متن کامل ...
تعبیر خواب پلو
درخواست حذف اطلاعات
خواب پلو

منوچهر مطیعی تهرانی گوید:

پلو یا برنج پخته حاجت است. چنانچه در خواب دیدید که از برنج پلو می پزید یا دیگری برنج پخته و پیش روی شما نهاده حاجت شما روا می شود و به آرزویی که دارید می رسید که بیشتر جنبه مالی دارد نه معنوی. دادن برنج پخته یا پلو به دیگران برآوردن حاجت آنهاست و خوردن پلو بهره مندی از خیر و نیکی و نعمت است. اگر روی پلو زعفران ریخته بودند در راه رسیدن به هدفی که دارید ملال و اندوهی پیش می آید که زود رفع می شود. خوردن پلو با ترشی غم است. با ماست خشم است. با دوغ غم و اندوه است. چنانچه ببینید که پلو را با ماست می خورید حاجت شما برآورده می شود اما به علتی خشمگین می شوید. به هر حال دیدن پلو در خواب بد نیست. دختران جوان دم بخت اگر در خواب ببینند که پلو می خورند یا پلو پیش روی آنها نهاده اند و یا سر سفره ای نشسته اند که ظرف های پلو در آن چیده شده شوهر می کنند. خوردن پلو در خواب با مرغ بهتر از خوردن پلو با گوشت است. چنانچه در خواب دیدید که پلو می خورید اما پلوی شما شلتوک یا شن و ریگ دارد برای شما زحمت به وجود می آورند و ی هست که خیانت می کند و دروغ می گوید.

متن از سایت تعبیر خواب جامع

motiee manouchehr tehrani says:
rice or cooked rice is needed. the cooked rice or rice to meet the needs of their people and eating utensils benefit from the goodness and blessing. if you had poured over rice saffron in achieving the goal that you have depression and grief happens that quickly fades. eating rice with pickled sadness. with our anger. dough is with sadness. if you feel that you need utensils to eat with us are isfied but get angry cause. however, table view is not a bad dream. young s of marriageable if you dream of eating utensils or dishes are placed before them, or sitting at the table rice within it are arranged husband. eating rice with chicken sleeping better, eating rice and meat. if you saw in a dream that you eat rice, but rice or sand and gravel polowi you there for you bother to bring, and the one who betrays and lies.
text from the site of dream interpretation

لینک تعبیر خواب از سایت بلاگ

و یا لینک گول سایت

تعبیر خواب پلو , تعبیر خواب برنج پخته , تعبیر خواب برنج , خواب دیدن پلو , خواب دیدن برنج پخته , خواب دیدن برنج , رویای پلو , رویای برنج پخته , رویای برنج , تعبیر پلو , تعبیر برنج پخته , تعبیر برنج , خواب پلو , خواب برنج پخته , خواب برنج ,


مشاهده متن کامل ...
پخش ظروف چینی و سرامیکی آشپزخانه
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

بازار صالح آباد تهران | عمده فروشی آنلاین

صالح آباد تهران|عمده فروشی آنلاین|سایت عمده

پخش عمده ظروف سرامیکی و چینی آشپزخانه

فروش مستقیم و بدون واسطه ظروف سرو و پذیرایی آشپزخانه

سایت صالح آباد تهران |پخش ظروف دکوری و پذیرایی

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****لطفا جهت ید محصول یا ب اطلاعات بیشتر بر روی تصویر آگهی کلیک کنید****

صالح آباد دات کام

www.salehabad.com

related image

فروش عمده ظروف سرامیکی و چینی پذیراییبه صورت مستقیم با قیمت رقابتی

(همراه با هولوگرام درج شده روی بسته بندی کالا)

(با ضمانت کیفی محصول و تعویض کالا یا بازگشت وجه در صورت عدم رضایت مشتری)

image result for ‫ظروف سرامیکی و چینی‬‎

 

 

 

 

 

بازار صالح آباد تهران | عمده فروشی آنلاین

 

صالح آباد تهران|عمده فروشی آنلاین|سایت عمده

 



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preparing your own fish feeds
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

preparing your own fish feeds1

juli-anne b. royes and frank chapman2

introduction

most fish farmers and ornamental fish hobbyists buy the bulk of their feed from commercial manufacturers. however, small quantities of specialized feeds are often needed for experimental purposes, feeding difficult-to-maintain aquarium fishes, larval or small juvenile fishes, brood fish conditioning, or administering medication to sick fish. in particular, small ornamental fish farms with an ortment of fish require small amounts of various diets with particular ingredients. it is not cost effective for commercial manufacturers to produce very small quantities of specialized feeds. most feed mills will only produce custom formulations in quantities of more than one ton, and medicated feeds are usually sold in 50-pound bags. small fish farmers, hobbyists, and laboratory technicians are, therefore, left with the option of buying large quantities of expensive feed, which often goes to waste. small quantities of fish feed can be made quite easily in the laboratory, cl room, or at home, with common ingredients and simple kitchen or laboratory equipment. this paper presents examples of 1) experimental and practical fish feed blends or formulas that are nutrient balanced and adaptable to particular conditions; 2) the formulation and preparation of a semi-purified ornamental african cichlid fish diet that can be used in the laboratory or when small quantities of feed are needed; 3) the preparation o elatin-based diet that is often used to administer medicines or other chemicals. background information on nutrition, feedstuffs, and feed formulations are presented with emphasis primarily on the feeding of ornamental “aquarium” fishes.

nutrition and feedstuffs

nutrients essential to fish are the same as those required by most other animals. these include water, proteins (amino acids), lipids (fats, oils, fatty acids), carbohydrates (sugars, starch), vitamins and minerals. in addition, pigments (carotenoids) are commonly added to the diet of salmonid and ornamental “aquarium” fishes to enhance their flesh and skin coloration, respectively. the general proportions of various nutrients included in a standard fish diet are given in table 1. one of the best descriptions of the essential nutrients for fish and the nutrient content of various ingredients is nutrient requirements of fish, a publication by the national research council available free on the internet at http://www.nap.edu/.

figure 1.

general amounts of nutrients incorporated into diets for growing fish.

[click thumbnail to enlarge.]

in their natural environment fish have developed a wide variety of feeding specializations (behavioral, morphological, and physiological) to acquire essential nutrients and utilize varied food sources. based on their primary diet fish are cl ified as carnivorous (consuming largely animal material), herbivorous (consuming primarily plant and algae), or omnivorous (having a diet based on both plant and animal materials). however, regardless of their feeding cl ification, in captivity fish can be taught to readily accept various prepared foods which contain the necessary nutrients.

increased understanding of the nutritional requirements for various fish species and technological a nces in feed manufacturing, have allowed the development and use of manufactured or artificial diets (formulated feeds) to supplement or to replace natural feeds in the aquaculture industry. an abundant supply of feedstuffs are available, and farmers and hobbyists are now able to prepare their own fish feeds from locally available ingredients.

proteins and amino acids. fish meal, soybean meal, fish hydrosylate, skim milk powder, legumes, and wheat gluten are excellent sources of protein. additionally, the building blocks of proteins (free amino acids) such as lysine and methionine are commercially available to supplement the diet.

utilizing raw fish as a main ingredient in fish feeds has long been recognized to be harmful to the health and growth of fish due primarily to the presence of the anti-nutrient, thiaminase. thiaminase, an enzyme that destroys thiamine (vitamin b-1), one of the essential water-soluble vitamins, is mostly found in freshwater fish and is destroyed by heat (i.e., cooking). other concerns related to using raw fish in diets include the spread of infectious diseases such as mycobacterium and botulism. in preparing diets, preferential use of marine fish is suggested to minimize thiaminase activity, and raw fish could be steamed or poached.

lipids. oils from marine fish, such as menhaden, and vegetable oils from canola, sunflower, and linseed, are common sources of lipids in fish feeds.

carbohydrates. cooked carbohydrates, from flours of corn, wheat or other “breakfast” cereals, are relatively inexpensive sources of energy that may spare protein (which is more expensive) from being used as an energy source.

vitamins and minerals. the variety and amount of vitamins and minerals are so complex that they are usually prepared synthetically and are available commercially as a balanced and pre-measured mixture known as a vitamin or mineral premix. this premix is added to the diet in generous amounts to ensure that adequate levels of vitamins and minerals are supplied to meet dietary requirements.

pigments. a variety of natural and synthetic pigments or carotenoids are available to enhance coloration in the flesh of salmonid fish and the skin of freshwater and marine ornamental fish. the pigments most frequently used supply the colors red and yellow. the synthetically produced pigment, astaxanthin (obtained from companies such as cyanotech and f. hoffmann-la roche ltd.), is the most commonly used additive (100-400 mg/kg). cyanobacteria (blue-green algae such as spirulina), dried shrimp meal, shrimp and palm oils, and extracts from marigold, red peppers and phaffia yeast are excellent natural sources of pigments.

binding agents. another important ingredient in fish diets is a binding agent to provide stability to the pellet and reduce leaching of nutrients into the water. beef heart has traditionally been used both as a source of protein and as an effective binder in farm-made feeds. carbohydrates (starch, cellulose, pectin) and various other polysaccharides, such as extracts or derivatives from animals (gelatin), plants (gum arabic, locust bean), and seaweeds (agar, carageenin, and other alginates) are also popular binding agents.

preservatives. preservatives, such as antimicrobials and antioxidants, are often added to extend the shelf-life of fish diets and reduce the rancidity of the fats. vitamin e is an effective, but expensive, antioxidant that can be used in laboratory prepared formulations. commonly available commercial antioxidants are butylated hydroxyanisole (bha), or butylated hydroxytoluene (bht), and ethoxyquin. bha and bht are added at 0.005% of dry weight of the diet or no more than 0.02% of the fat content in the diet, while ethoxyquin is added at 150 mg/kg of the diet. sodium and pot ium salts of propionic, benzoic or sorbic acids, are commonly available antimicrobials added at less than 0.1% in the manufacture of fish feeds.

attractants. other common additives incorporated into fish feeds are chemoattractants and flavorings, such as fish hydrosylates and condensed fish solubles (typically added at 5% of the diet). the amino acids glycine and alanine, and the chemical betaine are also known to stimulate strong feeding behavior in fish. basically, attractants enhance feed palatability and its intake.

other feedstuffs. fiber and ash (minerals) are a group of mixed materials found in most feedstuffs. in experimental diets, fiber is used as a filler, and ash as a source of calcium and phosphorus. in practical diets, both should be no higher than 8-12% of the formulation. a high fiber and ash content reduces the digestibility of other ingredients in the diet resulting in poor growth of the fish.

other common feedstuffs used in ornamental fish diets include live, frozen, or dried algae, brine shrimp, rotifers or other zooplankton. the addition of fish or squid meal will enhance the nutritional value of the diet and increase its acceptance by the fish. fresh leafy or cooked green vegetables are often used. although vegetables are composed mainly of water, they contain some ash, carbohydrates, and certain vitamins. kale, dandelion greens, parsley, and turnip greens are examples of relatively nutritious vegetables.

feed formulations

with few exceptions, feeding a single type of food is neither complete nor balanced and does not supply all the nutrients a fish might need in its diet. hence, two or more ingredients should be mixed into homemade, laboratory and commercial feed formulations. a diet may be formulated to supplement natural foods already available in the production system or as a complete formulation when no other foods are provided. a complete diet must be nutritionally balanced, palatable, water stable, and have the proper size and texture. if natural foods are not incorporated in ornamental fish diets, the feed must be supplemented with natural or synthetic pigments.

the nutrient composition of numerous feedstuffs can be found in the literature and on the internet. two books that deal almost entirely with nutrient composition of feedstuffs are 1) handbook on ingredients for aquaculture feeds and 2) standard methods for the nutrition and feeding of farmed fish and shrimp. another book, which is available free on the internet is united states-canadian tables of feed composition, found at http://nap.edu/. also, available through the internet is the information provided by the usda nutrient data laboratory at http://nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/index.htm.

feeds are formulated to be dry, with a final moisture content of 6-10%, semi-moist with 35-40% water or wet with 50-70% water content. most feeds used in intensive production systems or in home aquaria are commercially produced as dry feeds. dry feeds may consist of simple loose mixtures of dry ingredients, such as “mash or meals,” to more complex compressed pellets or granules. pellets are often broken into smaller sizes known as crumbles. the pellets or granules can be made by cooking with steam or by extrusion. depending on the feeding requirements of the fish, pellets can be made to sink or float.

flakes are another form of dry food and a popular diet for aquarium fishes. flakes consist of a complex mixture of ingredients, including pigments. these are made into a slurry which is cooked and rolled over drums heated by steam.

semi-moist and wet feeds are made from single or mixed ingredients, such as trash fish or cooked legumes, and can be shaped into cakes or balls.

feed preparation

there is no single way for the preparation of formulated fish feeds; however, most methods begin with the formation of a dough-like mixture of ingredients. ingredients can be obtained from feed stores, grocery stores, pharmacies, and specialty stores such as natural food stores, as well as from various companies that may be found through the internet.

the dough is started with blends of dry ingredients, which are finely ground and mixed. the dough is then kneaded and water is added to produce the desired consistency for whatever fish is going to be fed. the same dough may be used to feed several types of fish, such as eels and small aquarium fish.

pelleting or rolling converts the dough into pellets or flakes, respectively. the amount of water, pressure, friction, and heat greatly affects pellet and flake quality. for example, excess water in the mixture results in a soft pellet. too little moisture and the pellet will crumble.

proteins and especially vitamins are seriously affected by high temperatures. therefore, avoid storing diet ingredients at temperatures at or above 70° c (158° f) and do not prepare dry feeds with water at temperature higher than 92° c (198° f).

tools and storage procedures

making your own fish feed requires few specialized tools. the tools are used primarily for chopping, weighing, measuring ingredients, and for blending, forming and drying the feed.

most of the utensils needed will already be in the laboratory or kitchen. multipurpose kitchen shears, hand graters, a paring knife, a 5-inch serrated knife, a 6- to 8-inch narrow-blade utility knife, and a 10-inch chef knife for cutting, slicing, and peeling can be used. a couple of plastic cutting boards protect the counter and facilitate handling the raw ingredients. heat resistant rubber spatulas, wooden and slotted spoons, long-handled forks, and tongs are very good for handling and mixing ingredients. a basic mortar and pestle, electric blender, food processor, or coffee grinder are very useful to chop or puree ingredients; use grinder sieves and mince die plates to produce the smallest particle size possible. a food mill and strainer such as a colander or flour sifter help discard coarse material and obtain fine food particles. for weighing and measuring ingredients, dry and liquid measuring cups and spoons, and a food or laboratory bench scale are required. other utensils include plastic bowls (1½, 3, 5, and 8 quarts) for weighing and mixing ingredients, a thermometer, and a timer. a 3-quart saucepan and 10-inch stockpot are good for heating gelatins and cooking raw foods such as vegetables and starches. the ingredients and blends may be cooked in a small electric or gas burner. a few trivets to put under pans will protect counters and table tops.

ingredients may be mixed by hand using a rotary beater or wire whisk; however, an electric mixer or food processor is more efficient. after mixing, a dough is formed that can be fashioned into different shapes.

a pasta maker, food or meat grinder will extrude the dough into noodles or “spaghetti” of different diameters. as the noodles emerge from the outside surface of the die, they can be cut off with a knife to the desired length or crumbled by hand, thus making pellets. a potato ricer also serves to extrude the dough into noodles of the same size. for making flakes, a traditional hand-cranked or electric pasta maker will press out the dough into thin sheets.

the pellets or thin sheets can be placed on a cookie sheet and dried in a household oven on low heat or in a forced-air oven. a small food dehydrator also performs the task quite well. to add extra oil and/or pigments to pellets, a hand-held oil atomizer or sprayer can is useful. to separate pellets into different sizes, a set of sieves (e.g., 0.5, 0.8, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mm) is required.

freezer bags serve to store the prepared feeds, and using a bag vacuum sealer will greatly extend the shelf-life of both ingredients and the feed. the feed can be stored double bagged in the freezer but should be discarded after 6 months. ideally, dried larval feeds are not frozen but stored in the refrigerator for no longer than 3 months.

a finished diet, especially used for experimental purposes, should be analyzed for nutrient content (proximate analysis: crude protein, energy, moisture, etc.). in addition, anyone intending to make his/her own fish feeds with unfamiliar ingredients should have them analyzed prior to their use.

sample formulations and recipes

there are numerous recipes for making fish feeds, and it is beyond the scope of this publication to present them all. presented here are examples of a purified, a semi-purified, and three practical diets that can easily be adapted to feed a wide variety of fishes (table 2). purified and semi-purified diets are used primarily in experimental formulations to study the effects a nutrient, such as the amount or type of protein, may have on the health and growth of fish.

one simple formulation, which is used traditionally to feed ornamental fish in ponds, consists of a mixture of 30% ground and processed oats or wheat and 50% of fish meal or pellets from a commercial manufacturer. by weight, approximately 2-3% of fish oil, and a 0.3% vitamin and a 1% mineral premix are added to the mixture. this mixture is blended with water and can be formed into dough balls of different sizes.

following table 2 are two sample fish feed recipes. these are:

  1. a semi-purified diet, developed to determine the optimum protein level required by young ornamental african cichlid fish (royes, unpublished dissertation). this diet also can be used as a basis for feeding other types of ornamental fish in the laboratory. the cichlid feed recipe was derived principally from salmonid formulations and uses casein as the purified protein source. the ingredients in the recipe are listed under major nutrient categories such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, and minerals. pigments are added to enhance the coloration in these ornamental fish.

  2. a gelatin-based diet, developed for difficult to feed fishes by the national aquarium in baltimore (from francis-floyd and reed, 1994). in this diet, gelatin is the primary binder. this recipe can be modified and supplemented with a variety of ingredients. supplemental or replacement ingredients are presented. gelatin-based diets are popular in the aquarium fish industry and useful for preparing medicated feeds at home.

figure 2.

ingredients1 and their proportions (percent of dry weight) in five diet formulations. these formulations can be modified to feed fish in the laboratory or small farm. modified from dekoven et al.2, 1992; various sources3, 4; meyers and brand5, 1975; lovell6, 1989.

[click thumbnail to enlarge.]

figure 3.

figure 4.

sources of information

boonyaratpalin, m. and r. t. lovell. 1977. diet preparation for aquarium fishes. aquaculture 12:53-62.

dekoven, d. l., j. m. nunez, s. m. lester, d. e. conklin, g. d. marty, l. m. parker and d. e. hinton. 1992. a purified diet for medaka (oryzias latipes): refining a fish model for toxicological research. laboratory animal science 42:180 9.

de silva, s. s. and t. a. anderson. 1995. fish nutrition in aquaculture. chapman and hall. london, uk.

francis-floyd, r. and p. reed. 1994. mana ent of hexamita in ornamental cichlids. uf/ifas fact sheet vm 67. university of florida, usa.

goddard, s. 1996. feed mana ent in intensive aquaculture. chapman and hall. new york, usa.

halver, j. e. (ed). 1989. fish nutrition 2nd ed. academic press inc. san diego, usa.

hardy r. w. and f. t. barrows. 2002. diet formulation and manufacture. pp. 505-600. in: fish nutrition. 3rd ed. elsevier science. new york, usa.

hertrampf, j. w. and f. piedad-pascual. 2000. handbook on ingredients for aquaculture feeds. kluwer academic publishers. dordrecht, the netherlands.

lectures on training course in fish feed technology. 1980. fish feed technology. food and agriculture organization of the united nations (fao)/adcp/rep/80/11.

lewbart, g. a. 1998. self- essment color review of ornamental fish. iowa state university press. ames, usa.

lewbart, g. a. 1991. medical mana ent of disorder of freshwater tropical fish. compendium on continuing education for the practicing veterinarian 13:969-978.

lovell, t. 1989. nutrition and feeding of fish. van nostrand reinhold publishers. new york, usa.

meyers, s. p. and c. w. brand. 1975. experimental flake diets for fish and crustacea. the progressive fish-culturist 37(2): 67-72.

national research council. 1993. nutrient requirements of fish. national academy press. washington dc, usa.

new, m. b. 1987. feed and feeding of fish and shrimp: a manual on the preparation and presentation of compound feeds for shrimp and fish in aquaculture. food and agriculture organization of the united nations (fao)/aadcp/rep/87/26.

new, m. b., a. g .j. tacon and i. csavas. 1993. farm-made aquafeeds. proceedings, regional consultation on farm-made aquafeeds, 14 december 1992. bangkok, thailand. food and agriculture organization of the united nations (fao)/aadcp/proc/5/93/18.

royes, j. b. unpublished dissertation. the optimum protein level for african cichlid fry (pseudotropheus socolofii). university of florida, usa.

spotte, s., p. e. stake, p. m. bubucis and j. d. buck. 1985. alginate and gelatin bound foods for exhibit fishes. zoo biology 4: 33-48.

tacon, a. g. j. 1990. standard methods for the nutrition and feeding of farmed fish and shrimp. argent laboratories press. redmond, usa.

winfree, r. a. 1992. nutrition and feeding of tropical fish in: j.b. gratzek (ed). aquariology: fish anatomy, physiology, and nutrition. tetra press. morris plains, usa.

yanong, r. p. e. 1999. nutrition of ornamental fish. veterinary clinics of north america: exotic animal practice 2(1): 19-42.



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... جادویی ، ید پستی بطری آب جادویی ، سفارش آنلاین و ارزان بطری آب جادویی اورجینال. ... فروش ویژه بطری آب جادویی فروشگاه اینترنتی بطری آب جادویی اصل قیمت ...

هدیه - بطری آب جادویی

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هدیه - بطری آب جادویی - *طعم واقعی ید در فروشگاه هدیه* ... در پایین صفحه میتوانید نمونه محصولات را همراه با توضیح و قیمت مناسب آن ملاحظه نمایید. ... قیمت : 54,000 تومان ید اینستایلر steam in styler ( اتو موی این استایلر اوریجینال اصل آلمان ).

ید پستی بطری آب با اسانس میوه detox water – ارزان موبایل

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ید اینترنتی بطری قمقمه اسانس میوه دتو ارزان ... فروش آنلاین بطری آب جادویی با اسانس میوه دتا واتر ید ویژه قمقمه آب ورزشی با اسانس میوه همراه در بطری ...

فروش بطری آب با اسانس میوه | جستجو | لو دنلود - ...

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فروش ویژه بطری آب با اسانس میوه detox water ... صالح آباد عمده فروشی ارزان عمده قمقمه آب با اسانس میوه ارزان ,قیمت قمقمه ورزشی,قمقمه بدنسازی,قمقمه ورزشی با اسانس ..... با بطری جادویی 8 کاره، آشپز خانه خود رابه تمام وسایلی که نیاز دارید مجهز کنید!!!

فروش آب معدنی - istgah.com

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انواع پریفرم در اوزان مختلف-فروش بطری پت-قالب بطری پت ... فروش ویژه اب معدنی. فروش اب ... فروش عمده انواع آب معدنی های برف دانه با قیمت های بسیار ارزان شروع شد.

بطری آب معدنی - istgah.com

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ید اینترنتی بطری جادویی 8 کاره آشپزخانه - ید پستی ...

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۱۷ آذر ۱۳۹۵ ه .ش. - ید اینترنتی بطری جادویی 8 کاره آشپزخانه با قیمت ارزان از فروشگاه ... با این بطری جادویی شما به طور ویژه هشت محصول پر کاربرد آشپز خانه ی خود را در ... سری مفید برای نرم تخم مرغ آب پز برای تزیین سالاد; رنده مناسب برای ...

آب پاش جادویی سواپ دیسپانسر واتر کانون soap dispenser ...

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ید ارزان آب پاش جادویی کارواش جت. as seen on tv. توضیحات مربوط به آب ... قیمت اصلی: ۵۴,۰۰۰ تومانتخفیف ویژه شاپ یار۹۰۰۰ تومان. قیمت برای شما: ۴۵,۰۰۰ تومان.

بطری دو لیتری رنگی | ید اینترنتی ، ید پستی

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۹ تیر ۱۳۹۵ ه .ش. - بطری دو لیتری رنگی مناسب برای آب آبلیمو و … ... ید آنلاین ید بطری دو لیتری رنگی بهترین قیمتفروش ویژه پستی پستی رنگی ... پستی بطری دو لیتری رنگی,فروشگاه اینترنتی بطری دو لیتری رنگی,شن جادویی
بطری روغن ریز , بطری خامه ریز , بطری سس , ست بطری , قیمت بطری آشپزخانه , ید بطری روغن. ... سری متوسط مناسب برای انواع: سس،آبلیمو،روغن زیتون سری قلم ...

فروش استیک الکالاین نوترون قیمت 50هزار تومان شفا ...

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۱۷ بهمن ۱۳۹۳ ه .ش. - 20پست - ‏8 نویسنده
با سلام خدمت دوستان pt این تاپیک رو ایجاد برای معرفی و فروش دو محصول فوق العاده ... استیک آلکالاین ارزان تر از آب معدنی: ... هست که هزینه ید 300 عدد بطری نیم لیتری آب معدنی که تغییرات و خواص اب الکالاین را ندارد معادل 150 هزارتومن میشود. .... دوستانی که مایل به ید کلی هستند تخفیف ویژه داده خواهد شد.
علی پریزاده ( amirali parizadeh) - قیمت گذاری: ۱۰ استراتژی همیشه سبز برای ... آیا زمانی می رسد که یک بطری آب معدنی را گران تر از قیمت واقعی یداری کنیم؟ ... هیچ به سراغ نوشیدنی ارزان نرفته، اما میزان فروش نوشیدنی استاندارد و ویژه ...

فروش ویژه بطری آب جادویی - صفحه نخست

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ید ارزان بطری آب جادویی - ید اینترنتی بطری آب جادویی - ید پستی بطری آب جادویی - kharid botri ab jadoyi - kharid ghomghomeye ab - ید قمقمه ی آب ...

بطری جادویی آب - فروشگاه اینترنتی آرین استور

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بطری برای خنک نگه داشتن آب بطری آب جادویی بطری خنک کننده آب. ... مناسب استفاده در محل کار، مدرسه، ، مسافرت، کوهنوردی و … ... قیمت رقابتی محصول: فقط ۵۰۰۰ تومان (ارزانترین در ایران) ... بازار شده است و تنها چند ماه از عرضه آن میگذرد که به یکی از پر فروش ترین و محبوب ترین محصولات در کشور های اروپایی تبدیل شده است.

ید دفترچه یاداشت تزئینی - مجله اینترنتی ردز

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ید دفترچه یاداشت تزئینی دفترچه یاداشت تزینی هدیه ایی زیبا و جذاب با قیمت مناسب جملاتی زیبا در این دفترچه بنویسید و به عزیزتان هدیه دهید.

بطری آب جادویی water bag (فروش ویژه) - دسترسی به همه چی ...

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۱ مهر ۱۳۹۴ ه .ش. - بطری آب جادویی water bag (فروش ویژه) ... مناسب استفاده در محل کار، مدرسه، ، مسافرت، کوهنوردی و ... upload/uc_1169.jpg ... با ظرفیت جاگیری 480 میلی لیتر آب ... قیمت این محصول در سراسر ایران 8700 تومان 4500 تومان.

فروش بطری اب جادویی - جستجو - eforosh

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برای اولین بار در ایران بطری آب جادویی محصول جدیدی ... می باشد که ... ahmad، تهران،. قیمت: مناسب. 19/10/95. فروش بطری پریفرم و ظروف پت pet اروند پلاست ارائه ...
فروش ویژه لاک حرارتی اصل با کیفیت مناسب و قیمت ارزان ... شارژر پاور بانک خورشیدیضد آب و ضد خاک و دارای عایق قوی و مقاومدارای باطری ... بطری آب جادویی.

ید اینترنتی بطری آب جادویی - فروشگاه اینترنتی| ید ...

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مناسب استفاده در محل کار، مدرسه، ، مسافرت، کوهنوردی و . .... اصفهان تبریز زاهدان مشهد اهواز, ید نقدی, ید آنلاین,بطری آب ارزان قیمت,kharid botri ab jadooyi ...
... قمقمه و بطری آب همراه تاشو جادویی 2 تایی قابل حمل آسان در فروشگاه مارکتینا .فروش ارزان قمقمه و بطری آب همراه تاشو جادویی 2 تایی قابل حمل آسان با گارانتی ویژه.
قیمت : 10,000 تومان. ید پستی توضیحات ... تخفیف ویژه دستگاه وکیوم و پلمپ کیسه های فریزر و نایلون. قیمت : 10,000 ... بطری آب جادویی 2تایی. قیمت : 8,000 ...

ید انلاین بطری اب ورزشی - فروشگاه هاردی

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فروشگاه اینترنتی بزرگ هاردی ارائه کننده کالاهای ارزان قیمت و شیک, ید ... بطری آب جادویی محصول جدیدی می باشد که به تازگی وارد بازار شده است و تنها چند ماه از ...

آب معدنی لو ۶۰ هزارتومانی در تهران! +ع

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۵ مرداد ۱۳۹۵ ه .ش. - دبیر انجمن آب های آشامیدنی و معدنی ایران گفت: آب معدنی های خاص نروژی برای ... و افراد بسیار انگشت شمار هستند و فروش وسیعی برای این محصول پیش ... زند زیرا مردم توان ید آب بسته بندی تولید داخل را با قیمت 800 تومان هم ... را در حدی ببینیم که فردی از خودرویش پیاده شود و بطری یک لیتری را 40 ... پیشنهاد ویژه ...
اصلی فروش شن happy sand با قیمت ارزان و مستقیم-ارسال به سراسر ایران. ... یک بطری اسپری اسکاپ گارد (این محصول در ایران با نام اسپری ضد آب به فروش ... یکی از نیازهای مهم و قطعی کودک، بازی ، به ویژه بازی با خاک و ماسه می ...

فروشگاه لوازم آشپزخانه جدید

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تصفیه آب و آبسردکن| فروشگاه اینترنتی دیجی کالا

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تصفیه آب و آبسردکن. لوازم خانگی · لوازم خانگی برقی · نوشیدنی ساز · تصفیه آب و آبسردکن. بر اساس قیمت. 3,600,000 تومان19,000 تومان. بر اساس نوع. ایستاده

ماگ، لیوان و فنجان| فروشگاه اینترنتی دیجی کالا

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ماگ، لیوان و فنجان. لوازم خانگی · سرو و پذیرایی · پارچ، بطری و لیوان · ماگ، لیوان و فنجان. بر اساس قیمت. 325,200 تومان3,000 تومان. بر اساس نوع. استکان; فنجان

مشخصات، قیمت و ید گوشی موبایل ال جی مدل g5 h860 دو ...

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رتبه: ۱ - ‏ نقد
بررسی مشخصات، آ ین قیمت روز و ید گوشی موبایل ال جی مدل g5 h860 دو ... lg plus cbg-700 module for lg g5 | نقره ای | سرویس ویژه دیجی کالا: 7 روز تضمین .... درگاه جادویی گوشی ال جی g5 یک قابلیت جدید برای این محصول به شمار می رود که .... به شدت کارآمد است؛ اما سایر امکانات آن طور که بایدوشاید مناسب به نظر نمی رسند.

ید بطری آب جادویی ( خنک نگهدارنده ) - فروشگاه اینترنتی ...

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ید بطری آب جادویی ( خنک نگهدارنده ). ید پستی بطری جادویی خنک نگه دارنده آب بهترین وسیله برای روز های گرم تابستانی فروش بطری جادویی با قیمت ارزان و ...

فروش بطری - iran-tejarat.com

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فروش بطری ایران تجارت ، نیازمندیها. ... بندی : روغن مواد شوینده مواد بهداشتی دارویی نوشیدنی آب میوه آب معدنی نوشابه. .... برای دریافت قیمت بطری پت، بطری جار ،. ... در بیست و سومین نمایشگاه چاپ و بسته بندی با شرایط ویژه ید فرمایید پارت پت ...
فروش ویژه بطری آب جادویی بطری آب جادویی، فوق العاده مقاوم و سبک. خنک نگاه ... مناسب استفاده در محل کار، مدرسه، ، مسافرت، کوهنوردی و … ... قیمت: ۸۵۰۰ تومان ...
۵ بهمن ۱۳۹۵ ه .ش. - دبیر انجمن آب معدنی و آب آشامیدنی ایران گفت: متوسط قیمت هر بطری ... عدد آن قابل بررسی نیست و فروش آن جزئی است و هر ی توان ید آن را ندارد.
۵ داد ۱۳۹۵ ه .ش. - طراحی این بطری آب بصورتی است که دارای محفظه ای مخصوص قرار دادن تکه های میوه و یا ... (با تخفیف ویژه مخصوص ایران تی وی مارکت) ... برچسب ها : ید ارزان بطری آب جادویی, ید اینترنتی بطری آب طعم دار, ید اینترنتی قمقمه آب ...

پکیج بطری جادویی 8 کاره آشپزخانه با 41% تخفیف و ...

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پکیج بطری جادویی 8 کاره آشپزخانه با 41% تخفیف و پرداخت 17700 تومان به جای 30000 تومان. ... پیشنهاد ویژه امروز · پیشنهادهای جاری · پیشنهادهای گذشته · یاس یار چگونه کار می کند · همکاری با یاس یار ... تخم مرغ آب پز برای تزیین سالاد; رنده مناسب برای پودر پنیرهای مختلف به طور مثال پنیر ... قیمت واقعی: 40,000 تومان ...
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چه سرویس قاشق چنگالی مناسب است:

در این خصوص هرچه جنس قاشق و چنگال محکم تر و مقاوم تر باشد، بهتر است. سرویس های قدیمی ساخته شده از استیل سبک و نازک و دارای دسته های چوبی، برای قراردادن در ماشین های ظرفشویی امروزی مناسب نیستند.

تکه های مختلف یک سرویس قاشق و کارد و چنگال با هر سبکی که باشد، چه مدرن و چه آنتیک، تاثیر زیادی بر جلوه چیدمان میز می گذارد.

عرضه قاشق و چنگال به شکل عددی، دستی، جینی، 12، 24، 30، 92، 136،124، و 148 پارچه با جعبه چوبی و چرمی و کنسول های ویژه صورت می گیرد.

قیمت یک سرویس قاشق و چنگال تولیدی با برند های داخلی حدود یک میلیون تومان که این قیمت در برندهای خارجی به ترتیب نوع و جنس و مارک از 2.5 میلیون تومان به بالاافزایش می یابد.




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فروشگاه اینترنتی لوازم خانگی و آشپزخانه سینباد با گردآوری مجموعه ای عظیم از محصولات لوازم خانگی و لوازم آشپزخانه و امکان ید آنلاین این محصولات، رفاه حال شما دوستان عزیز را در نظر گرفته و برندهای معتبر دنیا را با قیمتی استثنایی در اختیار شما قرار داده است.


لینک شبکه های اجتماعی فروشگاه لوازم خانگی سینباد :




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لیست عمده فروشان لوازم خانگی
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لوازم ده ریز آشپزخانه,پخش لوازم اشپزخانه چینی,عمده فروشی لوازم آشپزخانه در تهران,فروش عمده لوازم پلاستیکی,عمده فروشی ظروف سرامیکی,لیست عمده فروشان لوازم خانگی,لوازم ریز اشپز خانه,لیست لوازم ریز آشپزخان,لوازم ده ریز آشپزخانه,عمده فروشی ظروف سرامیکی,فروش عمده لوازم پلاستیکی,لیست عمده فروشان لوازم خانگی,ظروف چینی ارزان,فروش عمده ظروف چینی,پخش عمده ظروف سرامیکی,پخش لوازم اشپزخانه چینی

بازار صالح آباد تهران | عمده فروشی آنلاین

صالح آباد تهران|عمده فروشی آنلاین|سایت عمده

عمده فروشی آنلاین | بازار صالح آباد تهران

فروش عمده جدیدترین لوازم خانگی

• فروش عمده جدیدترین لوازم خانگی با قیمت های استثنائی و کیفیت منحصر به فرد هر محصول

— معرفی و عرضه محصولات پرفروش بازار در دسته بندی های آشپزخانه،دکوری منزل، سرو و پذیرائی، لوازم خانگی برقی، خواب و ،ابزار آلات و ….

__ فروش مستقیم و بدون واسطه محصولات از بازار عمده فروشی صالح آباد تهران

image result for ‫لوازم آشپزخانه‬‎

****لطفا جهت ید محصول یا ب اطلاعات بیشتر بر روی تصویر کلیک کنید****

صالح آباد دات کام

www.salehabad.com

image result for ‫لوازم آشپزخانه‬‎

بازار صالح آباد تهران | عمده فروشی آنلاین

صالح آباد تهران|عمده فروشی آنلاین



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ید عمده ظروف چینی ارزان
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لوازم ده ریز آشپزخانه,پخش لوازم اشپزخانه چینی,عمده فروشی لوازم آشپزخانه در تهران,فروش عمده لوازم پلاستیکی,عمده فروشی ظروف سرامیکی,لیست عمده فروشان لوازم خانگی,لوازم ریز اشپز خانه,لیست لوازم ریز آشپزخان,لوازم ده ریز آشپزخانه,عمده فروشی ظروف سرامیکی,فروش عمده لوازم پلاستیکی,لیست عمده فروشان لوازم خانگی,ظروف چینی ارزان,فروش عمده ظروف چینی,پخش عمده ظروف سرامیکی,پخش لوازم اشپزخانه چینی

بازار صالح آباد تهران | عمده فروشی آنلاین

 

صالح آباد تهران|عمده فروشی آنلاین|سایت عمده

 

عمده فروشی آنلاین | بازار صالح آباد تهران

فروش عمده جدیدترین لوازم خانگی 

• فروش عمده جدیدترین لوازم خانگی  با قیمت های استثنائی و کیفیت منحصر به فرد هر محصول

— معرفی و عرضه محصولات پرفروش بازار در دسته بندی های آشپزخانه،دکوری منزل، سرو و پذیرائی، لوازم خانگی برقی، خواب و ،ابزار آلات و ….

__ فروش مستقیم و بدون واسطه محصولات از بازار عمده فروشی صالح آباد تهران


 

 

****لطفا جهت ید محصول یا ب اطلاعات بیشتر بر روی تصویر کلیک کنید****

صالح آباد دات کام

www.salehabad.com

image result for ‫لوازم آشپزخانه‬‎

بازار صالح آباد تهران | عمده فروشی آنلاین

 

صالح آباد تهران|عمده فروشی آنلاین

 



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arbaeen day:do we know irt?(پست اشتراک گذاری شده)
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پست اشتراک گذاری شده

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منبع اصلی پست
www.darojj. /post/158

arba'een (arabic: الأربعین‎, "forty") or chehelom (persian: چهلم‎, urdu: چہلم‎, "the fortieth [day]"), is a shia muslim religious observance that occurs 40 days after the day of ashura. it commemorates the martyrdom of hussein bin ali, the grandson of the islamic prophet, muhammad which falls on the 20th day of the month of safar. imam husayn ibn ali and 72 companions were martyred in the tragedy of battle of karbala in the year 61 ah (680 ce), killed by yazid i's army. arba'een or forty days is also the usual length of mourning after the death of a family member or loved one in many muslim traditions. arba'een, or chehlom, is one of the largest pilgrimage gatherings on earth, in which over 15 million people go to the city of karbala in iraq

abdullah "ali al-asghar" ("youngest ali") ibn husayn was one of the three sons of husayn.imam husain took ali asghar in battlefield to show the condition of 6 month old child without water.ali al-asghar was then subsequently killed by harmala who s a three-headed arrow that pierced his neck.it has been recorded that the 6 month old baby moved his neck to protect the 3 headed spear from hitting his father ali asghar's death at 6 months old occurred on, 10 muharram 61 ah, which is known as ashura

arba'een pilgrimage has been observed from the year 61 a.h. after the battle of karbala or the following year. since then arba'een has been very important so that each and every shiite and even nonshiite believer will try to perform during his life. this is because shiite imams encouraged their followers to come together in karbala to commemorate the fortieth day after the tragedy of karbala.

the first such a gathering took place when jabir ibn abd-allah, a companion of muhammad, made a pilgrimage to the burial site of husayn. he was accompanied by atiyya bin saad due to his infirmity and probable blindness. his visit coincided with that of the surviving female members of muhammad's family and husayn's son and heir imam zain-ul-abideen, who had all been held captive in damascus by yazid, the umayyad caliph. imam zain-ul-abideen had survived the battle of karbala and led a secluded life in deep sorrow.it is said that for twenty years whenever food was placed before him, he would weep. one day a servant said to him, ‘o son of allah’s messenger! is it not time for your sorrow to come to an end?’ he replied, ‘woe upon you! jacob the prophet had twelve sons, and allah made one of them disappear. his eyes turned white from constant weeping, his head turned grey out of sorrow, and his back be e bent in gloom,[a] though his son was alive in this world. but i watched while my father, my brother, my uncle, and seventeen members of my family were slaughtered all around me. how should my sorrow come to an end?

arba'een is consistently among the largest peaceful gatherings in history. the city of karbala in iraq is the center of the proceedings to which many pilgrims travel miles on foot to reach there. the distance between basra and karbala is a long journey even by car, but it is traveled annually on foot by iraqi pilgrims which takes them a full two weeks and approximately one month to come from other countries like iran. the crowds become so m ive that they cause a blockade for hundreds of miles.

in 2008, approximately nine million religious observers converged on karbala to commemorate arba’een.[10] however, in 2009, the number of people visiting karbala on arba'een significantly increased. according to the official website of news and press tv (iran), over ten million people had reached the city of karbala one or two days before arba'een. the number of pilgrims was expected to rise to 18 million during the next two days, arbaeen reached 20 million in 2013.

that would consist %60 of iraq's population, which would exceed the number of mecca pilgrims by a factor of five. arba'een is also more noteworthy than kumbh mela, since though the latter is more populous than arba'een, however it is not held annually. there are also some other factors which makes it even more important, among which is the sight of thousands of tents set up by local villagers around the pilgrims' path, from which the pilgrims get nearly everything they need, from "fresh meals to eat and a space to rest, to free international phone calls to ure concerned relatives, to baby diapers, to practically every other amenity, free of charge." so as pilgrims do not need to carry anything other than clothes they wear. the daily distribution of 50 million meals which would adds up to the number of 700 million during the pilgrimage, "all financed not by the united nations or international charities, but by poor laborers and farmers who starve to feed the pilgrims and save up all year round so that visitors are isfied, should be recorded in guinness world records

.

everything on the pigrims's path including security is provided by volunteers. "to know what islam teaches," says one organizer, "don't look at the actions of a few hundred barbaric terrorists, but the selfless sacrifices exhibited by millions of arbaeen pilgrims."

as mahdi al-modarresi put it, therefore, arba'een should be listed in the guinness book in several categories: biggest annual gathering, longest continuous dining table, largest number of people fed for free, largest group of volunteers serving a single event, all under the imminent threat of suicide bombings. the question here is that why one may have never heard of it. the answer that al-modarresi give to this is related to the fact that the press is concerned more with negative and sen ionalized tabloids, than with positive,inspiring narratives, particularly when it comes to islam.

there's another peculiar feature of arbaeen. while it is a distinctively shia spiritual exercise, sunnis, even christians, yazidis, zoroastrians, and sabians partake in both the pilgrimage as well as serving of devotees.the pilgrims from european countries including sweden, russia and vatican gathered on monday in karbala to mourn the tragedy, in which imam hussein along with 72 of his companions were martyred, al-alam reports. a delegation from vatican joined the pilgrims walking on foot to karbala to attend in arbaeen mourning ceremony. the delegation companied the procession about 1 km en route to karbala. some christian iraqi religious leaders also joined the delegation. many delegations from various african countries including ghana, nigeria, tanzania and senegal have been also presented in the arbaeen religious ceremony.[26] every year millions of pilgrims from iraq and other countries make an annual trek on foot or by vehicle to the city of karbala to mark the arbaeen. security forces in iraq have been taking tougher measures by sealing off roads and increasing checkpoints on routes used by the pilgrims to visit shrines in southern cities and around the capital baghdad. despite tight security measures, tens of pilgrims have lost their lives in terrorist attacks during the past couple of days. pilgrims condemned the deadly attack, but they noted that it would not change their mind about attending arbaeen ritual.

having refused to pledge allegiance to the caliph, yazid, husayn, his family, and companions were surrounded in the desert of karbala and beheaded in the most horrible manner, the account of which has been narrated from pulpits every year since the day he was murdered. "if the world understood hussein, his message, and his sacrifice, they would begin to understand the ancient roots of daesh(isis) and its credo of death and destruction." says mahdi al-modarresi. that is maybe why nothing infuriates the terror group more than the sight of millions of shiite pilgrims coming together for their show of faith. what makes this scene more important is that as the security conditions become worse, even more people are encouraged to challenge the terrorist threats. the pilgrimage, hence, is not just a religious rite, but a loud announcement of defiance.

source:en.wikipedia.org/wiki/arba%27een


this year over 20million people have gathered in karbala.there are 3 quastions here:1- the tragedy of karbala and all those sacrifises happened 1375 years before.all around the world you can see that nearly everyone at least heard about husein ibn ali and millions of mourners are holding funerals everywhere.who husein ibn ali really is?

2-as terrorist attacks get stronger,more people try to be there for arbaeen.the quastion is why is that?

and finally

while this important and uniqe event is happening why western media tries to show this significant gathering nonsignificant?can you imagin 20 million people from diffirenet places travel to a place by foot?how can anyone ignor this pure and true love?

please my friend

share this article so that we can stop living at the height of ignorance



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مولتی پریناتال ن
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مولتی پریناتال نیچرمید مولتی پریناتال نیچرمید مولتی پریناتال نیچرمید یک مولتی ویتامین-مینرال کامل بوده که اختصاصاً برای خانمهای باردار و مادران شیرده فرموله شده است. کارخانه نیچرمید با در نظر گرفتن نیازهای دقیق این دوران حساس فرمولاسیون بی نظیری برای این مکمل در نظر گرفته که با مرتفع ساختن نیازهای بدن مادر باردار و یا شیرده سعی در حفظ هر چه بیشتر سلامتی مادر و جنین (نوزاد) در دوران بارداری دارد. این محصول غنی از: • اسید فولیک (800 میکروگرم) که 100% نیاز روزانه مادر باردار به این ماده حیاتی که برای تشکیل لوله عصبی جنین ضروری است را تامین می کند. • آهن (27 میلیگرم) که 100% نیاز روزانه به این ماده حیاتی که برای رشد و نمو جنین و جلوگیری از کم خونی مادر ضروری است را تامین می کند. • زینک (روی) 25 میلیگرم ضروری جهت شکل گیری سیستم عصبی جنین و همچنین رشد و تکامل جنین • ویتامین د 400 واحد برای حفاظت از استخوانهای مادر باردار و شیرده • ویتامین آ 100 درصد به فرم بتاکاروتن(پیش ساز ویتامین a) ضروری جهت رشد و تکامل جنین.این فرم ویتامین a (بتا کاروتن) فاقد هر گونه عوارض تراتوژنیک (جهش زا) در جنین می باشد. مقدار و طریقه مصرف: روزانه یک قرص به همراه غذا میل شود. موارد احتیاط: دور از دسترس ک ن، در جای خشک و خنک نگهداری شود.. مصرف بیش از حد فراورده های حاوی آهن در ک ن زیر 6 سال سبب بروز مسمومیت کشنده می شود. در صورت مصرف تصادفی سریعاً به پزشک مراجعه نمایید. ج ترکیبات: supplement facts serving size 1 tablet daily value for pregnant and lactating woman amount per serving 50% vitamin a 4.000 i.u. 3434 100% beta carotene 167% vitamin c 100mg 100% vitamin d 400 i.u. 37% vitamin e 11 i.u. 108% thiamin 1.5 mg 85% riboflavin 1.7mg 90% niacin 18mg 104% vitamin b6 2.6mg 100% folic acid 800 mcg 50% vitamin b12 4mcg 15% calcium 200mg 150% iron 27mg 167% zinc 25mg



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راه های گوناگونی برای رسیدن به خدا وجود دارد.
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هنگامی که فرد همراه شدن در یت خدا را آغاز می کند، ارتباط نزدیک تری با خدا به وجود می آید. یک زنجیره از انرژی مثبت ایجاد می شود حتی اگر فرد مشغول کارها و وظایف دنیوی باشد...... به هیچ وجه احساس خستگی نمی کند.


وقتی به دیگران کمک می کنیم این کار به ما امکان می دهد که تمرکز را از روی خود بر داریم .


رشد ویژگی های الهی : مانند وقت شناسی، برنامه ریزی و گرایش به خدمت



“خواسته دیگران” مقدم است: فرد یاد می گیرد تا بر ع العمل های خود در مقابل تفاوت های فردی دیگران تسلط پیدا کند و خواسته ی دیگران را بر خواسته ی خود مقدم بدارد..........درک کنند و دیدگاه دیگران را بپذیرند. این کار نفس را کاهش می دهد.



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راه های گوناگونی برای رسیدن به خدا وجود دارد.
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

هنگامی که فرد همراه شدن در یت خدا را آغاز می کند، ارتباط نزدیک تری با خدا به وجود می آید. یک زنجیره از انرژی مثبت ایجاد می شود حتی اگر فرد مشغول کارها و وظایف دنیوی باشد...... به هیچ وجه احساس خستگی نمی کند.


وقتی به دیگران کمک می کنیم این کار به ما امکان می دهد که تمرکز را از روی خود بر داریم .


رشد ویژگی های الهی : مانند وقت شناسی، برنامه ریزی و گرایش به خدمت



“خواسته دیگران” مقدم است: فرد یاد می گیرد تا بر ع العمل های خود در مقابل تفاوت های فردی دیگران تسلط پیدا کند و خواسته ی دیگران را بر خواسته ی خود مقدم بدارد..........درک کنند و دیدگاه دیگران را بپذیرند. این کار نفس را کاهش می دهد.



مشاهده متن کامل ...
راه های گوناگونی برای رسیدن به خدا وجود دارد.
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

هنگامی که فرد همراه شدن در یت خدا را آغاز می کند، ارتباط نزدیک تری با خدا به وجود می آید. یک زنجیره از انرژی مثبت ایجاد می شود حتی اگر فرد مشغول کارها و وظایف دنیوی باشد...... به هیچ وجه احساس خستگی نمی کند.


وقتی به دیگران کمک می کنیم این کار به ما امکان می دهد که تمرکز را از روی خود بر داریم .


رشد ویژگی های الهی : مانند وقت شناسی، برنامه ریزی و گرایش به خدمت



“خواسته دیگران” مقدم است: فرد یاد می گیرد تا بر ع العمل های خود در مقابل تفاوت های فردی دیگران تسلط پیدا کند و خواسته ی دیگران را بر خواسته ی خود مقدم بدارد..........درک کنند و دیدگاه دیگران را بپذیرند. این کار نفس را کاهش می دهد.



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3gsecure
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security for the third generation (3g) mobile system colin blanchard network systems & security technologies btexact. access and use of service to avoid or reduce a legitimate charge. · loss of confidentiality or integrity of a user’s or operator’s data · denial of a specific user’s access to their service or denial of access by all users to a service however, user expectations for instant communication and ease of use, as well as terminals which are easily lost or stolen, present a number of unique challenges in the mobile environment. the original first generation analogue mobile employed a simple electronic serial number to confirm that the terminal should be allowed access to the service. it was not long before the protection afforded to this number was broken. eventually, devices appeared that could read these electronic serial numbers from the air, and access an unsuspecting user’s account for a short time, before moving on to the next, in the hope that the small charges on each bill would not be noticed. so why was this not predicted at the time? unfortunately, there always seems to be an umption, with any new development in communications technology, that complexity alone will protect such services from abuse. second generation systems such as gsm were designed from the beginning with security in mind. this has stood up to the kind of attacks that were prevalent on the analogue system at the time, thanks mainly to the ability to put responsibility for security in the hands of the home environment (he) operator. the he operator can control the use of the system by the provision of the subscriber identity module (sim) which contains a user identity and authentication key. this is specifically arranged so that this long life authentication key is not required by the serving network (sn) when roaming, exposed over the air or exposed across the interface between the sim and the mobile. this keeps to the minimum the level of trust the he operator needs to place in the user, serving network and manufacturer of the mobile equipment (me). in 1996, when the 3rd generation system known as umts was being developed in etsi (european telecommunications standards institute), the opportunity was taken to review the basis for security in existing mobile systems and to develop a new security architecture specifically to be used in umts. this early work was subsequently taken forward into the third generation partnership project (3gpp) and this will be the basis for the release 99 deployment of 3g systems.



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switching got easier along with easier by means of top packers together with mov
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5 top-rated els in isfahan
درخواست حذف اطلاعات


isfahan is one of the major tourist destinations in iran and annually lots of tourists visit this ancient city. there are two types of els in isfahan: modern els and traditional houses. modern els are like ordinary els all over the world and traditional els are old houses which have been changed to els for those travelers interested in old places. in this article, we will introduce the 5 top-rated els in isfahan based on travelers’ ranks on tripadvisor.


isfahan el


 hasht behesht apartment el

one of the main a ntage of this apartment el is its good location that from which you will have easy access to most of historical and ancient sightseeing and it is just five-minute walk from imam square. the rooms are big enough and clean. the kitchens are well equipped with fridge, electric stove, electric water kettle, dining table sets, pots and pans. so, you have the option to cook for yourself. breakfast will be delivered and served at your room each morning and it has very friendly and helpful staff. all these a ntages have caused this el to be chosen as the most favorite el between travelers.

 hasht behesht apartment el


 abbasi el (iran el booking )

abbasi el is known as the most famous el of isfahan and it is the first choice of nearly all foreign travelers. the most amazing thing that attract the attention of all people at first glance is the magnificent traditional architecture of this 5-star el at isfahan. staying at rooms at the old wing with garden view are suggested because the view of these rooms is very pleasant. the inner courtyard design is based on old persian garden. a wide variety of services are available at this el, such as: fitness center, swimming pool, business center, sauna, different restaurants serving high quality and delicious meals and a popular traditional tea house. the location of abbasi el is also perfect and from which you can go to visit imam square by foot in just few minutes.

 abbasi el


 viana el (isfahan el)

viana is a one-star el which is managed by a kind and helpful local family. at this el you feel like you are at home. viana el is a bit far from city center and main historical attractions, however you can easily reach the city center with taxi. the main a ntage of this el is its fair price. this el at isfahan has been newly renovated and the rooms are clean and comfortable.

 viana el


 kowsar el ( el isfahan)

kowsar is a 5-star el located in the heart of isfahan across the “zayandeh roud” river and the “si-o-seh pol” bridge. it is an old el which has been renovated completely few years ago. from this el, you can go easily by foot to the armenian district of isfahan and visit vank cathedral. it is also 10 to 15 minute walk from this el to the center of town. p engers have mentioned that serving breakfast at the restaurant located on the top floor of el with the view of river is one of the best features of this el.

 kowsar el


(iran el booking) setareh el

one of the main a ntages of setareh 4-star el is its location, because most of the famous historical sights of isfahan are located within walking distance from this el. rooms at this el are nearly small but they are clean.


setareh el



مشاهده متن کامل ...
top-rated els in isfahan
درخواست حذف اطلاعات


isfahan is one of the major tourist destinations in iran and annually lots of tourists visit this ancient city. there are two types of els in isfahan: modern els and traditional houses. modern els are like ordinary els all over the world and traditional els are old houses which have been changed to els for those travelers interested in old places. in this article, we will introduce the 5 top-rated els in isfahan based on travelers’ ranks on tripadvisor.


isfahan el


 hasht behesht apartment el

one of the main a ntage of this apartment el is its good location that from which you will have easy access to most of historical and ancient sightseeing and it is just five-minute walk from imam square. the rooms are big enough and clean. the kitchens are well equipped with fridge, electric stove, electric water kettle, dining table sets, pots and pans. so, you have the option to cook for yourself. breakfast will be delivered and served at your room each morning and it has very friendly and helpful staff. all these a ntages have caused this el to be chosen as the most favorite el between travelers.

 hasht behesht apartment el


 abbasi el (iran el booking )

abbasi el is known as the most famous el of isfahan and it is the first choice of nearly all foreign travelers. the most amazing thing that attract the attention of all people at first glance is the magnificent traditional architecture of this 5-star el at isfahan. staying at rooms at the old wing with garden view are suggested because the view of these rooms is very pleasant. the inner courtyard design is based on old persian garden. a wide variety of services are available at this el, such as: fitness center, swimming pool, business center, sauna, different restaurants serving high quality and delicious meals and a popular traditional tea house. the location of abbasi el is also perfect and from which you can go to visit imam square by foot in just few minutes.

 abbasi el


 viana el (isfahan el)

viana is a one-star el which is managed by a kind and helpful local family. at this el you feel like you are at home. viana el is a bit far from city center and main historical attractions, however you can easily reach the city center with taxi. the main a ntage of this el is its fair price. this el at isfahan has been newly renovated and the rooms are clean and comfortable.

 viana el


 kowsar el ( el isfahan)

kowsar is a 5-star el located in the heart of isfahan across the “zayandeh roud” river and the “si-o-seh pol” bridge. it is an old el which has been renovated completely few years ago. from this el, you can go easily by foot to the armenian district of isfahan and visit vank cathedral. it is also 10 to 15 minute walk from this el to the center of town. p engers have mentioned that serving breakfast at the restaurant located on the top floor of el with the view of river is one of the best features of this el.

 kowsar el


(iran el booking) setareh el

one of the main a ntages of setareh 4-star el is its location, because most of the famous historical sights of isfahan are located within walking distance from this el. rooms at this el are nearly small but they are clean.


setareh el



مشاهده متن کامل ...
آیا میخواهید مهمانی هایتان را با شیک ترین ظروف برگزار کنید؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟
درخواست حذف اطلاعات


سلام دوستان عزیز من یه سایت لوازم خانگی و لوازم آشپزخانه پیدا و ازش ید که خیلی عاالی بود و خواستم به شما هم معرفی کنم. این سایت کلی ظروف سرو و پذیرایی قشنگ داره با کلی تنوع علاوه بر اون قیمت لوازم خانگی این سایت نسبت به جاهای دیگه عاااالیه. میتونید از این سایت ید اینترنتی انجام بدبد و خیلی سریع محصولتون رو تحویل بگیرید.

خانم هایی که به دنبال ید جهزیه هستن هم حتما برن و این سایت رو ببینن چون کلی لوازم برقی و سرویس چینی با برندهای معتبر هم داره.

برای ید هم میتونید از لینک زیر استفاده کنید.

ظروف سرو و پذیرایی


اینستاگرام- - آپارات- یوتویوب- توییتر




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کشکول میوه خوری پایه کوتاه ریور
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

 

کشکول میوه خوری پایه کوتاه ریور

 

 

ما خانمای مهمون نواز ایرانی همیشه یکی ازدغدغه های مهممون موقع اومدن مهمون پذیرایی از مهمونای عزیزمون هست.بازندهبخصوص وقتی خانواده محترم همسر عزیز تشریف میارن منزلمون باید کدبانو بودن و خوش سلیقه گیمون رو حس نشون بدیم. یکی از ظروفی که اون موقع استفاده می کنیم ظرف میوه خوریه.میخوام یه ظرف میوه خوری خیلی شیک و با کیفیت رو که خودم خیلی ازش راضی هستم رو بهتون معرفی کنم .کشکول میوه خوری پایه کوتاه ریور یه محصول شیک ، دکوری و در عین حال کاربردیه.برجستگی ها و نقش های زیبای روی این ظرف همه رو به خودش جذب میکنه.بشما کدبانوی محترم و خوش سلیقه پیشنهاد میکنم این میوه خوری رو برای پذیرایی از مهمان هاتون انتخاب کنید

 

برای ید این محصول کلیک کنید!!!

 

کشکول میوه خوری پایه کوتاه ریور

 

 

برای ید این محصول کلیک کنید!!!

 

 

من این کشکول رو از یه سایت فوق العاده یدم که توی اون سایت انواع لوازم خانگی  با برند های معتبر و با بهترین کیفیت توش به فروش میرسه.اسم این سایت خوبی که معرفی سینباد هست.من لینک ید این محصول رو براتون میزارم تا هم از جای معتبری ید کنید هم براحتی یدتون رو انجام بدید و هم در کوتاه ترین زمان محصولی رو که سفارش میدید رو دریافت کنید.قلب ماچ

 

 

برای دیدن لوازم سرو و پذیرایی شیک و مدرن از این وبلاگ دیدن کنید.به من زنگ بزن 

 

 

 

فروشگاه اینترنتی لوازم خانگی و آشپزخانه سینباد با گردآوری مجموعه ای عظیم از محصولات لوازم خانگی و لوازم آشپزخانه و امکان  ید آنلاین این محصولات، رفاه حال شما دوستان عزیز را در نظر گرفته و برندهای معتبر دنیا را با قیمتی استثنایی در اختیار شما قرار داده است.

لینک شبکه های اجتماعی فروشگاه لوازم خانگی سینباد :

 

آپارات-یوتیوب-گوگل پلاس-اینستاگرام-تویتر-لینکدین-کلوب-ویمئو-پینترست




مشاهده متن کامل ...
سرو پذیرایی
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

خانواده های ایرانی به مهمان نوازی شهرت دارند زیرا مهمان نوازی آد دارد و ایرانیان به خوبی آن را بجا می آورند.شما می توانید از طریق فروشگاه اینترنتی سینباد و با ورود به بخش ظروف سرو پذیرایی شیکک ترین و متنوع ترین محصولات سرو و پذیرایی را بصورت اینترنتی یداری نمایید و در کوتاهترین زمان با پستت ا پرس دریافت نمایید. محصولات سینباد شامل انواع سرویس غذاخوری،زیربشق ،قاشق چنگال و کارد،سوپ خوری،سس خوری، دسرخوری، آسیاب نمک و فلفل، میوه خوری، آجیل خوری،کیک خوری، سرویس چایخوری، سینی، پارچ،لیوان، بستنی خوری،اردور خوری، سرویس آرگوپال و... می باشد. شما می توانید محصولات متنوع را که توسط تولیدکنندگان معتبر مانند چینی زرین ایران (zarin iran ) ، زیباسازانن (zibasazan)، صنایع استیل ایران (sanaye steel iran) ، لومینارک (luminarc)، پژو (peugeot)، ویلکنز (wilkens)، سیلیکا (silica)، ، گالیک (galic) بی.وی.کی(b.v.k)، ویکتورینو (victorinox)و ...به بازار عرضه شده است باضمانت اص کالا، تضمین کیفیت و قیمت از طریق فروشگاه اینترنتی سینباد آنلاین یداری نمایید.

 

لوازم سرو و پذیرایی مدرن

جهت مشاهده لوازم سرو و پذیرایی کلیک کنید!!!

فروشگاه اینترنتی لوازم خانگی و آشپزخانه سینباد با گردآوری مجموعه ای عظیم از محصولات لوازم خانگی و لوازم آشپزخانه و امکان  ید آنلاین این محصولات، رفاه حال شما دوستان عزیز را در نظر گرفته و برندهای معتبر دنیا را با قیمتی استثنایی در اختیار شما قرار داده است.

 

لینک شبکه های اجتماعی فروشگاه لوازم خانگی سینباد :

آپارات-یوتیوب-گوگل پلاس-اینستاگرام-تویتر-لینکدین-کلوب-ویمئو-پینترست


 



مشاهده متن کامل ...
top-rated els in isfahan
درخواست حذف اطلاعات


isfahan is one of the major tourist destinations in iran and annually lots of tourists visit this ancient city. there are two types of els in isfahan: modern els and traditional houses. modern els are like ordinary els all over the world and traditional els are old houses which have been changed to els for those travelers interested in old places. in this article, we will introduce the 5 top-rated els in isfahan based on travelers’ ranks on tripadvisor.


isfahan el


hasht behesht apartment el

one of the main a ntage of this apartment el is its good location that from which you will have easy access to most of historical and ancient sightseeing and it is just five-minute walk from imam square. the rooms are big enough and clean. the kitchens are well equipped with fridge, electric stove, electric water kettle, dining table sets, pots and pans. so, you have the option to cook for yourself. breakfast will be delivered and served at your room each morning and it has very friendly and helpful staff. all these a ntages have caused this el to be chosen as the most favorite el between travelers.

hasht behesht apartment el


abbasi el (iran el booking )

abbasi el is known as the most famous el of isfahan and it is the first choice of nearly all foreign travelers. the most amazing thing that attract the attention of all people at first glance is the magnificent traditional architecture of this 5-star el at isfahan. staying at rooms at the old wing with garden view are suggested because the view of these rooms is very pleasant. the inner courtyard design is based on old persian garden. a wide variety of services are available at this el, such as: fitness center, swimming pool, business center, sauna, different restaurants serving high quality and delicious meals and a popular traditional tea house. the location of abbasi el is also perfect and from which you can go to visit imam square by foot in just few minutes.

abbasi el


viana el (isfahan el)

viana is a one-star el which is managed by a kind and helpful local family. at this el you feel like you are at home. viana el is a bit far from city center and main historical attractions, however you can easily reach the city center with taxi. the main a ntage of this el is its fair price. this el at isfahan has been newly renovated and the rooms are clean and comfortable.

viana el


kowsar el ( el isfahan)

kowsar is a 5-star el located in the heart of isfahan across the “zayandeh roud” river and the “si-o-seh pol” bridge. it is an old el which has been renovated completely few years ago. from this el, you can go easily by foot to the armenian district of isfahan and visit vank cathedral. it is also 10 to 15 minute walk from this el to the center of town. p engers have mentioned that serving breakfast at the restaurant located on the top floor of el with the view of river is one of the best features of this el.

kowsar el


(iran el booking) setareh el

one of the main a ntages of setareh 4-star el is its location, because most of the famous historical sights of isfahan are located within walking distance from this el. rooms at this el are nearly small but they are clean.


setareh el



مشاهده متن کامل ...
top-rated els in isfahan
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

 


isfahan is one of the major tourist destinations in iran and annually lots of tourists visit this ancient city. there are two types of els in isfahan: modern els and traditional houses. modern els are like ordinary els all over the world and traditional els are old houses which have been changed to els for those travelers interested in old places. in this article, we will introduce the 5 top-rated els in isfahan based on travelers’ ranks on tripadvisor.


isfahan el


 hasht behesht apartment el

one of the main a ntage of this apartment el is its good location that from which you will have easy access to most of historical and ancient sightseeing and it is just five-minute walk from imam square. the rooms are big enough and clean. the kitchens are well equipped with fridge, electric stove, electric water kettle, dining table sets, pots and pans. so, you have the option to cook for yourself. breakfast will be delivered and served at your room each morning and it has very friendly and helpful staff. all these a ntages have caused this el to be chosen as the most favorite el between travelers.

 hasht behesht apartment el


 abbasi el (iran el booking )

abbasi el is known as the most famous el of isfahan and it is the first choice of nearly all foreign travelers. the most amazing thing that attract the attention of all people at first glance is the magnificent traditional architecture of this 5-star el at isfahan. staying at rooms at the old wing with garden view are suggested because the view of these rooms is very pleasant. the inner courtyard design is based on old persian garden. a wide variety of services are available at this el, such as: fitness center, swimming pool, business center, sauna, different restaurants serving high quality and delicious meals and a popular traditional tea house. the location of abbasi el is also perfect and from which you can go to visit imam square by foot in just few minutes.

 abbasi el


 viana el (isfahan el)

viana is a one-star el which is managed by a kind and helpful local family. at this el you feel like you are at home. viana el is a bit far from city center and main historical attractions, however you can easily reach the city center with taxi. the main a ntage of this el is its fair price. this el at isfahan has been newly renovated and the rooms are clean and comfortable.

 viana el


 kowsar el ( el isfahan)

kowsar is a 5-star el located in the heart of isfahan across the “zayandeh roud” river and the “si-o-seh pol” bridge. it is an old el which has been renovated completely few years ago. from this el, you can go easily by foot to the armenian district of isfahan and visit vank cathedral. it is also 10 to 15 minute walk from this el to the center of town. p engers have mentioned that serving breakfast at the restaurant located on the top floor of el with the view of river is one of the best features of this el.

 kowsar el


(iran el booking) setareh el

one of the main a ntages of setareh 4-star el is its location, because most of the famous historical sights of isfahan are located within walking distance from this el. rooms at this el are nearly small but they are clean.


setareh el



مشاهده متن کامل ...
top-rated els in isfahan
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

 



 




isfahan is one of the major tourist destinations in iran and annually lots of tourists visit this ancient city. there are two types of els in isfahan: modern els and traditional houses. modern els are like ordinary els all over the world and traditional els are old houses which have been changed to els for those travelers interested in old places. in this article, we will introduce the 5 top-rated els in isfahan based on travelers’ ranks on tripadvisor.




isfahan el




 hasht behesht apartment el


one of the main a ntage of this apartment el is its good location that from which you will have easy access to most of historical and ancient sightseeing and it is just five-minute walk from imam square. the rooms are big enough and clean. the kitchens are well equipped with fridge, electric stove, electric water kettle, dining table sets, pots and pans. so, you have the option to cook for yourself. breakfast will be delivered and served at your room each morning and it has very friendly and helpful staff. all these a ntages have caused this el to be chosen as the most favorite el between travelers.


 hasht behesht apartment el




 abbasi el (iran el booking )


abbasi el is known as the most famous el of isfahan and it is the first choice of nearly all foreign travelers. the most amazing thing that attract the attention of all people at first glance is the magnificent traditional architecture of this 5-star el at isfahan. staying at rooms at the old wing with garden view are suggested because the view of these rooms is very pleasant. the inner courtyard design is based on old persian garden. a wide variety of services are available at this el, such as: fitness center, swimming pool, business center, sauna, different restaurants serving high quality and delicious meals and a popular traditional tea house. the location of abbasi el is also perfect and from which you can go to visit imam square by foot in just few minutes.


 abbasi el




 viana el (isfahan el)


viana is a one-star el which is managed by a kind and helpful local family. at this el you feel like you are at home. viana el is a bit far from city center and main historical attractions, however you can easily reach the city center with taxi. the main a ntage of this el is its fair price. this el at isfahan has been newly renovated and the rooms are clean and comfortable.


 viana el




 kowsar el ( el isfahan)


kowsar is a 5-star el located in the heart of isfahan across the “zayandeh roud” river and the “si-o-seh pol” bridge. it is an old el which has been renovated completely few years ago. from this el, you can go easily by foot to the armenian district of isfahan and visit vank cathedral. it is also 10 to 15 minute walk from this el to the center of town. p engers have mentioned that serving breakfast at the restaurant located on the top floor of el with the view of river is one of the best features of this el.


 kowsar el




(iran el booking) setareh el


one of the main a ntages of setareh 4-star el is its location, because most of the famous historical sights of isfahan are located within walking distance from this el. rooms at this el are nearly small but they are clean.




setareh el



مشاهده متن کامل ...
primus - plastic spoon نمک پاش پریموس
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

primus

model : plastic spoon

نمک پاش پریموس

lightweight spork made of pc-plastic in folding design. an all-around eating utensil that is

compact, ultralight, and easy to carry anywhere. perfect for backpackers, adventurers, and

anyone who needs lightweight utensils

features

color : orange-green-yellow green-black green-blue-black-dark pink-white

material : plastic

weight : 10 g

dimensions : 4.1" x 1.6" x 0.9"

the primus spice jar is a great way to carry around your favourite seasonings. there are 3 separate compartments to hold your 3 favourite seasonings which is great when you want to season food in the field

whether it is simply adding salt & pepper to a pouch meal or spicing up that rabbit you have just caught this is a great way to keep your seasonings in your kit

قیمت: 8000 تومان

primus spice jar



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biofilm
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

handbook of hygiene control in the food
industry
biofilm risks

introduction: biofilm formation and detection

biofilm formation, sampling and detection methods, pathogens in biofilms, persistent and non-persistent microbes, prevention of biofilm formation and biofilm removal as well as future trends in biofilm control in the food industry.

microbes that inhabit contact and environmental sites in food processing are mostly harmful because microbial communities in the wrong places lead to contamination of surfaces and of the product produced in the process.

this study showed that the slow-growing strains covered tested surfaces with 2±4% biofilm in 10 days; fast biofilm producers had already covered the whole surface in 2 days.

in addition to the problems in food industry, biofilm formation also causes problems in food-related systems, e.g. industrial water systems as well as the paper and packaging industry.

on the positive side, however, biofilms have also been applied successively in food-related processes, e.g. in brewing and in water treatment .

factors affecting biofilm formation

in order to be able to survive hostile environmental factors such as heat and chemicals, microbes in micro colonies have a tendency to form protective extracellular matrices, which mainly consist of polysaccharides and glyco- proteins, and are called biofilms.

the microcolony formation is the first stage in biofilm formation, which occurs under suitable conditions on any surface ± both inert and living.

microbes can start up this formation when there is water or moisture available.

physical parameters such as fluid flow rate, charge, hydrophobicity and micro-topog hy of the surface material affect the attachment of cells to the surface.

cells must overcome the energy-intensive repulsion barrier, which affects the particle surfaces.

bacteria with pili could conceivably overcome this barrier to achieve micro-coloni ion and biofilm formation.

it has been found that temperatures below 50°c promote biofilm formation.

in the food industry, equipment design plays the most important role in combating(نبرد) biofilm formations.

the choice of materials and their surface treatments as well as roughness, e.g. grinding and polishing, are important factors for inhibiting the formation of biofilm and making surfaces easier to clean.

treating surface materials so that they reject biofilms can be performed actively to remove or p ively to retard biofilm reoccurrence.

the cleanliness of surfaces, training of personnel and good manufacturing and design practices are the most important tools in combating biofilm problems in the food industry.

biofilm formation on food processing surfaces

it is also important to remember that about 85±96% of a biofilm consists of water, which means that only 2±5% of the total biofilm volume is detectable on dry surfaces.

biofilm can generally be produced by any microbes under suitable conditions, although some microbes naturally have a higher tendency to produce biofilm than others.

a biofilm consists of microbial cell clusters with a network of internal channels or voids in the extracellular polysaccharide and glycoprotein matrix.

this allows nutrients and oxygen to be transported from the bulk liquid to the cells.

it has been suggested that the mechanisms of microbial attachment and biofilm build-up occur in 2, 3,5 and eight-step processes.

the two-step process is divided into reversible and irreversible biofilm formation.

the reversible phase involves the ociation of cells near to but not in contact with the surface.

biofilm formation on food processing surfaces

cells ociated with the surface synthesise exopolymers, which irreversibly bind the cells to the surface.

characklis described biofilm build-up using the following five steps:

biofilm formation on food processing surfaces

1- transportation of cells to a wetted surface, absorption of the cells into a conditioning film, adhesion of microbial cells to the wetted surface, reaction of the cells in the biofilm and detachment of biofilm from the surface.

bryers and weightman (1995) divided the biofilm build-up into the following eight steps:

1-preconditioning of the surface by macromolecules, 2- transport of cells to the surface,3 and 4- reversible and irreversible adsorption to the surface, 5- cell replication, 6- transport of nutrients and metabolism, 7- production of extracellular polymers and, finally,8- detachment.

sampling and detection of biofilm formation in food processing sites

methods for studying biofilm formation include microbiological, chemical, microscopical and molecular biological methods.

practical methods for essing microbes and organic soil on processing surfaces are needed to establish the optimal cleaning frequency of the equipment.

hygiene monitoring is currently based on conventional cultivation using swabbing, rinsing or contact plates.

surface sampling can be improved by wetting the surface in a nce.

in methods that use swabs, sponges or something similar, the detachment of surface-bound microbes is a limiting factor.

sampling and detection of biofilm formation in food processing sites

in the cultivation of biofilm microbes, it is important for the sample to be detached and mixed properly.

sampling and detection of biofilm formation in food processing sites

agitation used too forcefully in the detachment of the biofilm from the surface may harm the cells, making them unable to grow on the agar plates, whereas insufficient mixing may result in clumps and inaccurate results.

ultrasonics detaches about ten times the number of cells from the surface compared with swabbing.

sampling and detection of biofilm formation in food processing sites

in biofilm detection the planktonic cell counts of processing fluids should be interpreted with caution because they are not always representative of the sessile(چسبیده) organisms found on surfaces, especially in badly designed equipment and process lines.

sampling and detection of biofilm formation in food processing sites

organisms from extreme environments are difficult to culture and therefore standard plate counts do not give accurate estimates.

the choice of agar and incubation conditions during the cultivation is governed by the characteristics of the microbes that are considered to be the most important.

sampling and detection of biofilm formation in food processing sites

conventional culturing techniques are used to measure the number of viable cells able to grow on the chosen agar at given circumstances.

the plates and slides are usually incubated at 25±30 °c for 2±3 days.

the agars are either nutrient agars, which may contain tryptose, yeast, glucose and agar-agar, or selective agars based on growth inhibitors, e.g. nutritional, antibiotic or acidic compounds.

sampling and detection of biofilm formation in food processing sites

the international standard methods for the detection and enumeration of spoilage and pathogenic microbes are based on culturing techniques.

impedance techniques can be used to enumerate microorganisms directly on surfaces as the increase in conductance and capacitance due to the metabolic activity of the microbes in the sample leads to a decrease in the impedance.

the measurement of the change in impedance value at suitable time intervals provides an impedance curve and thus the detection time of microbial growth in the sample.

the detection time depends on the number of microbes in the sample.

results are achieved more idly with impedance measurements than with cultivation.

impedance measurement is used in the food industry to control product quality and to ess the effect of cleaning agents and disinfectants.

the chemical methods used in the essment of biofilm formation are indirect methods based on the utili ion or production of specific compounds, e.g. organic carbon, oxygen, polysaccharides and proteins, or on the biofilm microbial activity, e.g. living cells and atp (adenosine 5' -triphosphate) content.

atp measurement is a luminescence method based on the luciferine ± luciferase reaction.

the atp content of the biofilm is proportional to the number of living cells in the biofilm and provides information about their metabolic activity.

kinetic data obtained for freely suspended cells should not be used to ess immobilised biom growth, e.g. biofilm.

the atp method is insensitive and therefore not suitable for hygiene measurements in equipment where absolute sterility is needed, because with most of the reagents used today a count of at least 103 bacterial cells is needed to obtain a reliable atp value.

important tools in modern biotechnology-related research are based on microscopical techniques.

one a ntage of microscopical analysis is that it can measure surface-adhered cells, rather than cells that have been detached from the surface.

various microscopical techniques for studying cell adhesion and biofilm formation on surface materials are available including:

epifluorescence, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, fourier transformation infrared spectrometry, quartz-crystal microbalance and infrared spectroscopy as well as confocal laser scanning and atomic force microscopying techniques.

fluorescence is a type of luminescence in which light is emitted from molecules for a short period of time following the absorption of light.

fluorescence occurs when an excited electron returns to a lower-energy orbit and emits a p on of light.

many different fluorochromes have been used for the staining of microbes in food samples, biofilms and environmental samples.

flow cytometry using fluorescent probes is a direct optical technique for the measurement of functional and structural properties of individual cells in a cell population.

the cells are forced to flow in single file along a idly moving fluid stream through a powerful light source.

this technique has been used to determine the viability of protozoa, fungi and bacteria.

it measures the viability of a statistically significant number of organisms (5000±25 000 cells per sample).

the a ntages of flow cytometry are accuracy, speed, sensitivity and reproducibility.

in the food industry, the first step is to identify the biofilm problems in a particular process or site.

subsequently, it is important to use the best possible methods for isolation and detection of the biofilm for further characteri ion in the laboratory using molecular biology and biochemical methods.

these methods can be utilized in the detection and identification of microbes in two ways by performing identification either directly from sample material or indirectly from pure cultures obtained from the samples.

the two major techniques applied in the molecular detection and identification of bacteria are the polymerase chain reaction and the hybridi ion technique.

pathogens in biofilms

it is somewhat alarming to know that pathogens such as escherichia coli o157:h7, listeria monocytogenes, salmonella typhimurium, pylobacter jejuni and yersinia enterocolitica can easily produce biofilms or be part of biofilm communities that cause severe disinfection and cleaning problems on surfaces in the food industry.

according to a study by peters et al. (1999) pathogens were isolated from biofilm communities.

in this study listeria spp. were found in 35% of food contact sites and 42% of environmental sites, with staphylococcus aureus being
present in a total of 7% and 8%, respectively.

joseph et al. (2001) have reported pathogenic bacteria such as klebsiella spp., pylobacter spp. and entero- haemorrhagic e. coli in biofilms.

in laboratory studies, specific properties of pathogens in biofilms have been studied, and it has been found that biofilm cells of listeria were more resistant than planktonic cells to disinfectants containing, e.g., chlorine, iodine, quaternary ammonium and anionic acid compounds.

l. monocytogenes strains in biofilm studies on gl surfaces at static conditions of 37 °c for up to 4 days.

after 3 h incubation bacterial cells from all 13 strains had attached themselves to the gl slides and they formed biofilms within 24 hours.

two poultry isolates of salmonella were used to study biofilm formation on three commonly used food contact surfaces viz. plastic, concrete and stainless steel.

both isolates, i.e. salmonella weltevreden and salmonella fcm 40, showed similar patterns in the biofilm formation with the greatest growth on plastic followed by concrete and stainless steel.

in the following chapters there are more examples of the biofilm formation capability of some gram-negative and gram-positive pathogenic bacteria.

salmonella biofilms

salmonella is a genus within the family enterobacteriaceae in which approxi- mately 2200 serotypes are recognised.

some of these strains are specifically adapted to hosts and largely restricted to them, e.g. s. typhi in man and s.dublin in cattle.

salmonella is a non-spore-forming rod-shaped, motile gram- negative bacterium with non-motile exceptions such as s. gallinarum and s. pullorum.

salmonella serotypes are traditionally named as if they were separate species but, because of their genetic similarity, a single species, s. enterica, has been proposed, with food-poisoning serotypes mostly cl ified subspecies, also named enterica.

the growth range for salmonellae is 5±47 ëc at ph 4.0±9.0, with optimum growth at 35±37 ëc and ph 6.5±7.5. salmonellae are not particularly salt-tolerant, although growth can occur in the presence of 4% the lower limit of water activity (aw) permitting growth is 0.93.

foods commonly ociated with the disease include raw meats, poultry, eggs, milk and dairy products.

milk-borne salmonellosisis common in parts of the world where milk is neither boiled nor pasteurised.

it occurs, but much less frequently, in developed countries where the main products implicated are pasteurised milk, powdered milk and certain cheeses.

formation of a biofilm by salmonella on various types of surfaces used in the food processing industry has been reported by several groups.

these studies have shown that salmonella spp. can form biofilms on food contact surfaces and that the cells in biofilms are much more resistant to sanitisers compared to planktonic cells.

mokgatla and co-workers (1998) studied the resistance of salmonella sp. isolated from a poultry abattoir and found out that it will grow in the presence of in-use concentrations of hypochlorous acid.

the presence of pseudomonas fluorescens in the biofilm resulted in the increased resistance of s. typhimurium to chlorine.

escherichia coli biofilms

escherichia coli is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium.

because many microbes from faeces are pathogenic in animals and humans, the presence of the intestinal bacterium e. coli in water and foods indicates a potential hygiene hazard.

most strains of e. coli are harmless. however, a few strains with well- characterised traits are known to be ociated with pathogenicity.

those of greatest concern in water and foods are the intestinal pathogens, which are cl ified into five major groups:

the enterohaemorrhagic e. coli (ehec), the enterotoxigenic e. coli (etec), the enteroinvasive e. coli (eiec), the enteropathogenic e. coli (epec) and the enteroaggregative e. coli (eaec).

growth can occur at 7±46 ëc with the maximal growth rate at 35±37 ëc. the minimum aw for growth ranges from 0.94 and 0.97.

escherichia coli biofilms

the optimum ph for growth is approximately 7.0, with a minimum and maximum ph for growth of 4.5 and 9.0. ehec has been shown to grow poorly at temperatures of 44 °c.

escherichia coli has been isolated from a large number of foods and drinks, e.g. fermented meat sausage, dairy products, vegetables, meat, poultry and fish products, water and apple cider.

these agents can cause diarrhoeal outbreaks.

unpasteurised milk is a common vehicle of e. coli o157:h7 transmission to humans .

e. coli can also survive for extended periods of time in several acidic foods, e.g. cheese and yogurt.

acid-adapted e. coli o157:h7 has shown enhanced survival and prevalence in biofilms on stainless steel surfaces.

in a hygiene survey performed in the food industry by holah et al. (2002), microbial strains, e.g. e. coli and l. monocytogenes, were found either on surfaces or in productsor in both, and some of these strains were persistent.

faille et al. (2002, 2003) found out that e. coli cells were poorly adhered to surfaces.

the cells were embedded in the organic matrix of the biofilm, which shows that the structure ofthe biofilm formed affects the way in which the surfaces should be cleaned.

oulahal-lagsir et al. (2003) showed in their studies that proteolytic and glycolytic enzyme treatment together with ultrasonics enhance the removal of e. coli biofilm from stainless steel soiled with milk.

these findings correspond with results obtained in the food industry.

pylobacter biofilms

listeria monocytogenes biofilms

staphylococcus aureus biofilms

bacillus cereus biofilms

clostridium perfringens biofilms

mycobacterium biofilms

biofilms and microbial contamination in food processing

prolonged or persistent contamination of some listeria monocytogenes strains, which means that they have caused food plant contamination for long periods of up to several years, has been reported in several food industry areas, e.g. meat, poultry, fish, dairy and fresh sauces.

biofilms and microbial contamination in food processing

escherichia coli and salmonella isolates are also known to be persistent in food and fish feed factories.

persistent l. monocytogenes plant contamination appears to be the result of the interaction of several different factors.

properties that influence survival, including enhanced adherence to food contact surfaces and adaptation to disinfectants, in addition to such predisposing factors in the processing line as complex processing machines and poor zoning may lead to persistent plant contamination.

biofilms and microbial contamination in food processing

the eradication of persistent contamination of l. monocytogenes has been shown to be difficult but not impossible.

targeted and improved sanitation has led to successful eradication.

in studies performed by lundeân (2004), persistent l. monocytogenes strains were observed to adhere to stainless steel surfaces in higher cell numbers than non-persistent strains after short contact times.

such enhanced adherence increases the likelihood of the survival of the persistent strains due to increased resistance against prevention methods and may have an effect on the initiation of persistent plant contamination.

if the adherence period of strains was prolonged then the adherence level of non-persistent strains was close to the adherence level of persistent strains.

the initial resistance of persistent and non-persistent l. monocytogenes strains to disinfectants varied, and the increase in resistance was similar for persistent and non-persistent strains.

prevention of biofilm formation and biofilm removal

harmful microbes may enter the manufacturing process and reach the end-product in several ways, e.g. through raw materials, air in the manufacturing area, chemicals employed, process surfaces or factory personnel.

once a biofilm is formed, either on food contact or environmental surfaces, it can be a source of contamination for foods p ing through the same processing line.

for example, listeria monocytogenes is difficult to remove from the factory environment once it has become a part of the house microbiota.

therefore, it is especially important for the persistent growth of pathogenic and harmful microbes to be prevented in the food processing line using all available means.

in the food industry, equipment design and the choice of surface materials are important in fighting microbial biofilm formation.

attention should also be paid to the quality of additives and raw materials as well as the processing water, steam and other additives, because using poor quality materials leads to the easy spoiling of the process.

prevention of biofilm formation and biofilm removal

the aim of microbial control in a process line is two-fold: to reduce or limit the number of microbes in liquids and products and to reduce or limit their activity and to prevent and control the formation of biofilms on surfaces.

at present the most efficient means for limiting the growth of microbes are good production hygiene, the rational running of the process line, and the well-designed use of cleaning and decontamination processes.

the cleanliness of surfaces, the training of personnel and good manufacturing and design practices are important in combating biofilm problems in the food industry.

hygienic equipment design

several conferences and literature reviews have shown that the design of the equipment and process line in the food processing and packaging industry are important in preventing biofilm formation to improve the process and production hygiene.

the most significant laws regarding the food industry are the eu directive 98/37/eu and machine standard en 1672-2:1997.

en 1672 draws particular attention to dead spaces, corners, crevices, cracks, gaskets, seals, valves, fasteners and joints owing to their ability to harbour microorganisms that can subsequently endure adverse/harmful process conditions.

equipment that causes problems in food processing and packaging includes slicing and cutting equipment, filling and packing machines, conveyors, plate heat exchangers and tanks with piping.

these types of equipment can cause contamination through spoilage microbes and pathogens as they are difficult to clean, e.g. the pathogen listeria monocytogenes is often ociated with harbourage in poorly designed equipment.

biofilm removal

the elimination of biofilms is a very difficult and demanding task, because many factors affect the detachment, such as temperature, time, mechanical forces and chemical forces.

sanitation, i.e. cleaning and disinfection, is carried out in food processing plants in order to produce safe products with an acceptable shelf-life and quality.

the key to the effective cleaning of a food plant is the understanding of the type and nature of the soil and of the microbial growth on the surfaces to be removed.

the intelligent integration of decontamination programmes in the manufacturing are essential to achieve both successful cleaning and business profit.

lelieveld as early as 1985 wrote that there is a trend towards longer production runs with short intervals for sanitation, because the sanitation should be performed as cost- effectively and safely as possible.

the mechanical and chemical power, temperature and contact time in the cleaning regime should be carefully chosen to achieve an adequate cleaning effect.

an efficient cleaning procedure consists of a sequence of rinses and detergent and disinfectant applications in various combinations of temperature and concentration, finally letting the equipment and process lines dry in well-ventilated areas.

the basic task of detergents is to reduce the interfacial tensions of soils so that the soil attached to surfaces, for example biofilm, becomes miscible(مخلوط شدنی) in water.

the effect of the surfactants is increased by the mechanical effect of turbulent flow or water pressure, or by abrasives, for example salt crystals.

prolonged exposure of the surfaces to the detergent makes removal more efficient.

detergents to be used in the cleaning of open systems are formulated to be effective at temperatures in the range 35±50 c.

in closed systems the detergents are formulated to be used at temperatures in the range of 55±80 c.

elimination of biofilms in open systems is performed as follows: gross soil should be removed by dry methods, e.g. brushing, s ing or vacuuming, and, if the process is wet, the visible soil can be rinsed off with low-pressure water.

the effective elimination of biofilms from open systems is achieved by dismantling the equipment in the process line and cleaning is then carried out using either foam or gel.

foams are most effective in situations where contact with the soil for an extended contact time is necessary.

the surfactants, which suspend the adhered particles and microbes from the surfaces in the water, are added to increase the cleaning effect, which is also increased by using water of sufficient volume at the correct temperature and pressure.

the dismantled equipment and utensils should thereafter be stored on racks and tables, not on the floor.

the cleaning is mostly carried out in combination with a final disinfection, because viable microbes on the surfaces are likely to harm production.

in the cleaning regime for closed processes, pre-rinsing with cold water is carried out to remove loose soil.

cleaning-in-place (cip) treatment is normally performed using cleaning solutions, but cold solutions can also be used in the processing of fat-free products.

the warm alkaline cleaning solution, normally 1% sodium hydroxide, is heated to 75±80 ëc and the cleaning time is 15±20 min.

the equipment is rinsed with cold water before the acid treatment is performed at approximately 60±70 ëc for 5 min.

the effect of chlorine-based agents can be divided into three phases: loosening of the biofilm from the surface, breakage of the biofilm and the disinfective effect of the active chlorine.

the cleaning solutions should not be re-used in processes in order to achieve total sterility because the reused cleaning solution can contaminate the equipment.

single-phase cip is more commonly used nowadays because the processing industry wants to save time.

in single-phase cleaning procedures the time it takes to carry out one cleaning process, normally the acid treatment, and a rinsing step can be saved .

the p obacterial test can be used to test that rinsing has been performed properly.

bacterial biofilm, bacillus subtilis (scale bar is 10 μm), which grows in big colonies, all packed together in parallel chains.

biofilm on a stainless steel surface

scanning electron microscopy p omicrog h of a 6 old b. cereus biofilm formed on a stainless steel surface. x 6330 magnification; bar = 5 micron

biofilm formation

scanning electron microg h of p. fragi on stainless steel surface grown in tryptic soy broth for 24 h at 23°c. thin, hair-like projectiles can be seen going from the cell wall to the stainless steel surface. these frimbrils physically attach the cell to the surface and are the first phase in the development of a biofilm. the other material visible on the slide is debris from the culture medium[10].

five stages of biofilm development: (1) initial attachment, (2) irreversible attachment, (3) maturation i, (4) maturation ii, and (5) dispersion. each stage of development in the diagram is paired with a p omicrog h of a developing p. aeruginosa biofilm. all p omicrog hs are shown to same scale.

an image from an electron scanning microscope of a staphylococcus aureus biofilm on a vascular prosthesis.

thermophilic bacteria in the outflow of mickey springs, oregon, approximately 20 mm thick



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