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 superman returns
interview
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‘superman returns’ song il gook cries
on the most recent episode of the popular kbs 2 tv entertainment program "happy sunday - superman returns," which aired on july 13, 2014, actor song il gook shared his love for his wife. during the interview, while talking about his wife, he shed tears out of thankfulness for the triplets. he said in the interview, "when we first found out that she was pregnant with triplets, the gynecologist warned her that it will be physically very taxing and could affect her heart. a month before the triplets were born, when we were talking to our car, she stopped about 10 meters before and cried. when i asked her why she was crying, she said she could not walk anymore because it hurt so much." he added, "i try to be as nice as i can be to her," and shared his thankfulness for giving birth to the triplets.
‘superman returns’ song il gook’s wife makes him anxious
the popular kbs 2 tv entertainment program "happy sunday - superman returns" actor song il gook seemed bewildered while talking on the phone with his wife jung seung yeon. on the most recent episode of the popular kbs 2 tv entertainment program "happy sunday - superman returns," which aired on july 13, 2014, actor song il gook called his wife jung seung yeon. she asked how the triplets were doing, and he told her about the time they spent together at the fountain. she asked him if they wore waterproof diapers when they were playing at the fountain. bewildered at the question he did not think of, song il gook quickly changed subjects.
‘superman returns’ song il gook’s triplets eat for free
the popular kbs 2 tv entertainment program "happy sunday - superman returns" actor song il gook's triplets dae han, min gook, man sae, ate for free. on the most recent episode of the popular kbs 2 tv entertainment program "happy sunday - superman returns," which aired on july 13, 2014, actor song il gook went to the restaurant with his triplets dae han, min gook, man sae. they ate at a buffet, and song il gook had to deliver food to his children and clean up the mess they had made. however, he seemed happy when the triplets dae han, min gook, man sae, enjoyed their food. after they finished eating, the server at the buffet told song il gook that babies who are under 48 months old do not have to pay
‘superman returns’ song il gook apologizes for his triplets’ appetite
the popular kbs 2 tv entertainment program "happy sunday - superman returns" actor song il gook's triplets dae han, min gook, man sae, ate a lot of food at a buffet. on the most recent episode of the popular kbs 2 tv entertainment program "happy sunday - superman returns," which aired on july 13, 2014, actor song il gook went to the restaurant with his triplets dae han, min gook, man sae. they ate at a buffet, and song il gook had to deliver food to his children and clean up the mess they had made. song il gook said, "i wanted to enjoy food at a buffet, but this is so frustrating," but later he seemed happy when the triplets dae han, min gook, man sae, enjoyed their food. after they finished eating, when song il gook was about to pay, the server at the buffet told song il gook that babies who are under 48 months old do not have to pay. song il gook apologized to the server because his triplets ate so much, making the audiences laugh.


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superman unbound 2013
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superman unbound 2013

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عزیزان بزودی..

نام : superman unbound
ژانر : انیمیشن | اکشن | ماجرایی
مدت زمان : ۷۵ دقیقه
زبان : انگلیسی
کیفیت : bluray
فرمت : mkv
حجم : ۶۰۰ مگابایت
محصول :
ستارگان : matt bomer, stana katic, john noble, molly c. quinn
کارگردان : james tucker
خلاصه داستان :مرد فولادی با یکی از نزدیکانش همراه می شود تا با کمک یکدیگر ، جلوی فردی خبیث و قدرتمند به نام بِرینیاک ایستادگی کنند. اما…

superman unbound 2013

sstarv اس استاروی خلاصه داستان superman unbound 2013 رایگان superman unbound 2013 superman unbound 2013 جدید superman unbound 2013



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ترجمه مقاله بهره وری سهام نرخ گذاشته شده در بازارهای تازه پیدا شده
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ترجمه مقاله بهره وری سهام نرخ گذاشته شده در بازارهای تازه پیدا شده
عنوان فایل ترجمه فارسی: بازده سهام قیمت گذاری شده در بازارهای نوظهور
عنوان نسخه انگلیسی: pricing emerging market stock returns: an update
مرتبط با رشته های : اقتصاد – حسابداری
تعداد صفحات مقاله فارسی: ۱۹ صفحه
این فایل ترجمه شده به صورت ورد word است و دارای امکان ویرایش می باشد.
و دریافت رایگان متون لاتین در قسمت پایین با فرمت pdf آمده است.

قسمتی از متن انگلیسی:
where λ۰ is the zero-beta return, covik is the covariance between the returns of et i and factor k, and λk is the price of covariance risk with respect to factor k. the choice between eqs. (1) and (2) can be important when kn1 since the betas on a factor can depend upon the other factors in the model. this situation can make the interpretation of the factor risk premiums complicated when the factors in the model are correlated with one another. focusing on the factor risk premiums addresses the question as to whether or not the factor is priced but it does not necessarily tell us whether the factor is useful in explaining crosssectional returns given the other factors in the model.2 focusing on the factor price of covariance risk addresses the question as to whether the factor helps improves the explanatory power of the model in cross-sectional returns given the other factors in the model. in our study we will focus on eq. (2) and use the two-p cross
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قسمتی از ترجمه مقاله
این مقاله چگونگی تاثیرگذاری مدل های جهانی بر قیمت گذاری متقابل بازده سهام در بازارهای نوظهوردر سالهای اخیر رامورد بررسی قرار می دهد. ما از آزمون کان استفاده کردیم.نتایج ما نشان می دهد که مدلهای شرطی و عوامل ارزی عملکرد بهتری نسبت به مدلهای غیر شرطی و مدلهای تک عاملی داشته و تفاوت هایی درمدلها در مجموعه دو دوره از داده های ما وجود دارد. پیامد مهم این مقاله برای سرمایه گذاران بین المللی این است که هیچ یک از نتایج ما هنگامی که ما به صورت نادرست به تخصیص مدل وهمچنین استفاده از مدلهای جایگزین که خصوصا برای تکمیل مدلcapm استفاده می کنیم ،اهمیت ندارد .
کلمات کلیدی: بازارهای نوظهور، قیمت گذاری دارایی های سرمایه ای
۱٫ مقدمه
ترجمه مقاله بهره وری سهام نرخ گذاشته شده در بازارهای تازه پیدا شده
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نقد نمایشنامه man and superman by george bernard shaw
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اختصاصی از یاری فایل نقد نمایشنامه man and superman by george bernard shaw با و پر سرعت .

نقد نمایشنامه man and superman by george bernard shaw


نقد نمایشنامه man and superman by george bernard shaw

نوع فایل :  pdf    

زبان : انگلیسی

 تعداد صفحات:  18


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نقد نمایشنامه man and superman by george bernard shaw


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زیرنویس superman and the mole-men 1951
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زیرنویس زیبای superman and the mole-men 1951

زیرنویس superman and the mole men 1951, زیرنویس خارجی superman and the mole men 1951, زیرنویس superman and the mole men 1951, superman and the mole-men 1951, رایگان superman and the mole-men 1951 با ,superman and the mole-men 1951,

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ترجمه مقاله وظیفه اقلام ا امی و عملکرد بهره وری سهام مبتنی بر فعالیت های تامین م
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ترجمه مقاله وظیفه اقلام ا امی و عملکرد بهره وری سهام مبتنی بر فعالیت های تامین مالی خارجی

عنوان فایل ترجمه فارسی: اقلام تعهدی و عملکرد بازده سهام بر اساس فعالیت های تامین مالی خارجی
عنوان نسخه انگلیسی: accruals and the performance of stock returns following external financing activities
مرتبط با رشته های : حسابداری – اقتصاد
تعداد صفحات مقاله فارسی: ۳۸ صفحه
این فایل ترجمه شده به صورت ورد word است و دارای امکان ویرایش می باشد.
و دریافت رایگان متون لاتین در قسمت پایین با فرمت pdf آمده است.

قسمتی از متن انگلیسی:
h1. the relation of the external financing anomaly with the anomaly on total accruals is driven by timing-based managerial decisions to exploit investors’ mispricing of working capital accruals and long-term accruals. nevertheless, the beneficial role of accruals is reduced to the extent that managers manipulate earnings through accruals. healy and wahlen (1999) define earning mana ent as follows: “earnings mana ent occurs when managers use judgment in financial reporting and in structuring transactions to alter financial reports to either mislead some stakeholders about the underlying economic performance of the company, or to influence contractual outcomes that depend on reported accounting numbers.” both components of accruals may stem from managerial discretion. working capital accruals may rise,

قسمتی از ترجمه مقاله
دراین این مقاله ارتباط بین تامین مالی نابه هنجار خارجی و اقلام تعهدی نابه نجار به وسیله تمرکز جداگانه بر روی اقلام تعهدی سرمایه در گردش و اقلام تعهدی بلند مدت مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. ما فهمیدیم که تامین مالی خارجی و اقلام تعهدی پرتفوی کاهش خطر، نه تنه امولد بازده بالاتری است بلکه همچنین فرصتهای آماری آربیتراژی را تشکیل می دهد.تجزیه و تحلیل سطح پرتفولیو و سطح شرکتها از طریق رگرسیون مقطعی نشان می دهد که توانایی معیارهای تامین مالی خارجی در پیش¬بینی بازده سهام همچنان پس ازکنترل اقلام تعهدی سرمایه در گردش به قوت خود باقیست . به هر حال این توانایی با کنترل اقلام تعهدی بلند مدت به طور قابل ملاحظه ای کاهش می یابد. نتایج ما با ش ت سرمایه گذاران برای تشخیص سرمایه گذاری بیش از حد مرتبط با فعالیت و یا مدیریت فرصت طلبانه عایدی ها مطابقت دارد.
کلمات کلیدی: فعالیتهای تامین مالی خارجی، اقلام تعهدی، بازده سهام.
مقدمه:
بسیاری از مطالعات انجام شده بیانگر رابطه منفی بین فعالیتهای تامین مالی شرکتها و بازده سهام در آینده است که اصطلاحاً تامین مالی نابه هنجار نامیده می شود. فعالیتهای افزایش (توزیع)سرمایه با کم(زیاد)شدن بازده در آینده همراه است. این رابطه طیف گسترده ای از فعالیت های تامین مالی خارجی و حتی کل فعالیتهای تامین مالی را تشکیل می دهد. در ارتباط با این مطالعات، مستندات پژوهشی زیادی نیز وجود دارد که بیانگر رابطه منفی میان سطح اقلام تعهدی حسابداری و بازده سهام در آینده است که اصطلاحاً اقلام تعهدی نابه هنجار نامیده می شود: شرکتها همراه افزایش(کاهش) اقلام تعهدی ،بازده
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جهت ید مقاله ترجمه شده درباره وظیفه اقلام ا امی و عملکرد بهره وری سهام مبتنی بر فعالیت های تامین مالی خارجی و …قسمت بالا بر روی (نوار رنگی) کلیک کنید.



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رایگان مقاله انگلیسی نقش اقلام تعهدی و عملکرد بازده سهام بر اساس فعالیت های تامی
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رایگان مقاله انگلیسی نقش اقلام تعهدی و عملکرد بازده سهام بر اساس فعالیت های تامین مالی خارجی

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مقاله: accruals and the performance of stock returns following external financing activities

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nancing فی خارجی ناهنجاری به رابطه منفی بین فعالیت های فی nancing خارجی و بازده سهام اشاره دارد. فعالیت افزایش سرمایه جدید مانند ارائه اولیه عمومی، ارائه سهام چاشنی، ارائه بدهی و استقراض بانکی با بازده سهام آینده کم همراه است. فعالیت توزیع سرمایه مانند باز ید سهام، سود سهام و initiations بازپرداخت بدهی با بازده آتی سهام بالا همراه است. برادشاو و همکاران (2006) اندازه گیری نقدی خالص fl تسخیر والاستریت توسط هر دو حقوق صاحبان سهام و فی بدهی فعالیت nancing و فی دوم که آن نیز منفی با بازده آتی سهام مربوط تولید استفاده کنید. قابل ذکر است، این اندازه گیری طولانی خالص nancing فی خارجی با بازده و حتی بیشتر است. همانطور که توسط بنوا و همکاران استدلال. (2006)، دو فرضیه برجسته - زمان بندی بازار های مدیریتی و مدیریت سود - را می توان به جلو به تفسیر این یافته. بر اساس فرضیه زمان بندی بازار، مدیران فی rm تمایل به صدور ( ید مجدد) اوراق بهادار زمانی که آنها به طور موقت بالاتر از حد ارزشگذاری (کم ارزش) به بهره برداری از بازار قیمتگذاری نادرست (لوگران و ریتر، 1995). همگام با بالا، لوگران و ریتر (1997) و ریتر (2003) فی دوم که عملکرد درآمد با روند رو به افزایش تا انتشار سهام همراه است، اما آن را پس از انتشار سهام را به وخامت است. بر اساس فرضیه مدیریت درآمد، مدیران فرصت طلبانه اغراق سود در دوره های که در آنها افزایش nancing فی خارجی با سوء استفاده از (اختیاری) تعهدات برای افزایش درآمد حاصل از ارائه است. سرمایه گذاران قادر به درک مدیریت سود، و در نتیجه اضافهارزشگذاری صدور فی rms است. هنگامی که مدیریت سود مع ، سرمایه گذاران downwardly ارزش پولش صدور فی rms به یک سطح توجیه اد شده توسط اصول. حواصیل و دروغ (2004)، رنگان (1998) و teoh، ولش، و وانگ (1998) شواهد سازگار با این توضیح ارائه می کنند.



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superman helps the avengers (fan-made/mash up)
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کیانوش superman helps the avengers (fan-made/mash up) thor , iron man , marvel vs dc , man of steel , superman , avengers superman , avengers vs man


لینک های : کیفیت 270p | کیفیت 360p | کیفیت |



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batman v superman: dawn of justice 2016
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فوق العاده زیبای batman v superman: dawn of justice 2016
با از سرور سایت و کیفیت

 رایگان batman v superman: dawn of justice 2016

نام : batman v superman: dawn of justice
ژانر: اکشن، ماجراجویی، فانتزی
کارگردان: zack snyder
ستارگان: ben affleck, henry cavill, amy adams
محصول کشور:
سال انتشار: 2016
امتیاز: 7.5 از 10
مدت زمان: 143 دقیقه
کیفیت:
حجم: 1.35 گیگابایت
اطلاعات بیشتر: کلیک کنید
خلاصه داستان: بتمن که از عملکرد ابرقهرمان، من در هراس است، خود را تبدیل به ناجی جدید شهر گاتهام میکند. زمانی که بتمن و من در جنگ با یکدیگر به سر می برند، تهدیدی تازه نسل بشر را در خطر بزرگتری از آنچه با آن رو به رو بودند قرار میدهد…

ادامه مطلب


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ترجمه مقاله وظیفه اقلام تعهدی و عملکرد کارایی سهام مبتنی بر کارهای تامین مالی خا
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عنوان اصلی لاتین : accruals and the performance of stock returns following external financing activities


عنوان اصلی فارسی مقاله: اقلام تعهدی و عملکرد بازده سهام بر اساس فعالیت های تامین مالی خارجی


مرتبط با رشته های : حسابداری - اقتصاد


نوع فایل ترجمه : ورد آفیس(که دارای امکان ویرایش می باشد)


تعداد صفحات فایل ترجمه شده: 38 صفحه


کلمات کلیدی مربوطه با این مقاله: فعالیتهای تامین مالی خارجی، اقلام تعهدی، بازده سهام.


برای دریافت رایگان نسخه انگلیسی این مقاله اینجا کلیک نمایید


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قسمتی از ترجمه:
دراین این مقاله ارتباط بین تامین مالی نابه هنجار خارجی و اقلام تعهدی نابه نجار به وسیله تمرکز جداگانه بر روی اقلام تعهدی سرمایه در گردش و اقلام تعهدی بلند مدت مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. ما فهمیدیم که تامین مالی خارجی و اقلام تعهدی پرتفوی کاهش خطر، نه تنه امولد بازده بالاتری است بلکه همچنین فرصتهای آماری آربیتراژی را تشکیل می دهد.تجزیه و تحلیل سطح پرتفولیو و سطح شرکتها از طریق رگرسیون مقطعی نشان می دهد که توانایی معیارهای تامین مالی خارجی در پیش¬بینی بازده سهام همچنان پس ازکنترل اقلام تعهدی سرمایه در گردش به قوت خود باقیست . به هر حال این توانایی با کنترل اقلام تعهدی بلند مدت به طور قابل ملاحظه ای کاهش می یابد. نتایج ما با ش ت سرمایه گذاران برای تشخیص سرمایه گذاری بیش از حد مرتبط با فعالیت و یا مدیریت فرصت طلبانه عایدی ها مطابقت دارد.


مقدمه:
بسیاری از مطالعات انجام شده بیانگر رابطه منفی بین فعالیتهای تامین مالی شرکتها و بازده سهام در آینده است که اصطلاحاً تامین مالی نابه هنجار نامیده می شود. فعالیتهای افزایش (توزیع)سرمایه با کم(زیاد)شدن بازده در آینده همراه است. این رابطه طیف گسترده ای از فعالیت های تامین مالی خارجی و حتی کل فعالیتهای تامین مالی را تشکیل می دهد. در ارتباط با این مطالعات، مستندات پژوهشی زیادی نیز وجود دارد که بیانگر رابطه منفی میان سطح اقلام تعهدی حسابداری و بازده سهام در آینده است که اصطلاحاً اقلام تعهدی نابه هنجار نامیده می شود: شرکتها همراه افزایش(کاهش) اقلام تعهدی ،بازده کمتر(بیشتری)را تجربه می کنند.این ارتباط شامل اقلام تعهدی سرمایه در گردش و اقلام بلندمدت و کل اقلام تعهدی می باشد. مطالعات اخیر توسط کوهن (2006)، ، ریچاردسون و اسلوان (2008) ، و وانگ (2010) و ریچاردسون و اسلوان (2003) بیانگرارائه تلاشی سیستماتیک برای بررسی ارتباط بین این نابه هنجاری در بازار است.

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ترجمه ی سلیس و روان مقاله آماده ی ید می باشد.


قسمتی از متن انگلیسی

the externalfinancing anomaly refers to the negative relation between externalfinancing activities and stock returns.activities raising new capital such as initial public offerings, seasoned equity offerings, debt offerings and bank borrowingsare ociated with low future stock returns. activities distributing capital such as stock repurchases, dividend initiations anddebt repayments are ociated with high future stock returns.bradshaw et al. (2006)use a measure of net cashflowsgenerated by both equity and debtfinancing activities andfind that it is also negatively related with future stock returns.notably, this extended measure of net externalfinancing is ociated with even greater returns.as argued bybradshaw et al. (2006), two prominent hypotheses–managerial market timing and earnings mana ent–can be put forward to interpret thesefindings. based on the market timing hypothesis,firm executives tend to issue(repurchase) securities when they are temporarily overvalued (undervalued) to exploit market mispricing (seeloughran &ritter, 1995). consistent with the above,loughran and ritter (1997)and ritter (2003)find that earnings performance is ociated with a rising trend up to the share issue, but it deteriorates after the share issue. based on the earning mana enthypothesis, managers opportunistically overstate earnings around periods in which they raise externalfinancing byexploiting (discretionary) accruals to increase the offering proceeds. investors fail to understand earnings mana ent,resulting in an overvaluation of issuingfirms. when earnings mana ent reverses, investors downwardly revalue issuingfirms to a level justified by fundamentals.heron and lie (2004), rangan (1998)and teoh, welch, and wong (1998)provideevidence consistent with this explanation



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تداوم سود و بازده سهام - مقاله ترجمه شده
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عنوان فارسی مقاله:

مفاهیم مولفه نقدی درآمدها برای تداوم سود و بازده های سهام

عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:

implications of the cash component of earnings for earnings persistence and stock returns




برای رایگان مقاله انگلیسی مفاهیم مولفه نقدی درآمدها برای تداوم سود و بازده های سهام و ید ترجمه فارسی آن با فرمت ورد اینجا کلیک نمایید

 








 

  • فهرست مطالب:


چکیده
۱ پیشگفتار
۲ روش تحقیق
۲.۱. مجموعه داده ها
۲.۲. اندازه گیری مولفه ی نقدی درامدها
۳.۲. فرضیه های تحقیق
۴.۲. سنجش بازده های سهام
۵.۲. تست های پایداری درامدها
۶.۲. تست های بازده سهام
۳ یافته های تجربی
۱.۳. آمار توصیفی
۳.۲. نتایج پایداری درامدها
۳.۳. نتایج تست های بازده های سهام
۴ نتیجه گیری ها

 



کلمات کلیدی :


implications of the cash component of earnings for ... - researchgate https://www.researchgate.net/.../297682190_implications_of_the_cash_component_of_e... implications of the cash component of earnings for earnings persistence and stock returns on researchgate, the professional network for scientists. earnings innovations, earnings persistence, and stock returns https://www.researchgate.net/.../24103010_earnings_innovations_earnings_persistence... oct 14, 2016 - earnings innovations, earnings persistence, and stock returns on researchgate, the professional network for scientists. earnings innovations, earnings persistence, and stock returns https://ideas.repec.org/a/ucp/jnlbus/v60y1987i3p323-45.html by r kormendi - ‎1987 - ‎cited by 1152 - ‎related articles the authors examine whether the magnitude of the effect of unexpected earnings on stock returns is (positively) correlated with the presen t value of revisions in ... [pdf]earnings persistence and stock prices: empirical evidence from an ... www.isihome.ir/freearticle/isihome.ir-24038.pdf beaver (1968) who demonstrated that the information content of accounting earnings is reflected in stock returns, relevance of accounting information as an ... persistence of earnings and earnings components: evidence from the ... link.springer.com/article/10.1057/jdg.2010.29 by ies ebaid - ‎2011 - ‎cited by 3 - ‎related articles nov 1, 2010 - the persistence of earnings and earnings components has spawned a growing body of research in developed markets. however, little is ...



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batman v superman dawn of justice 2016
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رایگان batman v superman dawn of justice 2016

بتمن علیه من 2016 با

batman v superman dawn of justice 2016 با کیفیت 1080p

منتشر کننده: شهر | نام: بتمن علیه من | موضوع: اکشن، ماجرایی، علمی تخیلی

امتیاز: 6.9 | زبان: انگلیسی + فارسی | زمان: 183 دقیقه | کیفیت: 480p - - 1080p

فرمت: mkv | حجم: 1600 مگابایت | محصول : 2016 | وضعیت: منتشر شده

کارگردان: zack snyder

بازیگران: ben affleck, henry cavill, amy adams, jeremy irons

خلاصه داستان:

بتمن همچنان نگران فعالیت های بی وقفه من است و میخواهد علیه کارهای ابرقهرمانانه او برخیزد. در میان شخصی بنام لوتر تهدید جدید را علیه آنها ساخته که نامش دومزدِی است...

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batman vs. superman - injustice 2 beta gameplay
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deva watch as the man of steel takes on the dark knight in the new beta for injustice 2. batman vs. superman - injustice 2 beta gameplay batman , supe


لینک های : کیفیت 270p | کیفیت 360p | کیفیت |



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مستند waiting for ‘superman’ 2010
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مستند در انتظار من waiting for ‘superman’ 2010

دو زبانه با لینک مستقیم و کیفیت بلوری 1080p bluray + bluray

“برنده 16 جایزه و نامزد دریافت 27 جایزه بین المللی دیگر”

 مستند waiting for 'superman' 2010

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بازی آلیس در سرزمین جنون alice madness returns
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بازی آلیس در سرزمین جنون alice madness returns


کد محصول : 425
قیمت : 8,500 تومان

بازی کامپیوتر alice madness returns آلیس بازگشت جنون یکی از بازی های سبک اکشن ، ماجراجویی و ترسناکاست که توسط spicy horse طراحی و ساخته شده و کمپانی مشهور electronic arts آن را در سال ۲۰۱۱ برای پلتفرم های pc , xbox 360 و ps3 به بازار عرضه کرد .

نام بازی (فارسی) : آلیس بازگشت جنون

نام بازی : alice madness returns

پلتفرم : pc

زبان : انگلیسی

سال انتشار : ۲۰۱۱

سبک بازی : اکشن ، ماجراجویی و ترسناک

رده سنی : +13



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ترجمه مقاله راندمان سهام نرخ گذاری شده در بازارهای تازه پیدا شده
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عنوان اصلی لاتین : pricing emerging market stock returns: an update


عنوان اصلی فارسی مقاله: بازده سهام قیمت گذاری شده در بازارهای نوظهور


مرتبط با رشته های : اقتصاد - حسابداری


نوع فایل ترجمه : ورد آفیس(که دارای امکان ویرایش می باشد)


تعداد صفحات فایل ترجمه شده: 19 صفحه


کلمات کلیدی مربوطه با این مقاله: بازارهای نوظهور، قیمت گذاری دارایی های سرمایه ای


برای دریافت رایگان نسخه انگلیسی این مقاله اینجا کلیک نمایید



_______________________________________
قسمت از ترجمه:
این مقاله چگونگی تاثیرگذاری مدل های جهانی بر قیمت گذاری متقابل بازده سهام در بازارهای نوظهوردر سالهای اخیر رامورد بررسی قرار می دهد. ما از آزمون کان استفاده کردیم.نتایج ما نشان می دهد که مدلهای شرطی و عوامل ارزی عملکرد بهتری نسبت به مدلهای غیر شرطی و مدلهای تک عاملی داشته و تفاوت هایی درمدلها در مجموعه دو دوره از داده های ما وجود دارد. پیامد مهم این مقاله برای سرمایه گذاران بین المللی این است که هیچ یک از نتایج ما هنگامی که ما به صورت نادرست به تخصیص مدل وهمچنین استفاده از مدلهای جایگزین که خصوصا برای تکمیل مدلcapm استفاده می کنیم ،اهمیت ندارد .
1. مقدمه
سهام بازارهای نوظهور(em)،در مطالعات اخیر به عنوان بازارهایی با بازده متوسط به بالا اما ارتباط کم با بازارهای توسعه یافته مشخص شده اند اما توانایی خود را برای بهبود کارایی در میانگین واریانس برای سرمایه گذارانی که به دنبال تنوع پرتفولیو هستند را ارتقا داده اند. به هرحال برای کاهش عدم اطمینان سرمایه گذاری، ریسک و بازده در یک خط همراه با توسعه بازار قرار دارند.این مقاله آزمایش می کند که چگونه مدلهای جهانی در قیمت گذاری بازده سهام بازارهای نوظهور در دوره آزادسازی اخیر و در دودوره پیاپی در داده های ما موثر بوده اند.مطالعات انجام شده در بازارهای توسعه یافته شواهدی در حمایت از مدل جهانی قیمت گذاری دارایی ها است. آنها فهمیدند که دربازارهای نوظهور حمایت کمتری ازپیش بینی کننده های جهانی ریسک وجود دارد. بیکرت و هاروی یک افزایش در ارتباط بین بازارهای نوظهور و توسعه بازارهای سرمایه ، در دوره پس از آزادسازی یافتند. آنها نشان دادند که بتا بازارهای نوظهور همراه پرتفولیو جهانی قبل و بعدازآزادسازی به طور متوسط ، دوونیم افزایش داشته است، که نشان دهنده افزایش قابل ملاحظه حساسیت بازارهای نوظهور برای ریسک بازار جهانی می باشد

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ترجمه ی سلیس و روان مقاله آماده ی ید می باشد.

بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی

where λ 0 is the zero-beta return, cov ik is the covariance between the returns of et i and factor k , and λ k is the price of covariance risk with respect to factor k . the choice between eqs. (1) and (2) can be important when k n 1 since the betas on a factor can depend upon the other factors in the model. this situation can make the interpretation of the factor risk premiums complicated when the factors in the model are correlated with one another. focusing on the factor risk premiums addresses the question as to whether or not the factor is priced but it does not necessarily tell us whether the factor is useful in explaining cross- sectional returns given the other factors in the model. 2 focusing on the factor price of covariance risk addresses the question as to whether the factor helps improves the explanatory power of the model in cross-sectional returns given the other factors in the model. inourstudywewillfocusoneq.(2)andusethetwo-p cross-sectionalregressionapproachpioneeredby fama and macbeth (1973) to evaluate the performance of the linear factor models in em. our study draws heavily on the recent study by kan et al. (2009) which derives the asymptotic distribution of the parameters in eqs. (1) and (2) under the null that the factor model is possibly misspeci fi ed. 3 de fi ne r t as a ( n ,1)vectorofthe monthly returnsof n risky ets at time t and f t is a ( k , 1) vector of the monthly values of the k factors at time t . in the fi rst stage, we estimate the sample covariances between the n ets and k factors using t time-series observations by maximum likelihood (ml). de fi ne c as a ( n , k +1)matrixwhichequals(1 n , v 21 ) where 1 n is a ( n , 1) vector of ones and v 21 is a ( n , k ) matrix of sample covariances with respect to the k factors.




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سانگ شات: موسیقی بازی alice: madness returns
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بازی alice: madness returns

با سلام خدمت خوانندگان عزیز و همراهان همیشگی گیم شات. باز هم دیگری فرا رسید و طبق روال همیشگی با قسمت جدیدی از سانگ شات که این هفته به بازی alice: madness returns اختصاص دارد، در خدمت شما عزیزان هستیم و امیدواریم که از آن لذت ببرید. با ما در ادامه مطلب همراه ...

نوشته سانگ شات: موسیقی بازی alice: madness returns اولین بار در گجت نیوز پدیدار شد.



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news
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after confirming that a new family will be joining the show, “superman returns” producer kang bong kyu announced that the show cannot be having any of its current families leave

during a call with news site mydaily, pd kang bong kyu said, “lee dong gook has decided to appear on the show, but due to his schedule, he cannot participate regularly like the other parents. so we are currently in a situation where the current members cannot step down

he continued, “many people are wondering if a family will be leaving with the addition of lee dong gook, but currently, lee dong gook can only participate in limited ways. he needs to take days off to shoot for the show. we think it may be difficult for him to be a regular on the progr

regarding song il kook, who was earlier reported to be possibly stepping down from “superman returns” to be part of kbs‘ drama “jang young sil,” the producer commented, “as of now, he has not talked to us about the drama or stepping down from the show,” adding, “i am also curious to see what decision song il kook will make

he further stated that he would like to continue working with song il kook and the triplets.truthfully, i do want to continue working with him. this is probably the same for our staff and the viewers. however, it all depends on the decision song il gook will make

اینم اخبار جدید در مورد حضور یا عدم حضور سونگ در مستند

همون جور که خوندید مثل اینکه تهیه کننده هم مایل نیست که سونگ حضور داشته باشه

ولی تصمیم قطعی با خود سونگ



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موضوعات پایان نامه
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بررسی رابطه شهرت حسابرس و مدیریت سود در صنعت بانکداری:

-رابطه کارآفرینی سازمانی و عملکرد بانکها
-بررسی رابطه شهرت بانکها و نیات رفتاری مشتریان (نقش شناخت، اعتماد و تعهد)
-ارزی سرمایه فکری در صنعت بانکداری و ارتبط آن با عملکرد بانکها
-بررسی رابطه تنوع پرتفوی وام های اعطایی با ریسک در سیستم بانکی
-بررسی رابطه تنوع پرتفوی وام های اعطایی با کارایی در سیستم بانکی
-بررسی رابطه تنوع پرتفوی وام های اعطایی با سرمایه گذاری در سیستم بانکی
-طراحی مدل تلفیقی کارت امتیازی متوازن (bsc) و تصمیم گیری چندمعیاره فازی (fmadm) جهت ارزی عملکرد سیستم بانکی
-طراحی مدل تلفیقی کارت امتیازی متوازن (bsc) و تحلیل شبکه ای (anp) جهت ارزی عملکرد مدیریت دانش سیستم بانکی
-رابطه قابلیت های سازمانی و عملکرد سیستم هزینه ی بر مبنای هدف
-طراحی مدلی جهت مکانی بهینه شعب بانک با استفاده از روش تحلیل سلسله مراتبی فازی
-بررسی تاثیر خصوصی سازی بر مدیریت سود بانکها (مطالعه موردی بانک …)
-بررسی رابطه بین مدیریت سود و کیفیت سود بانکها (مطالعه موردی بانک …)
-بررسی رابطه ویژگی های کیفی سود (پایداری سود، قابلیت پیش بینی سود، به موقع بودن سود، محافظه کار بودن سود و مربوط بودن سود به ارزش سهام) با عملکرد شرکتها
- بررسی رابطه سرمایه در گردش و سودآوری بانکها
- بررسی رابطه سرمایه در گردش و بازده سهام بانکهای بورسی
-شناسایی و اولویت بندی عوامل موثربر پیاده سازی موفق مدیریت ارتباط با مشتری crm در صنعت بانکداری
-طراحی مدل بهینه مدیریت الکترونیکی روابط با مشتریان (ecrm) در بانکها
-ارائه مدلی جهت سنجش و کمی سازی ارزش ویژه برند در صنعت بانکداری
-بررسی عوامل موثر بر ارزش ویژه برند در صنعت بانکداری
- بررسی رابطه ارزش ویژه برند و عملکرد بانکها
-رتبه بندی اعتباری مشتریان با استفاده از ابزار داده کاوی
-محاسبه نرخ تمرکز صنعت بانکداری (بانکهای تی و خصوصی) و بررسی ارتباط آن با سودآوری بانکها
بهینه سازی مدیریت ارتباط با مشتری (crm) با استفاده ار تکنیک داده کاوی
پیش بینی میزان س های بانک با استفاده از روش شبکه عصبی و آریما و مقایسه نتایج
بررسی تاثیر ریسک های بانکی (عملیاتی،اعتباری، نقدینگی و بازار) بر عملکرد بانکهای کشور
ارزی عملکرد بانکها از بعد ریسک اعتباری با مدل dea
-شناسایی و رتبه بندی شاخص های موفقیت اجرای مدیریت دانش بانک با استفاده از مدل pls
-ارزی عملکرد مدیریت دانش با استفاده از ahp (یا ahp فازی)

commercial banking system:

optimal inflation targets and the role of the central bank in albania (2011) loan loss provisioning in the commercial banking system of barbados: practices and determinants(2011 )
• impact of corporate governance on firm performanc evidence from the tobacco industry of pakistan (2011)
• impact of audit quality on earnings mana ent(2011)
• government ownership and performance of malaysiangovernment-linked companies(2011)
• financial performance evaluation of some selected jordanian commercial banks(2011)
• determinants of dividend policy of banks in ghana(2011)
• acquisition activities of public sector banks in india and its impact on shareholders’ wealth (2011)
• determinants of corporate capital structure under different debt maturities (2011)
• factors influencing the profitability of conventional banks of pakistan (2011)
• impact of audit quality on earnings mana ent (2011)
• the effects of bank capital on lending:what do we know, and what does it mean?(2011)
• the impact of corporate governance on auditor choice (2011)
• the impact of organizational culture on knowledge sharing: the context of jordan’s phosphate mines company (2011)
• loan loss provisioning in the commercial banking system of barbados: practices and determinants (2011)
• examining the capital structure determinants: empirical analysis of companies traded on abu dhabi stock exchange (2011)
• banking crisis and financial stability in nigeria(2011)
• the impact of working capital efficiency on profitability – an empirical analysis on jordanian manufacturing firms (2011)
• the impact of bank ownership concentration on impaired loans and capital adequacy (2010)
• capital structure, equity ownership and firm performance (2010)
• impact of intellectual capital on organi ional performance (2009)
• interest rates and bank risk-taking (2011)
• the effects of loan portfolio concentration on brazilian banks’ return and risk(2011)
• capital ratios and the cross-section of bank stock returns: evidence from japan(2011)
• banks total factor productivity change in a developing economy: does ownership and origins matter?(2011)
• the impact of taxation on bank profits: evidence from eu banks (2011)
• bank size, market concentration, and bank earnings volatility in the us(2011)
• the impact of mana ent and board ownership on profitability in banks with different strategies (2011)
• bank size and risk-taking under basel ii (2011)
• capital requirements and bank behavior in the uk: are there lessons for international capital standards? (2011)
• modelling the effect of national culture on multinational banks’ performance: a conditional robust nonparametric frontier analysis (2011)
• interest rates and bank risk-taking
• bank monitoring, profit efficiency and the commercial lending business model
• banks’ regulatory capital buffer and the business cycle: evidence for germany
• the effects of loan portfolio concentration on brazilian banks’ return and risk
• capital ratios and the cross-section of bank stock returns: evidence from japan
• banks total factor productivity change in a developing economy: does ownership and origins matter? the impact of taxation on bank profits: evidence from eu banks
• bank size, market concentration, and bank earnings volatility in the us
• the impact of mana ent and board ownership on profitability in banks with different strategies
• bank size and risk-taking under basel ii
• capital requirements and bank behavior in the uk: are there lessons for international capital standards?
• modelling the effect of national culture on multinational banks’ performance: a conditional robust nonparametric frontier analysis
• modelling the effect of national culture on multinational banks’ performance: a conditional robust nonparametric frontier analysis
• - a framework for evaluating the effectiveness of information systems at jordan banks: an empirical study
• - a note on mana ent efficiency and international banking. some empirical panel evidence
• - accounting and capital market measures of risk: evidence from asian banks during 1998–2003
• - an innovative spreadsheet authoring environment
• - applying enhanced data mining approaches in predicting bank performance: a case of taiwanese commercial banks(2009)
• - essing output and productivity growth in the banking industry
• - essing the efficiency in operations of a large greek bank branch network adopting different economic behaviors
• - et prices and banking distress: a macroeconomic approach
• - auditor reputation and earnings mana ent: international evidence from the banking industry
• - bank ownership type and banking relationships
• - bank stock returns and economic growth
• - banking crisis and productivity of borrowing firms: evidence from japan
• - corporate choice of banks: decision factors, decision maker, and decision process(2010)
• - demand estimation and consumer welfare in the banking industry
• - differential impact of korean banking system reforms on bank productivity
• - does bank ownership increase firm value? (evidence from china)\
• - entrepreneurial finance: banks versus venture capital
• - evaluating the state of competition of the greek banking industry
• - financial reforms and time-varying microstructures in emerging equity markets
• - how to gauge the credit risk of bank loans: evidence from taiwan
• - information asymmetry and the value of cash
• - internet banking adoption among young intellectuals
• - internet banking in india-a step towards financial inclusion
• - ownership structure, risk and performance in the european banking industry
• - risks in large value payment systems
• - the analysis of taiwanese bank efficiency: incorporating both external risk and internal risk
• - the economics of islamic finance and securitization
• - the effects of reform on china’s bank structure and performance
• - the impact of regulatory reforms on cost structure, ownership and competition in indian banking
• - the influence of trust on internet banking acceptance
• - what determines the banking sector performance in globalized financial markets? the case of turkey
• -a comprehensive analysis of the effects of risk measures on bank efficiency: evidence from emerging asian countries
• -a fuzzy mcdm approach for evaluating banking performance based on balanced scorecard(2009)
• -a genetic programming model for bankruptcy prediction: empirical evidence from iran(2009)
• -an evaluation of alternative scoring models in private banking(2009)
• - ociation of dea super-efficiency estimates with financial ratios: investigating the case for chinese banks(2011)
• -bank modelling methodologies: a comparative non-parametric analysis of efficiency in the japanese banking sector
• -bank ownership and executive perquisites: new evidence from an emerging market(2010)
• -bank ownership reform and bank performance in china(2009)
• -bankruptcy prediction in banks and firms via statistical and intelligent techniques-a review(2007)
• -benchmarking firm performance from a multiple-stakeholder perspective with an application to chinese banking(2010)
• -comparing the performance of market-based and accounting-based bankruptcy prediction models
• -cost efficiency, economies of scale, technological progress and productivity in indonesian banks
• -credit risk essment with a multistage neural network ensemble learning approach(2008)
• -determinants of banks’ risk exposure to new account fraud – evidence from germany
• -efficiency analysis of cross-region bank branches using fuzzy data envelopment analysis
• -efficiency and stock performance of eu banks: is there a relationship?
• -equity ownership structure, risk-taking and performance: an empirical investigation in turkish companies
• -first financial restructuring and operating efficiency: evidence from taiwan commercial banks
• -fuzzy performance evaluation in turkish banking sector using analytic hierarchy process and topsis(2009)
• -genetic programming for credit scoring: the case of egyptian public sector banks(2009)
• -how loan portfolio diversification affects risk, efficiency and capitalization: a managerial behavior model for austrian banks
• -intellectual capital: acquisition and maintenance: the case of new zealand banks
• -intellectual capital: acquisition and maintenance: the case of new zealand banks(2008)
• -managers and efficiency in banking
• -market structure, conduct and performance: evidence from the bangladesh banking industry
• -multiple goals and ownership structure: effects on the performance of spanish savings banks(2008)
• -optimizing the use of information and communication technology (ict) in nigerian banks
• -pening the black box of efficiency analysis: an illustration with uae banks(2009)
• -predicting japanese bank stock performance with a composite relative efficiency metric: a new investment tool(2010)
• -the effect of capital wealth on optimal diversification: evidence from the survey of consumer finances
• -the effects of focus versus diversification on bank performance: evidence from chinese banks
• -the impact of bank ownership concentration on impaired loans and capital adequacy
• -the impact of banking sector reform in a transition economy: evidence from kyrgyzstan
• -the impact of e-commerce security, and national environment on consumer adoption of internet banking in malaysia and singapore
• -the impact of non-traditional activities on the estimation of bank efficiency: international evidence
• -using neural networks ensembles for bankruptcy prediction and credit scoring(2008)

managers and efficiency in banking:

bank ownership type and banking relationships
does bank ownership increase firm value? evidence from china
bank stock returns and economic growth
differential impact of korean banking system reforms on bank productivity
market structure, conduct and performance: evidence from the bangladesh banking industry
the effects of focus versus diversification on bank performance: evidence from chinese banks
efficiency and stock performance of eu banks: is there a relationship?
essing output and productivity growth in the banking industry
essing the efficiency in operations of a large greek bank branch network adopting different economic behaviors
auditor reputation and earnings mana ent: international evidence from the banking industry
bank modelling methodologies: a comparative non-parametric analysis of efficiency in the japanese banking sector
determinants of banks’ risk exposure to new account fraud – evidence from germany
efficiency analysis of cross-region bank branches using fuzzy data envelopment analysis
financial reforms and time-varying microstructures in emerging equity markets
how loan portfolio diversification affects risk, efficiency and capitalization: a managerial behavior model for austrian banks
intellectual capital: acquisition and maintenance: the case of new zealand banks
optimizing the use of information and communicatio technology (ict) in nigerian banks
accounting and capital market measures of risk: evidence from asian banks during 1998–2003
et prices and banking distress: a macroeconomic approach
evaluating the state of competition of the greek banking industry
the impact of banking sector reform in a transition economy: evidence from kyrgyzstan
the impact of e-commerce security, and national environment on consumer adoption of internet banking in malaysia and singapore
the impact of regulatory reforms on cost structure, ownership and competition in indian banking
the influence of trust on internet banking acceptance
what determines the banking sector performance in globalized financial markets? the case of turkey

بررسی رابطه مدیریت دانش و متغیرهای محیطی سازمان با ساختار سازمانی (موردی بانک …):

بررسی رابطه استراتژی های مدیریت دانش و عملکرد (موردی بانک …)
-تدوین استراتژی بهینه منابع انسانی (موردی بانک …)
-بررسی رابطه بین سبک های مدیریت تعارض و کارایی و اثربخشی سازمان (موردی بانک …)
-بررسی رابطه بین سبک های مدیریت تعارض و فرهنگ سازمان (موردی بانک …)
-بررسی رابطه بین سبک های مدیریت تعارض و تعهد سازمان (موردی بانک …)
شناسایی و اولویت بندی استراتژی های توانمندسازی منابع انسانی (موردی بانک …)
-بررسی رابطه بین توانمندسازی منابع انسانی و اثربخشی سازمان (موردی بانک …)
-بررسی رابطه بین توانمندسازی منابع انسانی و فرهنگ سازمان (موردی بانک …)
-بررسی رابطه بین توانمندسازی منابع انسانی و تعهد سازمان (موردی بانک …)
-بررسی رابطه بین توانمندسازی منابع انسانی و کارایی سازمان (موردی بانک …)
-رابطه شهروندی سازمانی با سودآوری (موردی بانک …)
-رابطه عد سازمانی با سودآوری (موردی بانک …)
-رابطه شهروندی سازمانی و عملکرد سازمان (موردی بانک …)
-رابطه مدیریت مشارکتی و فرهنگ سازمانی (موردی بانک …)
-مدیریت مشارکتی و اثربخشی و کارایی سازمانی (موردی بانک …)
-ارزی عملکرد منابع انسانی با رویکرد کارت امتیازی متوارن bsc
-بررسی عوامل موثر در حفظ پایداری منابع انسانی
بررسی ارتباط کیفیت گزارشگری مالی و تصمیم گیری مدیران
-بررسی رابطه ویژگی های کیفی سود (پایداری سود، قابلیت پیش بینی سود، به موقع بودن سود، محافظه کار بودن سود و مربوط بودن سود به ارزش سهام) با عملکرد (موردی بانک …)
-ارزی سرمایه فکری در صنعت بانکداری و ارتباط آن با عملکرد بانکها
-رابطه قابلیت های سازمانی و عملکرد سیستم هزینه ی بر مبنای هدف
تبیین رابطه کارایی و عملکرد (بازده) سهام بانکهای خصوصی
طراحی مدلهای جدید (e-s-qual) و (e-recs-qual) جهت سنجش کیفیت خدمات بانکداری اینترنتی

منبع : سایت نشرستان

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مشاهده متن کامل ...
water cycle
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

precipitation, evaporation, and transpiration are all terms that sound familiar, yet may not mean much to you. they are all part of the water cycle, a complex process that not only gives us water to drink, fish to eat, but also weather patterns that help grow our crops.

cloud g hic water is an integral part of life on this planet. it is an odorless, tasteless, substance that covers more than three-fourths of the earth's surface. most of the water on earth, 97% to be exact, is salt water found in the oceans. we can not drink salt water or use it for crops because of the salt content. we can remove salt from ocean water, but the process is very expensive.

only about 3% of earth's water is fresh. two percent of the earth's water (about 66% of all fresh water) is in solid form, found in ice caps and glaciers. because it is frozen and so far away, the fresh water in ice caps is not available for use by people or plants. that leaves about 1% of all the earth's water in a form useable to humans and land animals. this fresh water is found in lakes, rivers, streams, ponds, and in the ground. (a small amount of water is found as vapor in the atmosphere.)

water is constantly being cycled between the atmosphere, the ocean and land. this cycling is a very important process that helps sustain life on earth.

as the water evaporates, vapors rise and condense into clouds. the clouds move over the land, and precipitation falls in the form of rain, ice or snow. the water fills streams and rivers, and eventually flows back into the oceans where evaporation starts the process anew

water's state (solid, liquid or gas) is determined mostly by temperature. although water continuously changes states from solid to liquid to gas, the amount of water on earth remains constant. there is as much water now as there was hundreds of millions of years ago.

there are six important processes that make up the water cycle. these are:

evaporation

evaporation is the process where a liquid, in this case water, changes from its liquid state to a gaseous state. liquid water becomes water vapor. although lower air pressure helps promote evaporation, temperature is the primary factor. for example, all of the water in a pot left on a table will eventually evaporate. it may take several weeks. but, if that same pot of water is put on a stove and brought to a boiling temperature, the water will evaporate more quickly. during the water cycle some of the water in the oceans and freshwater bodies, such as lakes and rivers, is warmed by the sun and evaporates. during the process of evaporation, impurities in the water are left behind. as a result, the water that goes into the atmosphere is cleaner than it was on earth

conden ion

conden ion is the opposite of evaporation. conden ion occurs when a gas is changed into a liquid. conden ion occurs when the temperature of the vapor decreases.

when the water droplets formed from conden ion are very small, they remain suspended in the atmosphere. these millions of droplets of suspended water form clouds in the sky or fog at ground level. water condenses into droplets only when there are small dust particles present around which the droplet can form

precipitation

when the temperature and atmospheric pressure are right, the small droplets of water in clouds form larger droplets and precipitation occurs. the raindrops fall to earth.

as a result of evaporation, conden ion and precipitation, water travels from the surface of the earth goes into the atmosphere, and returns to earth again.


surface runoff

much of the water that returns to earth as precipitation runs off the surface of the land, and flows down hill into streams, rivers, ponds and lakes. small streams flow into larger streams, then into rivers, and eventually the water flows into the ocean.

surface runoff is an important part of the water cycle because, through surface runoff, much of the water returns again to the oceans, where a great deal of evaporation occurs


infiltration

infiltration is an important process where rain water soaks into the ground, through the soil and underlying rock layers. some of this water ultimately returns to the surface at springs or in low spots downhill. some of the water remains underground and is called groundwater.

as the water infiltrates through the soil and rock layers, many of the impurities in the water are filtered out. this filtering process helps clean the water

transpiration

one final process is important in the water cycle. as plants absorb water from the soil, the water moves from the roots through the stems to the leaves. once the water reaches the leaves, some of it evaporates from the leaves, adding to the amount of water vapor in the air. this process of evaporation through plant leaves is called transpiration. in large forests, an enormous amount of water will transpire through leaves.

evaporates, travels into the air and becomes part of a cloud, falls down to earth as precipitation, and then evaporates again. this repeats again and again in a never-ending cycle. water keeps moving and changing from a solid to a liquid to a gas, over and over again.

precipitation creates runoff that travels over the ground surface and helps to fill lakes and rivers. it also percolates or moves downward through openings in the soil to replenish aquifers under the ground. some places receive more precipitation than others do. these areas are usually close to oceans or large bodies of water that allow more water to evaporate and form clouds. other areas receive less precipitation. often these areas are far from water or near mountains. as clouds move up and over mountains, the water vapor condenses to form precipitation and freezes. snow falls on the peaks

file:hydrologicalcycle1.png

most of the precipitation that falls becomes a part of the ocean or part of rivers , lakes , and streams that eventually lead to the ocean. some of the snow and ice that falls as precipitation stays at the earth surface in glaciers and other types of ice. some of the precipitation seeps into the ground and becomes a part of the groundwater

water stays in certain places longer than others. a drop of water may spend over 3,000 years in the ocean before moving on to another part of the water cycle while a drop of water spends an average of just eight days in the atmosphere before falling back to earth

http://www.mbgnet.net/fresh/cycle/cycle2.jpg.



مشاهده متن کامل ...
water cycle
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

precipitation, evaporation, and transpiration are all terms that sound familiar, yet may not mean much to you. they are all part of the water cycle, a complex process that not only gives us water to drink, fish to eat, but also weather patterns that help grow our crops.

cloud g hic water is an integral part of life on this planet. it is an odorless, tasteless, substance that covers more than three-fourths of the earth's surface. most of the water on earth, 97% to be exact, is salt water found in the oceans. we can not drink salt water or use it for crops because of the salt content. we can remove salt from ocean water, but the process is very expensive.

only about 3% of earth's water is fresh. two percent of the earth's water (about 66% of all fresh water) is in solid form, found in ice caps and glaciers. because it is frozen and so far away, the fresh water in ice caps is not available for use by people or plants. that leaves about 1% of all the earth's water in a form useable to humans and land animals. this fresh water is found in lakes, rivers, streams, ponds, and in the ground. (a small amount of water is found as vapor in the atmosphere.)

water is constantly being cycled between the atmosphere, the ocean and land. this cycling is a very important process that helps sustain life on earth.

as the water evaporates, vapors rise and condense into clouds. the clouds move over the land, and precipitation falls in the form of rain, ice or snow. the water fills streams and rivers, and eventually flows back into the oceans where evaporation starts the process anew

water's state (solid, liquid or gas) is determined mostly by temperature. although water continuously changes states from solid to liquid to gas, the amount of water on earth remains constant. there is as much water now as there was hundreds of millions of years ago.

there are six important processes that make up the water cycle. these are:

evaporation

evaporation is the process where a liquid, in this case water, changes from its liquid state to a gaseous state. liquid water becomes water vapor. although lower air pressure helps promote evaporation, temperature is the primary factor. for example, all of the water in a pot left on a table will eventually evaporate. it may take several weeks. but, if that same pot of water is put on a stove and brought to a boiling temperature, the water will evaporate more quickly. during the water cycle some of the water in the oceans and freshwater bodies, such as lakes and rivers, is warmed by the sun and evaporates. during the process of evaporation, impurities in the water are left behind. as a result, the water that goes into the atmosphere is cleaner than it was on earth

conden ion

conden ion is the opposite of evaporation. conden ion occurs when a gas is changed into a liquid. conden ion occurs when the temperature of the vapor decreases.

when the water droplets formed from conden ion are very small, they remain suspended in the atmosphere. these millions of droplets of suspended water form clouds in the sky or fog at ground level. water condenses into droplets only when there are small dust particles present around which the droplet can form

precipitation

when the temperature and atmospheric pressure are right, the small droplets of water in clouds form larger droplets and precipitation occurs. the raindrops fall to earth.

as a result of evaporation, conden ion and precipitation, water travels from the surface of the earth goes into the atmosphere, and returns to earth again.


surface runoff

much of the water that returns to earth as precipitation runs off the surface of the land, and flows down hill into streams, rivers, ponds and lakes. small streams flow into larger streams, then into rivers, and eventually the water flows into the ocean.

surface runoff is an important part of the water cycle because, through surface runoff, much of the water returns again to the oceans, where a great deal of evaporation occurs


infiltration

infiltration is an important process where rain water soaks into the ground, through the soil and underlying rock layers. some of this water ultimately returns to the surface at springs or in low spots downhill. some of the water remains underground and is called groundwater.

as the water infiltrates through the soil and rock layers, many of the impurities in the water are filtered out. this filtering process helps clean the water

transpiration

one final process is important in the water cycle. as plants absorb water from the soil, the water moves from the roots through the stems to the leaves. once the water reaches the leaves, some of it evaporates from the leaves, adding to the amount of water vapor in the air. this process of evaporation through plant leaves is called transpiration. in large forests, an enormous amount of water will transpire through leaves.

evaporates, travels into the air and becomes part of a cloud, falls down to earth as precipitation, and then evaporates again. this repeats again and again in a never-ending cycle. water keeps moving and changing from a solid to a liquid to a gas, over and over again.

precipitation creates runoff that travels over the ground surface and helps to fill lakes and rivers. it also percolates or moves downward through openings in the soil to replenish aquifers under the ground. some places receive more precipitation than others do. these areas are usually close to oceans or large bodies of water that allow more water to evaporate and form clouds. other areas receive less precipitation. often these areas are far from water or near mountains. as clouds move up and over mountains, the water vapor condenses to form precipitation and freezes. snow falls on the peaks

file:hydrologicalcycle1.png

most of the precipitation that falls becomes a part of the ocean or part of rivers , lakes , and streams that eventually lead to the ocean. some of the snow and ice that falls as precipitation stays at the earth surface in glaciers and other types of ice. some of the precipitation seeps into the ground and becomes a part of the groundwater

water stays in certain places longer than others. a drop of water may spend over 3,000 years in the ocean before moving on to another part of the water cycle while a drop of water spends an average of just eight days in the atmosphere before falling back to earth

http://www.mbgnet.net/fresh/cycle/cycle2.jpg.



مشاهده متن کامل ...
chapter 7: lexical analysis and stoplists
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

christopher fox

at&t bell laboratories, holmdel, nj 07733

abstract

lexical analysis is a fundamental operation in both query processing and automatic indexing, and filtering stoplist words is an important step in the automatic indexing process. this chapter presents basic algorithms and data structures for lexical analysis, and shows how stoplist word removal can be efficiently incorporated into lexical analysis.

introduct

lexical analysis is the process of converting an input stream of characters into a stream of words or tokens. tokens are groups of characters with collective significance. lexical analysis is the first stage of automatic indexing, and of query processing. automatic indexing is the process of algorithmically examining information items to generate lists of index terms. the lexical analysis phase produces candidate index terms that may be further processed, and eventually added to indexes (see chapter 1 for an outline of this process). query processing is the activity of analyzing a query and comparing it to indexes to find relevant items. lexical analysis of a query produces tokens that are parsed and turned into an internal representation suitable for comparison wi ionth indexes.

in automatic indexing, candidate index terms are often checked to see whether they are in a stoplist, or negative dictionary. stoplist words are known to make poor index terms, and they are immediately removed from further consideration as index terms when they are identified.

this chapter discusses the design and implementation of lexical analyzers and stoplists for information retrieval. these topics go well together because, as we will see, one of the most efficient ways to implement stoplists is to incorporate them into a lexical analyzer.

7.2 lexical analysis

7.2.1 lexical analysis for automatic indexing

the first decision that must be made in designing a lexical analyzer for an automatic indexing system is: what counts as a word or token in the indexing scheme? at first, this may seem an easy question, and there are some easy answers to it--for example, terms consisting entirely of letters should be tokens. problems soon arise, however. consider the following:

 digits--most numbers do not make good index terms, so often digits are not included as tokens. however, certain numbers in some kinds of databases may be important (for example, case numbers in a legal database). also, digits are often included in words that should be index terms, especially in databases containing technical documents. for example, a database about vitamins would contain important tokens like "b6" and "b12." one partial (and easy) solution to the last problem is to allow tokens to include digits, but not to begin with a digit.

 hyphens--another difficult decision is whether to break hyphenated words into their constituents, or to keep them as a single token. breaking hyphenated terms apart helps with inconsistent usage (e.g., "state-of-the-art" and "state of the art" are treated identically), but loses the specificity of a hyphenated phrase. also, dashes are often used in place of ems, and to mark a single word broken into syllables at the end of a line. treating dashes used in these ways as hyphens does not work. on the other hand, hyphens are often part of a name, such as "jean-claude," "f-16," or "ms-dos."

 other punctuation--like the dash, other punctuation marks are often used as parts of terms. for example, periods are commonly used as parts of file names in computer systems (e.g., "command.com" in dos), or as parts of section numbers; slashes may appear as part of a name (e.g., "os/2"). if numbers are regarded as legitimate index terms, then numbers containing commas and decimal points may need to be recognized. the underscore character is often used in terms in programming languages (e.g., "max_size" is an identifier in ada, c, prolog, and other languages).

 case--the case of letters is usually not significant in index terms, and typically lexical analyzers for information retrieval systems convert all characters to either upper or lower case. again, however, case may be important in some situations. for example, case distinctions are important in some programming languages, so an information retrieval system for source code may need to preserve case distinctions in generating index terms.

there is no technical difficulty in solving any of these problems, but information system designers must think about them carefully when setting lexical analysis policy. recognizing numbers as tokens adds many terms with poor discrimination value to an index, but may be a good policy if exhaustive searching is important. breaking up hyphenated terms increases recall but decreases precision, and may be inappropriate in some fields (like an author field). preserving case distinctions enhances precision but decreases recall.

commercial information systems differ somewhat in their lexical analysis policies, but are alike in usually taking a conservative (recall enhancing) approach. for example, chemical abstracts service, orbit search service, and mead data central's lexis/nexis all recognize numbers and words containing digits as index terms, and all are case insensitive. none has special provisions for most punctuation marks in most indexed fields. however, chemical abstracts service keeps hyphenated words as single tokens, while the orbit search service and lexis/nexis break them apart (if they occur in title or abstract fields).

the example we use to illustrate our discussion is simple so it can be explained easily, and because the simplest solution often turns out to be best. modifications to it based on the considerations discussed above are easy to make. in the example, any nonempty string of letters and digits, not beginning with a digit, is regarded as a token. all letters are converted to lower case. all punctuation, spacing, and control characters are treated as token delimiters.

7.2.2 lexical analysis for query processing

designing a lexical analyzer for query processing is like designing one for automatic indexing. it also depends on the design of the lexical analyzer for automatic indexing: since query search terms must match index terms, the same tokens must be distinguished by the query lexical analyzer as by the indexing lexical analyzer. in addition, however, the query lexical analyzer must usually distinguish operators (like the boolean operators, stemming or truncating operators, and weighting function operators), and grouping indicators (like parentheses and brackets). a lexical analyzer for queries should also process certain characters, like control characters and disallowed punctuation characters, differently from one for automatic indexing. such characters are best treated as delimiters in automatic indexing, but in query processing, they indicate an error. hence, a query lexical analyzer should flag illegal characters as unrecognized tokens.

the example query lexical analyzer presented below recognizes left and right parentheses (as grouping indicators), ampersand, bar, and caret (as boolean operators), and any alphanumeric string beginning with a letter (as search terms). spacing characters are treated as delimiters, and other characters are returned as unrecognized tokens. all uppercase characters are converted to lowercase.

7.2.3 the cost of lexical analysis

lexical analysis is expensive because it requires examination of every input character, while later stages of automatic indexing and query processing do not. although no studies of the cost of lexical analysis in information retrieval systems have been done, lexical analysis has been shown to account for as much as 50 percent of the computational expense of compilation (wait 1986). thus, it is important for lexical analyzers, particularly for automatic indexing, to be as efficient as possible.

7.2.4 implementing a lexical analyzer

lexical analysis for information retrieval systems is the same as lexical analysis for other text processing systems; in particular, it is the same as lexical analysis for program translators. this problem has been studied thoroughly, so we ought to adopt the solutions in the program translation literature (aho, sethi, and ullman 1986). there are three ways to implement a lexical analyzer:

 use a lexical analyzer generator, like the unix tool lex (lesk 1975), to generate a lexical analyzer automatically;

 write a lexical analyzer by hand ad hoc; or

 write a lexical analyzer by hand as a finite state machine.

the first approach, using a lexical analyzer generator, is best when the lexical analyzer is complicated; if the lexical analyzer is simple, it is usually easier to implement it by hand. in our discussion of stoplists below, we present a special purpose lexical analyzer generator for automatic indexing that produces efficient lexical analyzers that filter stoplist words. consequently, we defer further discussion of this alternative.

the second alternative is the worst. an ad hoc algorithm, written just for the problem at hand in whatever way the programmer can think to do it, is likely to contain subtle errors. furthermore, finite state machine algorithms are extremely fast, so ad hoc algorithms are likely to be less efficient.

the third approach is the one we present in this section. we ume some knowledge of finite state machines (also called finite automata), and their use in program translation systems. readers unfamiliar with these topics can consult hopcroft and ullman (1979), and aho, sethi, and ullman (1986). our example is an implementation of a query lexical analyzer as described above.

the easiest way to begin a finite state machine implementation is to draw a transition diagram for the target machine. a transition diagram for a machine recognizing tokens for our example query lexical analyzer is pictured in figure 7.1.

in this diagram, characters fall into ten cl es: space characters, letters, digits, the left and right parentheses, ampersand, bar, caret, the end of string character, and all other characters. the first step in implementing this finite state machine is to build a mechanism for cl ifying characters. the easiest and fastest way to do this is to preload an array with the character cl es for the character set. uming the ascii character set, such an array would contain 128 elements with the character cl es for the corresponding ascii characters. if such an array is called char_cl , for example, then the character cl for character 'c' is simply char_cl [c]. the character cl es themselves form a distinct data type best declared as an enumeration in c. figure 7.2 contains c declarations for a character cl type and array. (note that the end of file character requires special treatment in c because it is not part of ascii).

 

figure 7.1: transition diagram for a query lexical analyzer

the same technique is used for fast case conversion. in figure 7.2, an array of 128 characters called convert_case is preloaded with the printing characters, with lowercase characters substituted for uppercase characters. nonprinting character positions will not be used, and are set to 0.

/**************  character cl ification  *****************/

/* tokenizing requires that ascii be broken into character */

/* cl es distinguished for tokenizing. white space       */

/* characters separate tokens. digits and letters make up  */

/* the body of search terms. parentheses group sub-        */

/* expressions. the ampersand, bar, and caret are          */

/* operator symbols.                                       */

typedefenum {

white_ch,             /* whitespace characters */

digit_ch,             /* the digits */

letter_ch,            /* upper and lower case */

lft_paren_ch,         /* the "(" character */

rgt_paren_ch,         /* the ")" character */

ampersand_ch,         /* the "&" character */

bar_ch,               /* the "|" character */

caret_ch,             /* the "^" character */

eos_ch,               /* the end of string character */

other_ch,             /* catch-all for everything else */

} charcl type;

staticcharcl typechar_cl [128] = {

/* ^@ */  eos_ch,      /* ^a */  other_ch,    /* ^b */  other_ch,

/* ^c */  other_ch,    /* ^d */  other_ch,    /* ^e */  other_ch,

/* ^f */  other_ch,    /* ^g */  other_ch,    /* ^h */  white_ch,

/* ^i */  white_ch,    /* ^j */  white_ch,    /* ^k */  white_ch,

/* ^l */  white_ch,    /* ^m */  white_ch,    /* ^n */  other_ch,

/* ^o */  other_ch,    /* ^p */  other_ch,    /* ^q */  other_ch,

/* ^r */  other_ch,    /* ^s */  other_ch,    /* ^t */  other_ch,

/* ^u */  other_ch,    /* ^v */  other_ch,    /* ^w */  other_ch,

/* ^x */  other_ch,    /* ^y */  other_ch,    /* ^z */  other_ch,

/* ^[ */  other_ch,    /* ^\ */  other_ch,    /* ^] */  other_ch,

/* ^^ */  other_ch,    /* ^_ */  other_ch,    /*    */  white_ch,

/*  ! */  other_ch,    /*  " */  other_ch,    /*  # */  other_ch,

/*  $ */  other_ch,    /*  % */  other_ch,    /*  & */  ampersand_ch,

/*  ' */  other_ch,    /*  ( */  lft_paren_c, /*  ) */  rgt_paren_ch,

/*  * */  other_ch,    /*  + */  other_ch,    /*  , */  other_ch,

/*  - */  other_ch,    /*  . */  other_ch,    /*  / */  other_ch,

/*  0 */  digit_ch,    /*  1 */  digit_ch,    /*  2 */  digit_ch,

/*  3 */  digit_ch,    /*  4 */  digit_ch,    /*  5 */  digit_ch,

/*  6 */  digit_ch,    /*  7 */  digit_ch,    /*  8 */  digit_ch,

/*  9 */  digit_ch,    /*  : */  other_ch,    /*  ; */  other_ch,

/*  < */  other_ch,    /*  = */  other_ch,    /*  > */  other_ch,

/*  ? */  other_ch,    /*  @ */  other_ch,    /*  a */  letter_ch,

/*  b */  letter_ch,   /*  c */  letter_ch,   /*  d */  letter_ch,

/*  e */  letter_ch,   /*  f */  letter_ch,   /*  g */  letter_ch,

/*  h */  letter_ch,   /*  i */  letter_ch,   /*  j */  letter_ch,

/*  k */  letter_ch,   /*  l */  letter_ch,   /*  m */  letter_ch,

/*  n */  letter_ch,   /*  o */  letter_ch,   /*  p */  letter_ch,

/*  q */  letter_ch,   /*  r */  letter_ch,   /*  s */  letter_ch,

/*  t */  letter_ch,   /*  u */  letter_ch,   /*  v */  letter_ch,

/*  w */  letter_ch,   /*  x */  letter_ch,   /*  y */  letter_ch,

/*  z */  letter_ch,   /*  [ */  other_ch,    /*  \ */  other_ch,

/*  ] */  other_ch,    /*  ^ */  caret_ch,    /*  _ */  other_ch,

/*  ` */  other_ch,    /*  a */  letter_ch,   /*  b */  letter_ch,

/*  c */  letter_ch,   /*  d */  letter_ch,   /*  e */  letter_ch,

/*  f */  letter_ch,   /*  g */  letter_ch,   /*  h */  letter_ch,

/*  i */  letter_ch,   /*  j */  letter_ch,   /*  k */  letter_ch,

/*  l */  letter_ch,   /*  m */  letter_ch,   /*  n */  letter_ch,

/*  o */  letter_ch,   /*  p */  letter_ch,   /*  q */  letter_ch,

/*  r */  letter_ch,   /*  s */  letter_ch,   /*  t */  letter_ch,

/*  u */  letter_ch,   /*  v */  letter_ch,   /*  w */  letter_ch,

/*  x */  letter_ch,   /*  y */  letter_ch,   /*  z */  letter_ch,

/*  { */  other_ch,    /*  | */  bar_ch,      /*  } */  other_ch,

/*   */  other_ch,    /* ^? */  other_ch,                           };

/**************   character case conversion   *************/

/* term text must be accumulated in a single case. this   */

/* array is used to convert letter case but otherwise     */

/* preserve characters.                                   */

static char convert_case[128] = {

/* ^@ */    0,    /* ^a */    0,    /* ^b */    0,    /* ^c */     0,

/* ^d */    0,    /* ^e */    0,    /* ^f */    0,    /* ^g */     0,

/* ^h */    0,    /* ^i */    0,    /* ^j */    0,    /* ^k */     0,

/* ^l */    0,    /* ^m */    0,    /* ^n */    0,    /* ^o */     0,

/* ^p */    0,    /* ^q */    0,    /* ^r */    0,    /* ^s */     0,

/* ^t */    0,    /* ^u */    0,    /* ^v */    0,    /* ^w */     0,

/* ^x */    0,    /* ^y */    0,    /* ^z */    0,    /* ^[ */     0,

/* ^\ */    0,    /* ^] */    0,    /* ^^ */    0,    /* ^_ */     0,

/*    */  ' ',    /*  ! */  '!',    /*  " */  '"',    /*  # */   '#',

/*  $ */  '$',    /*  % */  '%',    /*  & */  '&',    /*  ' */  ''',

/*  ( */  '(',    /*  ) */  ')',    /*  * */  '*',    /*  + */   '+',

/*  , */  ',',    /*  - */  '-',    /*  . */  '.',    /*  / */   '/',

/*  0 */  '0',    /*  1 */  '1',    /*  2 */  '2',    /*  3 */   '3',

/*  4 */  '4',    /*  5 */  '5',    /*  6 */  '6',    /*  7 */   '7',

/*  8 */  '8',    /*  9 */  '9',    /*  : */  ':',    /*  ; */   ';',

/*  < */  '<',    /*  = */  '=',    /*  > */  '>',    /*  ? */   '?',

/*  @  */ '@',    /*  a */  'a',    /*  b */  'b',    /*  c */   'c',

/*  d */  'd',    /*  e */  'e',    /*  f */  'f',    /*  g */   'g',

/*  h */   'h',   /*  i */  'i',    /*  j */  'j',    /*  k */   'k',

/*  l */   'l',   /*  m */  'm',    /*  n */  'n',    /*  o */    o',

/*  p */   'p',   /*  q */  'q',    /*  r */  'r',    /*  s */   's',

/*  t */   't',   /*  u */  'u',    /*  v */  'v',    /*  w */   'w',

/*  x */   'x',   /*  y */  'y',    /*  z */  'z',    /*  [ */   '[',

/*  \ */  '\',   /*  ] */  ']',    /*  ^ */  '^',    /*  _ */   '_',

/*  ` */   '`',   /*  a */  'a',    /*  b */  'b',    /*  c */   'c',

/*  d */   'd',   /*  e */  'e',    /*  f */  'f',    /*  g */   'g',

/*  h */   'h',   /*  i */  'i',    /*  j */  'j',    /*  k */   'k',

/*  l */   'l',   /*  m */  'm',    /*  n */  'n',    /*  o */   'o',

/*  p */   'p',   /*  q */  'q',    /*  r */  'r',    /*  s */   's',

/*  t */   't',   /*  u */  'u',    /*  v */  'v',    /*  w */   'w',

/*  x */   'x',   /*  y */  'y',    /*  z */  'z',    /*  { */   '{' ,

/*  | */   '|',   /*  } */  '}',    /*  ~ */  '~',    /* ^? */     0, };

/********************   tokenizing   ***********************/

/* thelexer distinguishes terms, parentheses, the and, or */

/* and not operators, the unrecognized token, and the end  */

/* of the input.                                           */

typedefenum {

term_token      = 1,    /* a search term */

lft_paren_token = 2,    /* left parenthesis */

rgt_paren_token = 3,    /* right parenthesis */

and_token       = 4,    /* set intersection connective */

or_token        = 5,    /* set union connective */

not_token       = 6,    /* set difference connective */

end_token       = 7,    /* end of the query */

no_token        = 8,    /* the token is not recognized */

} tokentype;

figure 7.2: declarations for a simple query lexical analyzer

there also needs to be a type for tokens. an enumeration type is best for this as well. this type will have an element for each of the tokens: term, left parenthesis, right parenthesis, ampersand, bar, caret, end of string, and the unrecognized token. processing is simplified by matching the values of the enumeration type to the final states of the finite state machine. the declaration of the token type also appears in figure 7.2.

the code for the finite state machine must keep track of the current state, and have a way of changing from state to state on input. a state change is called atransition. transition information can be encoded in tables, or in flow of control. when there are many states and transitions, a tabular encoding is preferable; in our example, a flow of control encoding is probably clearest. our example implementation reads characters from an input stream supplied as a parameter. the routine returns the next token from the input each time it is called. if the token is a term, the text of the term (in lowercase) is written to a term buffer supplied as a parameter. our example code appears in figure 7.3.

/*fn************************************************************************

gettoken( stream )

returns: void

purpose: get the next token from an input stream

plan:    part 1: run a state machine on the input

part 2: coerce the final state to return the token type

notes:   run a finite state machine on an input stream, collecting

the text of the token if it is a term. the transition table

for this dfa is the following (negative states are final):

state  |  white  letter  (    )  &   |   ^  eos  digit  other

             -------------------------------------------------------------

               0    |   0      1     -2  -3  -4  -5  -6  -7    -8     -8

               1    |  -1      1     -1  -1  -1  -1  -1  -1     1     -1

see the token type above to see what is recognized in the

various final states.

**/

statictokentype

gettoken( stream, term )

file *stream;  /* in: where to grab input characters */

char *term;    /* out: the token text if the token is a term */

{

intnext_ch;  /* from the input stream */

int state;    /* of the tokenizer dfa */

int i;        /* for scanning through the term buffer */

/* part 1: run a state machine on the input */

state = 0;

i = 0;

while ( 0  < = state )

{

if ( eof == (next_ch = getc(stream)) ) next_ch = '\0';

term[i++] = convert_case[next_ch];

switch( state )

{

case 0 :

switch(char_cl [next_ch] )

{

case white_ch :     i = 0; break;

case letter_ch :    state =  1; break;

case lft_paren_ch : state = -2; break;

case rgt_paren_ch : state = -3; break;

case ampersand_ch : state = -4; break;

case bar_ch :       state = -5; break;

case caret_ch :     state = -6; break;

case eos_ch :       state = -7; break;

case digit_ch :     state = -8; break;

case other_ch :     state = -8; break;

default :           state =-8; break;

}

break;

case 1 :

if ( (digit_ch != char_cl [next_ch])

&& (letter_ch != char_cl [next_ch]) )

{

ungetc(next_ch, stream );

term[i-1] = '\0';

state = -1;

}

break;

default : state = -8; break;

}

}

/* part 2: coerce the final state to return the type token */

return( (tokentype) (-state) );

} /* gettoken */

figure 7.3: code for a simple query lexical analyzer

the algorithm begins in state 0. as each input character is consumed, a switch on the state determines the transition. input is consumed until a final state (indicated by a negative state number) is reached. when recognizing a term, the algorithm keeps reading until some character other than a letter or a digit is found. since this character may be part of another token, it must be pushed back on the input stream. the final state is translated to a token type value by changing its sign and coercing it to the correct type (this was the point of matching the token type values to the final machine states).

/*fn***********************************************************************

main(argc, argv )

returns: int -- 0 on success, 1 on failure

purpose: program main function

plan:    part 1: open a file named on the command line

part 2: list all the tokens found in the file

part 3: close the file and return

notes:   this program simply lists the tokens found in a single file

named on the command line.

**/

int

main(argc, argv)

intargc;       /* in: how many arguments */

char *argv[ ]   /* in: text of the arguments */

{

tokentype token;   /* next token in the input stream */

char term[128];    /* the term recognized */

file *stream;      /* where to read the data from */

if ( (2 != argc) || !(stream = fopen(argv[l],"r")) ) exit(l);

do

switch( token = gettoken(stream,term) )

{

case term_token :      (void)printf ( "term: %s\n", term ); break;

case lft_paren_token : (void)printf ( "left parenthesis\n" ); break;

case rgt paren-token : (void)printf ( "right parenthesis\n" ); break;

case and_token :       (void)printf ( "and operator\n" ); break;

case or_token :        (void)printf ( "or operator\n" ); break;

case not_token :       (void)printf ( "not operator\n" ); break;

case end_token :       (void)printf ( "end of string\n" ); break;

case no_token :        (void)printf ( "no token\n" ); break;

default :              (void)printf ( "bad data\n" ); break;

}

while ( end_token != token );

fclose ( stream );

} /* main */

figure 7.4: test program for a query lexical analyzer

figure 7.4 contains a small main program to demonstrate the use of this lexical analyzer. the program reads characters from a file named on the command line, and writes out a description of the token stream that it finds. in real use, the tokens returned by the lexical analyzer would be processed by a query parser, which would also probably call retrieval and display routines.

the code above, augmented with the appropriate include files, is a complete and efficient implementation of our simple lexical analyzer for queries. when tested, this code tokenized at about a third the speed that the computer could read characters--about as fast as can be expected. an even simpler lexical analyzer for automatic indexing can be constructed in the same way, and it will be just as fast.

7.3 stoplists

it has been recognized since the earliest days of information retrieval (luhn 1957) that many of the most frequently occurring words in english (like "the," "of," "and," "to," etc.) are worthless as index terms. a search using one of these terms is likely to retrieve almost every item in a database regardless of its relevance, so their discrimination value is low (salton and mcgill 1983; van rijsbergen 1975). furthermore, these words make up a large fraction of the text of most documents: the ten most frequently occurring words in english typically account for 20 to 30 percent of the tokens in a document (francis and kucera 1982). eliminating such words from consideration early in automatic indexing speeds processing, saves huge amounts of space in indexes, and does not damage retrieval effectiveness. a list of words filtered out during automatic indexing because they make poor index terms is called a stoplist or a negative dictionary.

one way to improve information retrieval system performance, then, is to eliminate stopwords during automatic indexing. as with lexical analysis, however, it is not clear which words should be included in a stoplist. traditionally, stoplists are supposed to have included the most frequently occurring words. however, some frequently occurring words are too important as index terms. for example, included among the 200 most frequently occurring words in general literature in english are "time," "war," "home," "life," "water," and "world." on the other hand, specialized databases will contain many words useless as index terms that are not frequent in general english. for example, a computer literature database probably need not use index terms like "computer," "program," "source," "machine," and "language."

as with lexical analysis in general, stoplist policy will depend on the database and features of the users and the indexing process. commercial information systems tend to take a very conservative approach, with few stopwords. for example, the orbit search service has only eight stopwords: "and," "an," "by," "from," "of," "the," and "with." larger stoplists are usually advisable. an oft-cited example of a stoplist of 250 words appears in van rijsbergen (1975). figure 7.5 contains a stoplist of 425 words derived from the brown corpus (francis and kucera 1982) of 1,014,000 words drawn from a broad range of literature in english. fox (1990) discusses the derivation of (a slightly shorter version of) this list, which is specially constructed to be used with the lexical analysis generator described below.

a          about       above      across      after

again      against     all        almost      alone

along      already     also       although    always

among      an          and        another     any

anybody    anyone      anything   anywhere    are

area       areas       around     as          ask

asked      asking      asks       at          away

b          back        backed     backing     backs

be         because     be e     become      becomes

been       before      began      behind      being

beings     best        better     between     big

both       but         by         c           e

can        cannot      case       cases       certain

certainly  clear       clearly    come        could

d          did         differ     different   differently

do         does        done       down        downed

downing    downs       during     e           each

early      either      end        ended       ending

ends       enough      even       evenly      ever

every      everybody   everyone   everything  everywhere

f          face        faces      fact        facts

far        felt        few        find        finds

first      for         four       from        full

fully      further     furthered  furthering  furthers

g          gave        general    generally   get

gets       give        given      gives       go

going      good        goods      got         great

greater    greatest    group      grouped     grouping

groups     h           had        has         have

having     he          her        herself     here

high       higher      highest    him         himself

his        how         however    i           if

important  in          interest   interested  interesting

interests  into        is         it          its

itself     j           just       k           keep

keeps      kind        knew       know        known

knows      l           large      largely     last

later      latest      least      less        let

lets       like        likely     long        longer

longest    m           made       make        making

man        many        may        me          member

members    men         might      more        most

mostlymrmrs        much        must

my         myself      n          necessary   need

needed     needing     needs      never       new

newer      newest      next       no          non

not        nobody      noone      nothing     now

nowhere    number      numbered   numbering   numbers

o          of          off        often       old

older      oldest      on         once        one

only       open        opened     opening     opens

or         order       ordered    ordering    orders

other      others      our        out         over

p          part        parted     parting     parts

per        perhaps     place      places      point

pointed    pointing    points     possible    present

presented  presenting  presents   problem     problems

put        puts        q          quite       r

rather     really      right      room        rooms

s          said        same       saw         say

says       second      seconds    see         seem

seemed     seeming     seems      sees        several

shall      she         should     show        showed

showing    shows       side       sides       since

small      smaller     smallest   so          some

somebody   someone     something  somewhere   state

states     still       such       sure        t

take       taken       than       that        the

their      them        then       there       therefore

these      they        thing      things      think

thinks     this        those      though      thought

thoughts   three       through    thus        to

today      together    too        took        toward

turn       turned      turning    turns       two

u          under       until      up          upon

us         use         uses       used        v

veryw           want       wanted      wanting

wants      was         way        ways        we

well       wells       went       were        what

when       where       whether    which       while

who        whole       whose      why         will

with       within      without    work        worked

working    works       would      x           y

year       years       yet        you         young

younger    youngest    your       yours       z

figure 7.5: a stoplist for general text

7.3.1 implementing stoplists

there are two ways to filter stoplist words from an input token stream: (a) examine lexical analyzer output and remove any stopwords, or (b) remove stopwords as part of lexical analysis.

the first approach, filtering stopwords from lexical analyzer output, makes the stoplist problem into a standard list searching problem: every token must be looked up in the stoplist, and removed from further analysis if found. the usual solutions to this problem are adequate, including binary search trees, binary search of an array, and hashing (tremblay and sorenson, 1984, chapter 13). undoubtedly the fastest solution is hashing.

when hashing is used to search a stoplist, the list must first be inserted into a hash table. each token is then hashed into the table. if the resulting location is empty, the token is not a stopword, and is p ed on; otherwise, comparisons must be made to determine whether the hashed value really matches the entries at that hash table location. if not, then the token is p ed on; if so, the token is a word, and is eliminated from the token stream. this strategy is fast, but is slowed by the need to re-examine each character in a token to generate its hash value, and by the need to resolve collisions.

the hashing strategy can be improved by incorporating computation of hash values into the character-by-character processing of lexical analysis. the output of the lexical analysis phase is then a hash value as well as a token, with a small increase in the cost of lexical analysis. some improvement can also be realized by generating a perfect hashing function for the stoplist (a perfect hashing function for a set of keys hashes the keys with no collisions-see chapter 13). this minimizes the overhead of collision resolution, but has no effect on the number of collisions, which is sure to be large unless the hash table is enormous.

although hashing is an excellent approach, probably the best implementation of stoplists is the second strategy: remove stoplist words as part of the lexical analysis process. since lexical analysis must be done anyway, and recognizing even a large stoplist can be done at almost no extra cost during lexical analysis, this approach is extremely efficient. furthermore, lexical analyzers that filter stoplists can be generated automatically, which is easier and less error-prone than writing stopword filters by hand.

the rest of this chapter presents a lexical analyzer generator for automatic indexing. the lexical analyzer generator accepts an arbitrary list of stopwords. it should be clear from the code presented here how to elaborate the generator, or the driver program, to fit other needs.

7.3.2 a lexical analyzer generator

the heart of the lexical analyzer generator is its algorithm for producing a finite state machine. the algorithm presented here is based on methods of generating minimum state deterministic finite automata (dfas) using derivatives of regular expressions (aho and ullman 1975) adapted for lists of strings. (a dfa is minimumstate if it has a few states as possible.) this algorithm is similar to one described by aho and corasick (1975) for string searching.

during machine generation, the algorithm labels each state with the set of strings the machine would accept if that state were the initial state. it is easy to examine these state labels to determine: (a) the transition out of each state, (b) the target state for each transition, and (c) the states that are final states. for example, suppose a state is labeled with the set of strings {a, an, and, in, into, to}. this state must have transitions on ai, and t. the transition on a must go to a state labeled with the set {n, nd,  }, the transition on i to a state labeled {n, nto}, and the transition on t to a state labeled {o}. a state label l labeling a target state for a transition on symbol a is called a derivative label l with transition a. a state is made a final state if and only if its label contains the empty string.

an algorithm for generating a minimum state dfa using this labeling mechanism is presented in figure 7.6. an example of a fully constructed machine appears in figure 7.7.

create an initial state qo and label it with the input set lo;

placeqo in a state queue q;

while q is not empty do:

{

remove state qi from q;

generate the derivative state labels from the label li for qi;

for each derivative state label lj with transition a:

{

if no state qjlabelledljexists, create qj and put it in q;

create an arc labelled a from qi to qj;

}

}

make all states whose label contains  final states.

figure 7.6: algorithm for generating a finite state machine

a c language implementation for this algorithm for generating a finite state machine appears in figure 7.8. this algorithm relies on simple routines for allocating memory and manipulating lists of strings not listed to save space.

several techniques are used to speed up the algorithm and to save space. state labels are hashed to produce a signature for faster label searching. labels are also kept in a binary search tree by hash signature. to save space in the transition table, which is very sparse, transitions are kept in a short list that is searched whenever a transition for a given state is needed. these lists usually have no more than three or four items, so searching them is still reasonably fast. once the machine is constructed, all the space used tor the state labels is deallocated, so the only data structures of any size that remain are the state table and the compressed transition table. when a transition for a symbol is not found in the transition table, a default transition to a special dead state is used. when a machine blocks in the dead state, it does not recognize its input.

 

figure 7.7: an example o enerated finite state machine

#define dead_state            -1   /* used to block a dfa */

#define table_increment       256  /* used to grow tables */

/*************************  hashing  ****************************/

/* sets of suffixes labeling states during the dfa construction */

/* are hashed to speed searching. the hashing function uses an  */

/* entire integer variable range as its hash table size; in an  */

/* effort to get a good spread through this range, hash values  */

/* start big, and are incremented by a lot with every new word  */

/* in the list. the collision rate is low using this method.    */

#define hash_start                  5775863

#define hash_increment              38873647

/**************  state label binary search tree  ****************/

/* during dfa construction, all states must be searched by      */

/* their labels to make sure that the minimum number of states  */

/* are used. this operation is sped up by hashing the labels    */

/* to a signature value, then storing the signatures and labels */

/* in a binary search tree. the tree is destroyed once the dfa  */

/* is fully constructed.                                        */

typedefstructtreenode {

strlist label;           /* state label used as search key      */

unsigned signature;      /* hashed label to speed searching     */

int state;               /* whose label is representd by node   */

structtreenode *left;   /* left binary search subtree          */

structtreenode *right;  /* right binary search subtree         */

} searchtreenode, *searchtree;

/*********************  dfa state table  ************************/

/* the state table is an array of structures holding a state    */

/* label, a count of the arcs out of the state, a pointer into  */

/* the arc table for these arcs, and a final state flag. the    */

/* label field is used only during machine construction.        */

typedefstruct {

strlist label;           /* for this state - used during build  */

intnum_arcs;            /* for this state in the arc table     */

intarc_offset;          /* for finding arcs in the arc table   */

shortis_final;          /* true iff this is a final state      */

} statetableentry, *statetable;

/**********************  dfa arc table  *************************/

/* the arc table lists all transitions for all states in a dfa  */

/* in compacted form. each state's transitions are offset from  */

/* the start of the table, then listed in arc label order.      */

/* transitions are found by a linear search of the sub-section  */

/* of the table for a given state.                              */

typedefstruct {

char label;              /* character label on an out-arrow     */

int target;              /* the target state for the out-arrow  */

} arctableentry, *arctable;

**********************  dfa structure  ***********************   /

/* a dfa is represented as a pointer to a structure holding the */

/* machine's state and transition tables, and bookkeepping      */

/* counters. the tables are arrays whose space is malloc'd,     */

/* then realloc'd if more space is required. once a machine is  */

/* constructed, the table space is realloc'd one last time to   */

/* fit the needs of the machine exactly.                        */

typedefstruct {

intnum_states;          /* in the dfa (and state table)        */

intmax_states;          /* now allocated in the state table    */

intnum_arcs;            /* in the arc table for this machine   */

intmax_arcs;            /* now allocated in the arc table      */

statetablestate_table;  /* the compacted dfa state table       */

arctablearc_table;      /* the compacted dfa transition table  */

searchtree tree;         /* storing state labels used in build  */

} dfastruct, *dfa;

/*fn**************************************************************************

destroytree( tree )

returns: void

purpose: destroy a binary search tree created during machine construction

plan:    part 1: return right away of there is no tree

part 2: deallocate the subtrees

part 3: deallocate the root

notes:   none.

**/

static void

destroytre

مشاهده متن کامل ...

گیم شات: اولین نگاه به امیلی بلانت در mary poppins returns
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

امیلی بلانت

امروز شرکت دیزنی (disney) اولین تصویر رسمی امیلی بلانت (emily blunt) در mary poppins returns را منتشر کرد. در این تصویر نمی توانیم صورت دقیق مری پاپینز را مشاهده کنیم، اما می توانیم بخشی از چهره امیلی بلانت را همراه با لباس مشهور مری پاپینز ببینیم. او در واقع خیلی مری پاپینزی است!  

نوشته گیم شات: اولین نگاه به امیلی بلانت در mary poppins returns اولین بار در گجت نیوز پدیدار شد.



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رایگان مقاله انگلیسی بازده سهام قیمت گذاری شده در بازارهای نوظهور
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رایگان مقاله انگلیسی بازده سهام قیمت گذاری شده در بازارهای نوظهور

جهت ترجمه این مقاله اینجا کلیک نمایید.

مقاله: pricing emerging market stock returns: an update

جهت رایگان نسخه انگلیسی این مقاله اینجا کلیک نمایید

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

توجه : متن قسمت پایین به صورت کامپیوتری ترجمه شده جهت مشاهده نمونه متن فارسی ویرایش شده و اصلی.

اینجا کلیک نمایید.

نتایج اصلی ما را می توان به شرح زیر خلاصه شده است. است گسترده در عملکرد در هشت مدل از نظر تحقیق حدود 2 وجود دارد، اما به طور معمول نسخه مشروط از مدل انجام یک کار بهتر نسبت به نسخه های بی قید و شرط از مدل از نظر تحقیق مقطعی 2. مدل های عامل از جمله ، کاتیون فی هیچ تفاوت قابل توجهی در تحقیق مقطعی 2 وجود دارد. بنابراین به نظر نمی رسد وجود دارد به تفاوت زیادی بین مدل های فاکتور جهانی و مربوط به مدل های عامل em. ما فی دوم عملکرد مدل های عامل خطی می کند متفاوت است بین دو subperiods، با عملکرد بهتر از مدل انجام در subperiod اول. نتایج نشان می دهد که برای دوره کلی نمونه، هر دو اطلاعات مطبوع و استفاده از عوامل ارز بهبود مدل. برای دوره کلی هیچ عوامل قابل توجه در هر یک از مدل بی قید و شرط است. برای مدل های شرطی، است تاثیر قابل توجهی برای عملکرد سود عقب مانده است. عوامل ارز نقش بیشتری در subperiod دوم بازی کند. با این حال، آماری معنی دار cance فی از این عوامل است قوی نیست که ما برای مدل بالقوه misspeci فی کاتیون به دلیل تنوع نمونه برداری بالا اجازه می دهد. نتیجه مهم برای سرمایه گذاران بین المللی و قیمت گذاری دارایی در em است که در این دوره اخیر پس از آزادسازی نتایج ما نشان می دهد که زمانی که ما برای مدل ممکن misspeci کاتیون فی در کان و همکاران را کنترل کنید. (2009) هیچ یک از مدل capm بهتر جهان است. بقیه این مقاله به شرح زیر سازماندهی شده است. بخش 2 مدل ها و روش تحقیق را تشریح میکند. بخش 3 مجموعه داده را شرح میدهد. نتایج تجربی در بخش 4 ارائه شده است. نتیجه گیری در پایان ارائه شده است.



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6 جولای از شبکه kbs برنامه ای با حضور سونگ و فرشته هاش پخش میشه.
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

song il kook and his triplet sons, will be joining kbs 2tv’s superman is back as a new family
the production team of superman is back announced on june 25, “casting song il kook has been discussed since the beginning of the show. we will be showing another ‘superman dad,’ challenging himself to take care of the triplets, who have never appeared on broadcast before
having completed his first filming, song il kook reportedly surprised the production team by showing a side of him never seen before. the actor has been helping his wife raise his three sons, daehan, minkuk and manse, since their birth and showed his experience in rearing children

song il kook and his triplet sons’ 48 hours without their mom will be aired on july 6

با تشکر از وب مهسا جون



مشاهده متن کامل ...
چاه لازاروس
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لازاروس پیت، اسم منبع آب حیاتی است که در جهان داستانی دی سی کمی ، توسط راس الغول(یکی از ضد قهرمانان بتمن که چند صد سال سن دارد) جهت دوباره زنده شدن پس از مرگ! مورد استفاده قرار می گیرد.

لازم به اشاره است که راس الغول، هربار که با این اقدام احیا می شود، نسبت به دوران زندگی قبلی خود دیوانه تر شده و از آرمان های اولیه اش به سمت افراطی گری بیشتر فاصله می گیرد.

این پدیده تاکنون در سریال های انیمشنی تلویزیونی

batman: the animated series ،

superman: the animated series و batman beyond ،

در انیمیشن های بلند سینمایی و ویدئویی

batman: under the red hood و son of batman

و در بازی کامپیوتری batman: arkham city

به تصویر کشیده شده است.


نویسنده :

محمد نوری

علیرضا رودساز

منبع :

فضای فانتزی

ویکی پدیای انگلیسی



مشاهده متن کامل ...
☺میدونم سر راهیم☺
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دورهم بودیم من بقیه رو می خندوندم

خواهرم میگه :بی مغز مث دلقکای سیرک میمونی

دخترخالم میگه :نه بابا شبیه میمونه

مامانم میگه :طفلی بچم، مث ه

چون از زندگی هیچی حالیش نیس

که عر عر خندش ی ره بالاس

.

.

اگه سازمان حمایت از حیوانات

می شناسین لطفا معرفی کنین

شاید اونا ازم حمایت کنن

minion superman icon



مشاهده متن کامل ...
injustice: gods among us 2.14 – بازی قهرمانی اندروید + مود + مگامود + دیتا
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

injustice: gods among us به فارسی (بی عد ی: خدایان میان ما) بازی جدید و فوق العاده زیبا با گرافیکی خارق العاده و خیره کننده در سبک بازی های کامبت و اکشن برای سیستم عامل اندروید می باشد که پس از مدت ها، امروز در پلی استوری منتشر شد!بازی ای شگفت انگیز از نبرد میان قهرمانان داستانی که در آن شما به عنوان قهرمانانی محبوب از جمله من، بتمن و غیره به مبارزه با دیگر قهرمانان مشغول می شوید و تجربه ی بهترین بازی ماجراجویی و اکشن را در اندرویدفون خود به ارمغان می اورید! داستان بازی از جایی آغاز می شود که جوکر، من را مسموم کرده و من به خاطر این مسمومیت که روی مغزش هم تأثیر گذاشته، زن و خانواده اش را به قتل می رساند و شهر را به آشوب می کشد! در ابتدای بازی بتمن در حال بازجویی از جوکر است که سر و کله ی من پیدا می شود و به دلیل حرفایی که جوکر می زند، من کار او را می سازد! در این حین داستان یک سوئیچ به زمان قدیم و چندین سال قبل می کند ؛ جایی که بتمن به ملاقات جوکر رفته و می بیند خبری از جوکر نیست و فرار کرده ؛ اتفاقات مختلفی پیش می آید تا این که در نهایت جوکر دکمه ی فعال بمبی را فشار می دهد و با دستگاهی که نزدیکش هست، به زمان آینده تله پورت می شود!

در این حین بعضی قهرمان های دیگه نظیر wonderwoman ، green lantern ، green arrow ، aquaman به همراه batman همراه با جوکر در فضا منتقل می شوند و به زمان آینده (یعنی جایی که اول بازی دیده بودیم و من همه جا را نابود کرده و جوکر و بعضی افراد دیگه کشته شدند) راه پیدا می کنند! این در حالی است که همگی متعجب هستند که چرا به جای انفجار بمب، حالا در زمان آینده تله پورت شدند! حتی خود جوکر هم از این واقعه متعجب بوده و نمی داند چه اتفاقی پیش آمده است! حالا در جایی قرار داریم که superman کنترل شهر را به دست گرفته و بقیه ی قهرمانان خواه یا ناخواه باید از او تبعیت کنند! در غیر این صورت superman بدون هیچ تردیدی جانشان را می می گیرد و ی هم جلودارش نیست! جایی که این قهرمان ها با آینده خودشان هم رویارو می شوند و شخصیت متفاوتی از خودشون رو می بینند! جایی که نکات مبهم بازی روشن می شود!

 injustice: gods among us - بازی قهرمانی اندروید + دیتا + تریلر

برخی از ویژگی های بازی اکشن injustice: gods among us اندروید :

  • بودن انواع شخصیت های دوست داشتنی های سینمایی در بازی
  • جمع آوری انواع کمیک های شخصیت های نمادین بتمن، سایبورگ، من و غیره
  • انجام حملات منحصر به فرد و بسیار هیجان انگیز برای مبارزه
  • دارا بودن گرافیک اچ دی خیره کننده به همراه صداگذاری مهیج

گرافیک بازی injustice: gods among us ، صداگذاری و گیم پلی آن به گونه ای عالی کار گذاری شده است و بسیار شبیه به بازی مشهور mk 2011 می باشد! علاوه بر قرار دادن بازی فوق برای اندروید، تریلری از آن را نیز برایتان قرار داده ایم که اگر همزمان با مشاهده ی آن و خواندن داستان بازی دقت کنید کل داستان بازی را می فهمید! ما امروز در فارسروید فایل های apkk بازی و دیتای آن برای پردازنده های مختلف را قرار داده ایم و امیدواریم مورد پسندتان واقع گردد…

تغییرات نسخه ی v2.14:

* آپدیت جدید با معرفی flashpoint batman و blackest night superman
* رفع مشکلات مختلف و بهبود گرافیک بازی

دستورالعمل نصب و اجرای بازی injustice: gods among us :

مرحله ی اول : یکی از فایل های نصبی را مطابق با پردازنده گوشیتان و نصب نمایید !

مرحله ی دوم : یکی از فایل های دیتا را مطابق با پردازنده گوشیتان کنید : آن را از ح فشرده خارج کنید ؛ پوشه ی com.wb.goog.injustice را در مسیر android/obb حافظه داخلی کپی کنید و در نهایت بازی را آفلاین اجرا کنید ..

مرحله سوم : از بازی لذت ببرید

توضیحات تکمیلی

ویژگی های مود :

– coin بی نهایت

– ally credits بی نهایت

– character stamina بی نهایت

– حذف تشخیص تقلب

ویژگی های مگامود :

– coin بی نهایت

– ally credits بی نهایت

– character stamina بی نهایت

– حذف تشخیص تقلب

– ح خون نامحدود (احتیاج به تمام tutorial، استفاده از مود1)

– m ive attack

در صورت تمایل به داشتن نسخه معمولی، دیتای مخصوص گوشی تون رو بگیرد و توی مسیرش قرار بدید و با مراجعه به گوگل پلی رو بازی بزنید تا معمولی نصب شود . [صفحه بازی در گوگل پلی]


جعبه



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android native development kit (ndk)
درخواست حذف اطلاعات

1. introduction

android apps are typically written in java, with its elegant object-oriented design. however, at times, you need to overcome the limitations of java, such as memory mana ent and performance, by programming directly into android native interface. android provides native development kit (ndk) to support native development in c/c++, besides the android software development kit (android sdk) which supports java.

[todo] more.

ndk is a complex and a nced topics. i ume that your are familiar with:

  1. android, java and c/c++.
  2. java native interface (jni). read "java native interface".
  3. (for windows) cygwin. read "how to install cygwin and mingw".

2. installing the native development kit (ndk)

the ndk provides all the tools (compilers, libraries, and header files) to build apps that access the device natively. native code (in c/c++) is necessary for high performance to overcome the limitations in java's memory mana ent and performance.

read "android ndk" @ http://developer.android.com/tools/sdk/ndk/index.html.

to install android ndk:

  1. setting up all the necessary tools for android programming, such as jdk, eclipse, android sdk, eclipse adt (read "how to install android sdk and get started"); and (for windows users) cygwin (read "how to install cygwin" and "gcc and make").
  2. the android ndk from http://developer.android.com/tools/sdk/ndk/index.html (e.g., android-ndk-r8-windows.zip).
  3. unzip the ed zip file into a directory of your choice (e.g., d:\myproject). the ndk will be unzipped as d:\myproject\android-ndk-r8. i shall denote the installed directory as .
  4. include the ndk installed directory in the path environment variable.

3. writing a hello-world android ndk program

step 0: read the documentation

read "android ndk" @ http://developer.android.com/tools/sdk/ndk/index.html.

read the ndk documentation "documentation.html" @ android ndk's installed directory. the ndk documentation is kept in the "docs" sub-directory.

the steps in building an android ndk app are:

  1. create a sub-directory called "jni" and place all the native sources here.
  2. create a "android.mk" to describe your native sources to the ndk build system.
  3. build your native code by running the "ndk-build" (in ndk installed directory) script from your project's directory. the build tools copy the stripped, shared libraries needed by your application to the proper location in the application's project directory.
  4. finally, compile and run your application using the sdk tools in the usual way. the sdk build tools will package the shared libraries in the application's deployable ".apk" file.

study the sample programs provided in "samples" directory, in particular the "hello-jni".

step 1: write an android jni program

in this example, we shall create an activity, that calls a native method to obtain a string and displays the string on a textview.

create an android project called "androidhellojni", with application name "hello jni" and package "com.mytest". create an activity called "jniactivity" with layout name "activity_jni" and title "hello jni".

replaced the "jniactivity.java" as follows:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
package com.mytest; import android.os.bundle; import android.app.activity; import android.widget.textview; public cl jniactivity extends activity { static { system.loadlibrary("myjni"); // "myjni.dll" in windows, "libmyjni.so" in unixes } // a native method that returns a java string to be displayed on the // textview public native string getmessage(); @override public void oncreate(bundle savedinstancestate) { super.oncreate(savedinstancestate); // create a textview. textview textview = new textview(this); // retrieve the text from native method getmessage() textview.settext(getmessage()); setcontentview(textview); } }

this jni program uses a static initializer to load a shared library ("myjni.dll" in windows or "libmyjni.so" in unixes). it declares a native method called getmessage(), which returns a string to be as the textview's message. the oncreate() method declares a textview, and invokes the native method getmessage() to set its text.

step 2: generating c/c++ header file using "javah" utility

create a folder "jni" under the project's root (right-click on the project ⇒ new ⇒ folder). create a sub-folder "include" under "jni" for storing the header files.

run "javah" utility (from a cmd shell) to create c/c++ header called "hellojni.h":

> javah --help ...... // change directory to /jni/include > javah -cl path ../../bin/cl es;\platforms\android-<xx>\android.jar -o hellojni.h com.mytest.jniactivity
  • -cl path: in our case, we need the jniactivity.cl which is kept in "\bin\cl es"; and its supercl android.app.activity.cl which is kept in android.jar under the android sdk.
  • -o: to set the output filename.
  • you need to use the fully-qualified name "com.mytest.jniactivity".

the header file contains a function prototype:

jniexport jstring jnicall java_com_mytest_jniactivity_getmessage(jnienv *, jobject);

the native method getmessage() maps to the above header in the native code, in the form of java_<fully-qualified-name>_methodname, with dots replaced by underscores.

step 2: c implementation - hellojni.c

create the following c program called "hellojni.c" under the "jni" directory (right-click on the "jni" folder ⇒ new ⇒ file):

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
#include #include "include/hellojni.h" jniexport jstring jnicall java_com_mytest_jniactivity_getmessage (jnienv *env, jobject thisobj) { return (*env)->newstringutf(env, "hello from native code!"); }

the native program gets and returns a jni jstring via jni environment interface function newstringutf() with an input c-string "hello from native code!". read "java native interface (jni)" for details.

step 3: create an android makefile - android.mk

create an android makefile called "android.mk" under the "jni" directory (right-click on "jni" folder ⇒ new ⇒ file), as follows:

local_path := $(call my-dir) include $(clear_vars) local_module := myjni local_src_files := hellojni.c include $(build_shared_library)

in the above makefile, "myjni" is the name of our shared library (used in system.loadlibrary()), and "hellojni.c" is the source file.

step 4: build ndk

start a cmd shell, change directory to the project's root directory, and run "ndk-build" script provided by android ndk (the android ndk installed directory shall be in the path).

// change directory to  > ndk-build compile thumb : myjni <= hellojni.c sharedlibrary : libmyjni.so install : libmyjni.so => libs/armeabi/libmyjni.so

notes:

  • use "ndk-build --help" to display the command-line options.
  • use "ndk-build v=1" to display the build messages.
  • use "ndk-build -b" to perform a force re-built.
step 5: run the android app

run the android app, via "run as" ⇒ "android application". you shall see the message from the native program appears on the screen.

check the "logcat" panel to confirm that the shared library "libmyjni.so" is loaded.

...: trying to load lib /data/data/com.example.androidhellojni/lib/libmyjni.so ... ...: added shared lib /data/data/com.example.androidhellojni/lib/libmyjni.so ...


link : http://www.ntu.edu.sg/home/ehchua/programming/android/android_ndk.html


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microsoft dynamics crm 2011/2013 javascript reference
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تو این پست میخوام یک ریفرنس و مرجع کامل درباره کلیه توابع مورد استفاده در javascript در microsoft dynamics crm 2011/2013 ارائه کنم. ضمنا کلیه عملیات از مبتدی تا حرفه ای که معمولا مورد نیاز هستند را همراه با مثال توضیح میدم.

چون بر اساس نتایج google analytics مطالب این وبلاگ در ماه اخیر نزدیک به 8000 بار از 66 کشور search و بازدید شده (آمار google analytics از بازدید یک ماهه منتهی به 2015/9/15 !!!) تصمیم گرفتم این مطلب را به زبان انگلیسی منتشر کنم .

here’s a quick reference guide covering microsoft crm syntax for common jscript requirements

most of the examples are provided as functions that you can easily test in the onload/onchange event of the account form to see a working example

1. get the guid value of a lookup field:
note: this example reads and pops the guid of the primary contact on the account form
function alertguid() {
var primarycontactguid = xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get("primarycontactid").getvalue()[0].id;
alert(primarycontactguid);
}
2. get the text value of a lookup field:
note: this example reads and pops the name of the primary contact on the account form
function alerttext() {
var primarycontactname = xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get("primarycontactid").getvalue()[0].name;
alert(primarycontactname);
}
3. get the value of a text field:
note: this example reads and pops the value of the main phone (telephone1) field on the account form
function alerttextfield() {
var mainphone = xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get("telephone1").getvalue();
alert(mainphone);
}
4. get the database value of an option set field:
note: this example reads and pops the value of the address type (address1_addresstypecode) field on the account form
function alertoptionsetdatabasevalue() {
var addresstypedbvalue = xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get("address1_addresstypecode").getvalue();
if (addresstypedbvalue != null) {
alert(addresstypedbvalue);
}
}
5. get the text value of an option set field:
note: this example reads and pops the value of the address type (address1_addresstypecode) field on the account form
function alertoptionsetdisplayvalue() {
var addresstypedisplayvalue = xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get("address1_addresstypecode").gettext();
if (addresstypedisplayvalue != null) {
alert(addresstypedisplayvalue);
}
}
6. get the database value of a bit field:
// example getbitvalue("telephone1");
function getbitvalue(fieldname) {
return xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get(fieldname).getvalue();
}
7. get the value of a date field:
returns a value like: wed nov 30 17:04:06 utc+0800 2011
and reflects the users time zone set under personal options
// example getdate("createdon");
function getdate(fieldname) {
return xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get(fieldname).getvalue();
}
8. get the day, month and year parts from a date field:
// this function takes the fieldname of a date field as input and returns a dd-mm-yyyy value
// note: the day, month and year variables are numbers
function formatdate(fieldname) {
var d = xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get(fieldname).getvalue();
if (d != null) {
var curr_date = d.getdate();
var curr_month = d.getmonth();
curr_month++; // getmonth() considers jan month 0, need to add 1
var curr_year = d.getfullyear();
return curr_date + "-" + curr_month + "-" + curr_year;
}
else return null;
}

// an example where the above function is called
alert(formatdate("new_date2"));
9. set the value of a string field:
note: this example sets the account name field on the account form to “abc”
function setstringfield() {
var name = xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get("name");
name.setvalue("abc");
}
10. set the value of an option set (pick list) field:
note: this example sets the address type field on the account form to “bill to”, which corresponds to a database value of “1”
function setoptionsetfield() {
var addresstype = xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get("address1_addresstypecode");
addresstype.setvalue(1);
}
11. set a date field / default a date field to today:
//set date field to now (works on date and date time fields)
xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get("new_date1").setvalue(new date());
12. set a date field to 7 days from now:
function setdatefield() {
var today = new date();
var futuredate = new date(today.setdate(today.getdate() + 7));
xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get("new_date2").setvalue(futuredate);
xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get("new_date2").setsubmitmode("always"); // save the disabled field
}
13. set the time portion of a date field:
// this is a function you can call to set the time portion of a date field
function settime(attributename, hour, minute) {
var attribute = xrm.page.getattribute(attributename);
if (attribute.getvalue() == null) {
attribute.setvalue(new date());
}
attribute.setvalue(attribute.getvalue().sethours(hour, minute, 0));
}

// here's an example where i use the function to default the time to 8:30am
settime('new_date2', 8, 30);
14. set the value of a lookup field:
note: here i am providing a reusable function…
// set the value of a lookup field
function setlookupvalue(fieldname, id, name, entitytype) {
if (fieldname != null) {
var lookupvalue = new array();
lookupvalue[0] = new object();
lookupvalue[0].id = id;
lookupvalue[0].name = name;
lookupvalue[0].entitytype = entitytype;
xrm.page.getattribute(fieldname).setvalue(lookupvalue);
}
}
here’s an example of how to call the function (i retrieve the details of one lookup field and then call the above function to populate another lookup field):
var existingcase = xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get("new_existingcase");
if (existingcase.getvalue() != null) {
var existingcaseguid = existingcase.getvalue()[0].id;
var existingcasename = existingcase.getvalue()[0].name;
setlookupvalue("regardingobjectid", existingcaseguid, existingcasename, "incident");
}
15. split a full name into first name and last name fields:
function populatenamefields() {
var contactname = xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get("customerid").getvalue()[0].name;
var mysplitresult = contactname.split(" ");
var fname = mysplitresult[0];
var lname = mysplitresult[1];
xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get("firstname").setvalue(fname);
xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get("lastname").setvalue(lname);
}
16. set the requirement level of a field:
note: this example sets the requirement level of the address type field on the account form to required.
note: setrequiredlevel(“none”) would make the field optional again.
function setrequirementlevel() {
var addresstype = xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get("address1_addresstypecode");
addresstype.setrequiredlevel("required");
}
17. disable a field:
function setenabledstate() {
var addresstype = xrm.page.ui.controls.get("address1_addresstypecode");
addresstype.setdisabled(true);
}
18. force submit the save of a disabled field:
// save the disabled field
xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get("new_date1").setsubmitmode("always");
19. show/hide a field:
function hidename() {
var name = xrm.page.ui.controls.get("name");
name.setvisible(false);
}
20. show/hide a field based on a bit field
function disableexistingcustomerlookup() {
var existingcustomerbit = xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get("new_existingcustomer").getvalue();
if (existingcustomerbit == false) {
xrm.page.ui.controls.get("customerid").setvisible(false);
}
else {
xrm.page.ui.controls.get("customerid").setvisible(true);
}
}
21. show/hide a nav item:
note: you need to refer to the nav id of the link, use f12 developer tools in ie to determine this
function hidecontacts() {
var objnavitem = xrm.page.ui.navigation.items.get("navcontacts");
objnavitem.setvisible(false);
}
22. show/hide a section:
note: here i provide a function you can use. below the function is a sample.
function hideshowsection(tabname, sectionname, visible) {
try {
xrm.page.ui.tabs.get(tabname).sections.get(sectionname).setvisible(visible);
}
catch (err) { }
}

hideshowsection("general", "address", false); // "false" = invisible
23. show/hide a tab:
note: here i provide a function you can use. below the function is a sample.
function hideshowtab(tabname, visible) {
try {
xrm.page.ui.tabs.get(tabname).setvisible(visible);
}
catch (err) { }
}

hideshowtab("general", false); // "false" = invisible
24. save the form:
function saveandclose() {
xrm.page.data.entity.save();
}
25. save and close the form:
function saveandclose() {
xrm.page.data.entity.save("saveandclose");
}
26. close the form:
note: the user will be prompted for confirmation if unsaved changes exist
function close() {
xrm.page.ui.close();
}
27. determine which fields on the form are dirty:
var attributes = xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get()
for (var i in attributes)
{
var attribute = attributes[i];
if (attribute.getisdirty())
{
alert("attribute dirty: " + attribute.getname());
}
}
28. determine the form type:
note: form type codes: create (1), update (2), read only (3), disabled (4), bulk edit (6)
function alertformtype() {
var formtype = xrm.page.ui.getformtype();
if (formtype != null) {
alert(formtype);
}
}
29. get the guid of the current record:
function alertguid() {
var gui lue = xrm.page.data.entity.getid();
if (gui lue != null) {
alert(gui lue);
}
}
30. get the guid of the current user:
function alertguidofcurrentuser() {
var userguid = xrm.page.context.getuserid();
if (userguid != null) {
alert(userguid);
}
}
31. get the security roles of the current user:
(returns an array of guids, note: my example reveals the first value in the array only)
function alertroles() {
alert(xrm.page.context.getuserroles());
}
32. determine the crm server url:
// get the crm url
var serverurl = xrm.page.context.getserverurl();

// cater for url differences between on premise and online
if (serverurl.match(/\/$/)) {
serverurl = serverurl.substring(0, serverurl.length - 1);
}
33. refresh a sub-grid:
var targetgird = xrm.page.ui.controls.get("target_grid");
targetgird.refresh();
34. change the default entity in the lookup window of a customer or regarding field:
note: i am setting the customerid field’s lookup window to offer contacts (entityid 2) by default (rather than accounts). i have also hardcoded the guid of the default view i wish displayed in the lookup window.
function changelookup() {
document.getelementbyid("customerid").setattribute("defaulttype", "2");
var viewguid= "a2d479c5-53e3-4c69-addd-802327e67a0d";
xrm.page.getcontrol("customerid").setdefaultview(viewguid);
}
35. pop an existing crm record (new approach):
function popcontact() {
//get primarycontact guid
var primarycontactguid = xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get("primarycontactid").getvalue()[0].id;
if (primarycontactguid != null) {
//open contact form
xrm.utility.openentityform("contact", primarycontactguid)
}
}
36. pop an existing crm record (old approach):
note: this example pops an existing case record. the guid of the record has already been established and is stored in the variable incidentid.
//set features for how the window will appear
var features = "location=no,menubar=no,status=no,toolbar=no";

// get the crm url
var serverurl = xrm.page.context.getserverurl();

// cater for url differences between on premise and online
if (serverurl.match(/\/$/)) {
serverurl = serverurl.substring(0, serverurl.length - 1);
}

window.open(serverurl + "/main.aspx?etn=incident&pagetype=entityrecord&id=" + encodeuricomponent(incidentid), "_blank", features, false);
37. pop a blank crm form (new approach):
function popnewcase() {
xrm.utility.openentityform("incident")
}
38. pop a new crm record with default values (new approach):
function createincident() {
//get account guid and name
var accountguid = xrm.page.data.entity.getid();
var accountname = xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get("name").getvalue();
//define default values for new incident record
var parameters = {};
parameters["title"] = "new customer support request";
parameters["casetypecode"] = "3";
parameters["customerid"] = accountguid;
parameters["customeridname"] = accountname;
parameters["customeridtype"] = "account";
//pop incident form with default values
xrm.utility.openentityform("incident", null, parameters);
}
39. pop a new crm record with default values (old approach):
note: this example pops the case form from the phone call form, defaulting the case’s customerid based on the phone call’s senderid and defaulting the case title to “new case”
//collect values from the existing crm form that you want to default onto the new record
var callerguid = xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get("from").getvalue()[0].id;
var callername = xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get("from").getvalue()[0].name;

//set the parameter values
var extraqs = "&title=new case";
extraqs += "&customerid=" + callerguid;
extraqs += "&customeridname=" + callername;
extraqs += "&customeridtype=contact";

//set features for how the window will appear
var features = "location=no,menubar=no,status=no,toolbar=no";

// get the crm url
var serverurl = xrm.page.context.getserverurl();

// cater for url differences between on premise and online
if (serverurl.match(/\/$/)) {
serverurl = serverurl.substring(0, serverurl.length - 1);
}

//pop the window
window.open(serverurl + "/main.aspx?etn=incident&pagetype=entityrecord&extraqs=" + encodeuricomponent(extraqs), "_blank", features, false);
40. pop a dialog from a ribbon on
note: this example has the dialog guid and crm server url hardcoded, which you should avoid. a simple function is included which centres the dialog when launched.
function launchdialog(sleadid) {
var dialogguid = "128ceedc-2763-4fa9-ab89-35bbb7d5517d";
var serverurl = "https://avanademarchdemo.crm5.dynamics.com/";
serverurl = serverurl + "cs/dialog/rundialog.aspx?dialogid=" + "{" + dialogguid + "}" + "&entityname=lead&objectid=" + sleadid;
popupcenter(serverurl, "mywindow", 400, 400);
window.location.reload(true);
}

function popupcenter(pageurl, title, w, h) {
var left = (screen.width / 2) - (w / 2);
var top = (screen.height / 2) - (h / 2);
var targetwin = window.showmodaldialog(pageurl, title, 'toolbar=no, location=no, directories=no, status=no, menubar=no, scrollbars=no, resizable=no, copyhistory=no, width=' + w + ', height=' + h + ', top=' + top + ', left=' + left);
}
41. pop a url from a ribbon on
great info on the window parameters you can set here: http://javascript-array.com/scripts/window_open/
function launchsite() {
// read url from crm field
var siteurl = xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get("new_sharepointurl").getvalue();
// execute function to launch the url
launchfullscreen(siteurl);
}

function launchfullscreen(url) {
// set the window parameters
params = 'width='+screen.width;
params += ', height='+screen.height;
params += ', top=0, left=0';
params += ', fullscreen=yes';
params += ', resizable=yes';
params += ', scrollbars=yes';
params += ', location=yes';

newwin=window.open(url,'windowname4', params);
if (window.focus) {
newwin.focus()
}
return false;
}
42. pop the lookup window ociated to a lookup field:
window.document.getelementbyid('new_existingcase').click();
43. pop a web resource (new approach):
function popwebresource() {
xrm.utility.openwebresource("new_hello");
}
44. using a switch statement
function getformtype() {
var formtype = xrm.page.ui.getformtype();
if (formtype != null) {
switch (formtype) {
case 1:
return "create";
break;
case 2:
return "update";
break;
case 3:
return "readonly";
break;
case 4:
return "disabled";
break;
case 6:
return "bulkedit";
break;
default:
return null;
}
}
}
45. pop an ok/cancel dialog
function setapproval() {
if (confirm("are you sure?")) {
// actions to perform when 'ok' is selected:
var approval = xrm.page.data.entity.attributes.get("new_phaseapproval");
approval.setvalue(1);
alert("approval has been granted - click ok to update crm");
xrm.page.data.entity.save();
}
else {
// actions to perform when 'cancel' is selected:
alert("action cancelled");
}
}

here is a little more info that will help you get your head around the general design of all this…

depending upon what you want to do you will interact with one of the following:

xrm.page.data.entity.attributes – the data fields represented by fields on the form

xrm.page.ui.controls – the user interface controls on the form

xrm.page.ui.navigation.items – the navigation items on the form

xrm.utility – a container of helpful functions



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نمرات عنوان lightning returns: final fantasy 13 منتشر شد
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به تازگی نقد ها و نمرات عنوان lightning returns: final fantasy 13 منتشر شد که از یک بازی نسبتا خوب برای کنسول های xbox 360 و ps3 خبر میدهد .

lightning returns: final fantasy xiii

نقد هایی هم که از این عنوان شده است ، در آن به خوبی از این بازی یاد شده اما تکرار ی است که با توجه به نقد ها یک بازی نسبتا خوب است ! لطفا به ادامه ی مطلب بروید ...



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مقالات بیس مالی - 2016 - جدید جدید
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انتخاب مقاله از شما، نوشتن پروپزال با ما:

پایان نامه آماده و فوری در اختیار شما قرار خواهد گرفت. با ما تماس بگیرید. با کمترین قیمت، با ما تماس بگیرید. [email protected]

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